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  1. 1. The Holocaust
  2. 2. Persecution in Germany1933 - Hitler becomes leader of Germany, anti-Semitism(prejudice against Jews) official policy ofnationHolocaust - Nazi Germany’s systematic murder ofEuropean Jews2/3 of Jewish pop., 5-6 mill. others die in Nazi captivity
  3. 3. Nazi Policies 1933 - Nuremberg laws stripped Jews of citizenship, outlawed marriage b/Jews and non-Jews 1938 - Jews had to sell businesses to Aryans for much less, doctors/lawyers could only serve other Jews, students kicked out of school Jew - any person w/ 3 or 4 Jewish grandparents regardless of current religion Had to wear yellow stars marked “Jew” on clothing
  4. 4. Gestapo - Germany’s secret police job of identifyingenemies of Nazi regimeSS - Schutzstaffel - private army of Nazi party (Gestapobecame part of SS)Concentration camps - places where political prisonersconfined such as Communists, Jews, homosexuals,Jehovah’s Witnesses, Gypsies and homeless, centers offorced labor
  5. 5. Kristallnacht - 11. 9. 38, Nazi thugs in Germany andAustria looted and destroyed Jewish homes, businessesand synagogues - thousands arrested and sent to camps1933 - 1937 130,00 (1 in 4) Jews fled Germany for otherEuropean countries then US, Latin America & Brit.controlled PalestineEvian Conference - 32 countries meet to deal w/Jewish refugees, all countries refused to open doorsexcept Dominican Republic
  6. 6. From Murder to GenocideJews who fled to other European countries now underNazi control - ghettos created to keep them isolated,Warsaw ghetto - 400,000 Jews confined to 35 of city1942 Wannsee Conference - Nazis developed plan todeal w/ “Jewish question” - build special camps inPoland where genocide (deliberate destruction of entireethnic/cultural group) would be carried out
  7. 7. Death CampsGas (pesticide Zyklon B) chambers disguised as showersused for mass murder in Polish camps such as AuschwitzEuropean Jews sent to camps in cattle cars, elderly,women with children and weak immediately killedWorkers endured unbearable conditions, lifespan atAuschwitz a few months, dying from harsh labor,starvation, tortured, medical experiments, periodic“selections” for chamber
  8. 8. Fighting back Jews resisted, joined underground groups Escape most common resistance, most failed but a few got word out of camps 1943- 50,000 Jews in Warsaw ghetto heard fate of 300,000 sent to Treblinka camp, for 27 days held off Nazis
  9. 9. Rescue and Liberation US knew of mass murder in 1942 but did little 1944 FDR creates War Refugee Board (WRB) over objections of State Dept. to help people threatened by Nazis Helped save 200,000 lives - funded the issuing of special Swedish passports to Hungarian Jews On eve of Allied liberation Nazis moved all prisoners to German soil - thousands died on “death march”
  10. 10. Allied forces horrified by what they found in death campsNumber of former Nazi leaders put on trialInternational Military Tribunal made up of US, Britain,France and Soviets conducted Nuremberg Trials in1945Of 24 defendants 12 got death penaltyEstablished that individuals must be held accountable foractions
  11. 11. Auschwitz “Work Makes One Free”
  12. 12. Polish Jews forced to build wall surrounding Krakow ghettoArrested Jews at trains in France