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  2. 2. 1) MICROORGANISMS (MICROBES) :- i) Microorganisms are very small organisms which cannot be seen with the unaided eye. They can be seen only with a magnifying glass or microscope. ii) Microorganisms may be unicellular or multicellular. iii) Microorganisms may exist alone or in colonies. iv) Microorganisms are found in all kinds of environment like ice cold climate, hot springs, deserts, marshy lands etc. They are also found inside the bodies of other organisms.
  3. 3. 2) TYPES OF MICROORGANISMS :- There are four main types of microorganisms. They are :- bacteria, fungi, algae and protozoans. Viruses are also considered as microorganisms. They are different from other microorganisms because they reproduce only in the body of host organisms like bacteria, plants or animals. E.g. :- Algae – Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra etc. Fungi – Bread mould, Penicillium, Aspergilles etc. Protozoans – Amoeba, Paramaecium etc.
  4. 4. VIRUS
  5. 5. 3) FRIENDLY MICROORGANISMS (USEFUL MICROORGANISMS) :- i) Microorganisms like bacteria decomposes organic waste into manure and increases the fertility of the soil. ii) Microorganisms help in fixing atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen compounds in the soil and increases the fertility of the soil. iii) Microorganisms are used for making curd from milk, for making cheese, pickles, bread, cakes, pastries, alcohol, wine, vinegar (acetic acid) etc. iv) Microorganisms are used for making medicines. a) Making curd from milk :- The bacterium called Lactobacillus reproduces in milk and helps to convert milk into curd. b) Making bread :- The fungus called yeast reproduces in flour dough and produces carbon dioxide during respiration which makes the dough soft and helps in making bread, cakes, biscuits, pastries etc. c) Making alcohol :- The fungus called yeast reproduces in sugar solution and converts it into alcohol. This process is called fermentation. d) Making medicines :- Some bacteria and fungi are used to make medicines which kill or stops the growth of disease causing microorganisms. Such medicines are called antibiotics. E.g. :- streptomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin etc. Vaccines are dead or weakened microbes introduced into the body to produce antibodies. These antibodies protect the body from disease causing microbes. Diseases like polio, cholera, typhoid, small pox, hepatitis etc. can be prevented by taking vaccines.
  6. 6. 4) Harmful microorganisms :- i) Some microorganisms cause diseases in plants and animals. Such disease causing microorganisms are called pathogens. ii) Some microorganisms grow in food substances and produce toxic substances and makes the food poisonous. Food poisoning causes illness and even death. iii) Some microorganisms spoil materials like clothing, leather, wood etc. 5) Disease causing microorganisms in Humans :- Disease causing microorganisms enter our body through air, water, food, contact or insects. These microorganisms are called pathogens. Diseases which can spread from an infected person to a healthy person are called communicable diseases. E.g. :- cholera, common cold, chicken pox, tuberculosis etc. Some insects and animals act as carriers of disease causing microbes. E.g. :- House fly, Female anopheles mosquito (malaria), Female Aedes mosquito (dengue fever) etc.
  7. 7. Aedes mosquit o
  8. 8. SOME COMMON HUMAN DISEASES CAUSED BY MICROORGANISMS:- Human disease Causative Mode of microorganism transmission Chicken pox Virus Air / Contact Polio Virus Air / Water Measles Virus Air Hepatitis – B Virus Water Tuberculosis Bacteria Air Typhoid Bacteria Water Cholera Bacteria Water / Food Malaria Protozoa Mosquito Some common plant diseases caused by microorganisms :- Plant disease Causative Mode of microorganism transmission Citrus canker Bacteria Air Rust of wheat Fungi Air / Seed Yellow mosaic of Okra (Lady’s finger) Virus Water bhindi
  9. 9. 7) FOOD PRESERVATION :- Food is spoilt by microorganisms. Spoilt food has bad smell and bad taste and causes food poisoning. Food can be preserved by protecting it from microorganisms. Food can be preserved by different methods. They are :- i) Chemical method :- Food like pickles can be preserved by using chemicals like salts and edible oils. Jams and squashes can be preserved by using sodium benzoate, sodium metabisulphite. These chemicals are called preservatives. ii) By using common salt :- Food items like fish, meat, amla, raw mangoes, tamarind etc can be preserved by using common salt. It prevents the growth of microbes. iii) By using sugar :- Food items like jams, jellies, squashes etc. can be preserved by using sugar solution. It prevents the growth of microbes. iv) By using oil and vinegar :- Food items like pickles, vegetables, fish, meat etc. are preserved by using oil and vinegar. It prevents the growth of microbes. v) By heat and cold treatments :- Heating food items kills microbes. Similarly storing food items at low temperatures prevents growth of microbes.
  10. 10. Pasteurization :- The process of heating milk to about 70oC for 15 to 30 seconds and then suddenly chilling it to prevent the growth of microbes is called pasteurization. This process was discovered by Louis Pasteur. vi) By storage and packing :- Many food items are stored in air tight containers to protect them from microbes.
  11. 11. THANK YOU