Teacher Training: refers to the policies and procedures designed to equipprospective teacher with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and skills theyrequire to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school and widercommunity.Teacher education is often divided into these stages:1-Initial teacher training / education: A pre-service course before enteringthe classroom as a fully responsible teacher.2-Induction: it is the process of providing training and support during the firstfew years of teaching or the first year in a particular school.3-Teacher development or continuing professional development (CPD):An in-service process for practicing teachers.
1-Initial teacher education*Organization:In the consecutive model, a teacher first obtains a qualification in one or moresubjects, and then studies for a further period to gain an additional qualification inteaching.In the alternative concurrent model, a student simultaneously studies both one ormore academic subjects, and the ways of teaching that subject, leading to acombined Bachelors degree and teaching credential to qualify as a teacher of thatsubject.It is possible for a person to receive training as a teacher by working in a schoolunder the responsibility of an accredited experienced practitioner.
*CurriculumThe question of what knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and skills teachers should possess is the subjectof much debate in many cultures. This is understandable, as teachers are entrusted with thetransmission to learners of societys beliefs, attitudes as well as of information, advice and wisdom, andwith facilitating learners acquisition of the key knowledge, attitudes and behaviors that they will need tobe active in society.Generally, Teacher Education curricula can be broken down into four major areas:1-foundational knowledge in education-related aspects of philosophy of education, history of education,educational psychology, and sociology of education.2-skills in assessing student learning, supporting English Language learners, using technology toimprove teaching and learning, and supporting students with special needs.3-Content Area and methods knowledge and skills often also including ways of teaching and assessinga specific subject, in which case this area may overlap with the first area. There is increasing debateabout this aspect; because it is no longer possible to know in advance what kinds of knowledge andskill pupils will need when they enter adult life, it becomes harder to know what kinds of knowledge andskill teachers should have. Increasingly, emphasis is placed upon transversal or horizontal skills(such as learning to learn or social competences, which cut across traditional subject boundaries, andtherefore call into question traditional ways of designing the Teacher Education curriculum).4-Practice at classroom teaching or at some other form of educational practice, usually supervised andsupported in some way, though not always. Practice can take the form of field observations, studentteaching.
*Supervised field experiences1-Field observation include observation and limited participation within aclassroom under the supervision of the classroom teacher2-Student teaching includes a number of weeks teaching in an assignedclassroom under the supervision of the classroom teacher and a supervisor .3-Internship teaching candidate is supervised within his or her own classroom.The organization makes the programs more rational or logical in structure. Theconventional organization has sometimes also been criticized, however, asartificial and unrepresentative of how teachers actually experience their work.Problems of practice frequently (perhaps usually) concern foundational issues,curriculum, and practical knowledge simultaneously, and separating them duringteacher education may therefore not be helpful. However, the question ofnecessary training components is highly debated as continuing increases inattrition rates by new teachers and struggling learners is evident.[Additionally,with the increasing demands of the "teacher" research is beginning to suggestthat teachers must not only be trained to increase learning experiences for theirstudents, but how to also be a leader in an increasingly challenging field.
2-Induction of beginning teachersTeaching involves the use of a wide body of knowledge about the subject being taught, andanother set of knowledge about the most effective ways to teach that subject to differentkinds of learner; it therefore requires teachers to undertake a complex set of tasks everyminute. Many teachers experience their first years in the profession as stressful.A distinction is sometimes made between inducting a teacher into a new school (explainingthe schools vision, procedures etc.), and inducting a new teacher into the teachingprofession (providing the support necessary to help the beginning teacher develop aprofessional identity, and to further develop the basic competences that were acquired incollege.)A number of countries and states have put in place comprehensive systems of support tohelp beginning teachers during their first years in the profession. Elements of such aprograme can include:1-Mentoring: the allocation to each beginning teacher of an experienced teacher, specificallytrained as a mentor; the mentor may provide emotional and professional support andguidance; in many U.S. states, induction is limited to the provision of a mentor, but researchsuggests that, in itself, it is not enough.2-Input from educational experts.3-Support for the process of self-reflection that all teachers engage.
3-Continuous professional development or teacher development.Continuous Professional Development (CPD) is the process by which teachers(like other professionals) reflect upon their competences, maintain them up todate, and develop them further.The extent to which education authorities support this process varies, as doesthe effectiveness of the different approaches. A growing research base suggeststhat to be most effective, CPD activities should:-be spread over time-be collaborative-use active learning-be delivered to groups of teachers-include periods of practice, coaching, and follow-up-promote reflective practice-encourage experimentation, and-respond to teachers needs.
EDUCATION METHODOLOGYA teaching method comprises the principles and methods used for instruction. Commonlyused teaching methods may include class participation, demonstration, recitation,memorization, or combinations of these. The choice of teaching method or methods to beused depends largely on the information or skill that is being taught, and it may also beinfluenced by the aptitude and enthusiasm of the students. Methods of instruction1-Explaining2-Demonstrating3-Collaborating4-Learning by teaching.
1-Explaining: Explaining, or lecturing, is the process of teaching by giving spokenexplanations of the subject that is to be learned.2-Demonstrating: Demonstrating is the process of teaching through examples orexperiments. For example, a science teacher may teach an idea by performing anexperiment for students. A demonstration may be used to prove a fact through acombination of visual evidence and associated reasoning.
3-Collaborating: Collaboration allows students to actively participate in the learningprocess by talking with each other and listening to other points of view. Collaborationestablishes a personal connection between students and the topic of study and it helpsstudents think in a less personally.4-Learning by teaching: In this teaching method, students assume the role of teacher andteach their peers. Students who teach others as a group or as individuals must study andunderstand a topic well enough to teach it to their peers. By having students participate inthe teaching process, they gain self-confidence and strengthen their speaking andcommunication skills.