Chicago capabilities farah

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Chicago capabilities farah

  1. 1. Socioeconomic status, early experience and human capacities: Insights from cognitive neuroscience Martha J. Farah University of Pennsylvania
  2. 2. childhood SES IQ, academic achievement Behavior, mental health
  3. 3. childhood SES IQ, academic achievement Behavior, mental health
  4. 4. childhood SES IQ, academic achievement Behavior, mental health Nutrition Cognitive stimulation Parenting style Stress
  5. 5. Overview <ul><li>Neurocognitive “profile” of poverty: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parsing the cognitive disparity into effects of SES on distinct neurocognitive systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use new specificity of effects to identify causal factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal study of what predicts what </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test hypotheses re physiological mechanisms linking causes and effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting brain structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting HPA axis reactivity </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Overview <ul><li>Neurocognitive “profile” of poverty: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parsing the cognitive disparity into effects of SES on distinct neurocognitive systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use new specificity of effects to identify causal factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal study of what predicts what </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test hypotheses re physiological mechanisms linking causes and effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting brain structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting HPA axis reactivity </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Three studies <ul><li>Urban US children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kindergarteners (Philly, all AA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First graders (NYC, mixed ethnicities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle schoolers (Philly, all AA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task batteries designed to isolate specific neurocognitive systems (different tasks in different studies) </li></ul><ul><li>Some differences from study to study, but also commonalities </li></ul>
  8. 8. Generalization SES does not affect cognitive abilities uniformly
  9. 9. Generalization <ul><li>Biggest effects on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also memory (learning ability ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These studies carried out w Kim Noble, Hallam Hurt and others </li></ul>SES does not affect cognitive abilities uniformly
  10. 10. Overview <ul><li>Neurocognitive “profile” of poverty: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parsing the cognitive disparity into effects of SES on distinct neurocognitive systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use new specificity of effects to identify causal factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal study of what predicts what </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test hypotheses re physiological mechanisms linking causes and effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting brain structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting HPA axis reactivity </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Two influences on brain development 1. Environmental enrichment
  12. 12. Two influences on brain development 2. Parental nurturance
  13. 13. How to study in humans? <ul><li>HOME scores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental nurturance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regressions on neurocognitive scores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With Hallam Hurt and others </li></ul>
  14. 14. Language <ul><li>B t p </li></ul><ul><li>Backward </li></ul><ul><li>Intercept -3.239 -2.810 .006 </li></ul><ul><li>Age .268 2.747 .007 </li></ul><ul><li>Gender --- --- --- </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal Intelligence --- --- --- </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal Sub Exp --- --- --- </li></ul><ul><li>Parental nurt --- --- --- </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Enrich .704 4.305 .000 </li></ul><ul><li>Forward </li></ul><ul><li>Intercept -3.239 -2.810 .006 </li></ul><ul><li>Age .268 2.747 .007 </li></ul><ul><li>Gender --- --- --- </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal Intelligence --- --- --- </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal Sub Exp --- --- --- </li></ul><ul><li>Parental nurt --- --- --- </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Enrich .704 4.305 .000 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Language
  16. 16. Memory <ul><li>B t p </li></ul><ul><li>Backward </li></ul><ul><li>Intercept -1.586 -2.130 .036 </li></ul><ul><li>Age .144 2.252 .027 </li></ul><ul><li>Gender --- --- --- </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal Intelligence --- --- --- </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal Sub Exp -.098 -2.202 .031 </li></ul><ul><li>Parental nurt .325 2.838 .006 </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental enrich --- --- --- </li></ul><ul><li>Forward </li></ul><ul><li>Intercept -.031 -.486 .628 </li></ul><ul><li>Age --- --- --- </li></ul><ul><li>Gender --- --- --- </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal Intelligence --- --- --- </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal Sub Exp --- --- --- </li></ul><ul><li>Parental nurt .340 2.927 .004 </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental enrich --- --- --- </li></ul>
  17. 17. Memory
  18. 18. Overview <ul><li>Neurocognitive “profile” of poverty: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parsing the cognitive disparity into effects of SES on distinct neurocognitive systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use new specificity of effects to identify causal factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal study of what predicts what </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test hypotheses re physiological mechanisms linking causes and effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting brain structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting HPA axis reactivity </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. MRI morphometry <ul><li>Hippocampus affected by parental nurturance? </li></ul><ul><li>Structural MRI scans of longitudinal cohort (now in adolescence) </li></ul><ul><li>Correlate w HOME scores from ages 4 and 8 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What brain structures correlate w early life environmental stimulation and parental nurturance? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>W Hengyi Rao and many others </li></ul>
  20. 21. Is earlier really more important?
  21. 22. Cortisol response <ul><li>Direct test of parenting-neuroendocrine link </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also extending studies into social-affective realm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stress response in teens as a function of age 4 HOME scores </li></ul><ul><li>With Daniel Hackman and others </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Trier stress test – adolescents from previous study </li></ul><ul><li>Area under curve – measure of reactivity </li></ul><ul><li>as a function of HOME scores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental nurturance predictive? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As opposed to quality of experience more generally? </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25.
  24. 26. 05/04/10 Relevance to Human Capabilities I Brain as an intermediate point in the pathway from SES to capabilities - parse neurocognitive disparity - reveal specific candidate causes Candidate causes include ES and PN - anatomical and endocrine continuities w nonhuman animals Animal literature can be mined for intervention strategies
  25. 27. 05/04/10 Relevance to Human Capabilities II Interconnectedness, which is not to say undifferentiated Blur line between psychological capability and bodily integrity/heath - political implications?

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