Fascism

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Fascism

  1. 1. Fascism Rises in Europe
  2. 2. Fascism ’ s Rise in italy <ul><li>Fascism - militant political movement, emphasized loyalty to state and obedience to leader </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to communism - ruled by dictators, one party system, no individual rights, but believed classes had place in society </li></ul><ul><li>Italians unhappy - no land gains after WWI, rising inflation, high unemployment , democratic government seemed helpless </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Benito Mussolini - newspaper editor and politician, promised to rescue Italy by improving economy and rebuilding military </li></ul><ul><li>Founds Fascist Party in 1919, plays on fears of workers ’ revolt to get support from middle, upper class </li></ul><ul><li>1922 30,000 Fascists march on Rome, demand King Emmanuel III put Mussolini in charge of gov ’ t. </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini now “ Il Duce ” (the leader) - makes major changes..... </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Il Duce ’ s Changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolish democracy, outlaw all other political parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jail opponents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government censorship of broadcasts, publications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlaws strikes </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Benito Mussolini “ Il Duce ” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hitler Rises to power in germany <ul><li>Adolph Hitler won 2 “ Iron Cross ” awards in WWI, joined National Socialist German Worker ’ s Party - policies of this group foundation for German fascism known as Nazism </li></ul><ul><li>Organizer and speaking skills led Hitler to be chosen der Furer (leader) of Nazi party </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by Mussolini, tries to seize power in 1923 but is arrested </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Writes Mein Kampf (My Struggle) in jail, stating goals and beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans (incorrectly Aryans) = master race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Versailles Treaty an outrage - lands would be regained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany overcrowded, needed more lebensraum (living space) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revives Nazi party after release </li></ul><ul><li>Paid little attention until Great Depression - Germans look to him for security and strong leadership </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hitler Becomes Chancellor <ul><li>Nazis become largest political party, President names Hitler chancellor (thinking he can control him) </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler bans other political parties, opponents jailed </li></ul><ul><li>SS (Schutzstaffel) created - protection squad, loyal only to Hitler, Gestapo (secret police) becomes part of SS </li></ul><ul><li>Uses propaganda , book burnings and Hitler Youth (boys) League of German Girls to ensure obedience </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Anti-Semitism (hatred of Jewish people) key part of Nazi ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 1% of pop., but Jewish people used as scapegoats (blamed) for problems </li></ul><ul><li>Laws passed taking many rights from Jewish people </li></ul><ul><li>Violence against them increases - Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass), Nazi mobs attack homes, businesses and synagogues </li></ul>
  10. 10. other countries fall to dictators <ul><li>Hungary, Poland, Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria and Romania all become dictatorships-suspend constitutions </li></ul><ul><li>Czechoslovakia only democracy in eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>mid 1930s world ’ s powerful countries split - democratic vs totalitarian </li></ul>

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