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Video Production Using Open Source Tools


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Abstract: Over the last decade, farms of Linux servers have powered the production of major motion pictures. Today, individuals can use Linux to produce and distribute video in numerous formats; for example, YouTube, iTunes, DVD, and Blu Ray. Linux is no longer a hobbyists' tool, but a powerful production system that can be custom tailored. However, setting up a system like this is not for the faint of heart. Video and audio encoding and compression schemes can drive one to drink. Editing software in Linux is not polished, but difficulties can be overcome with perseverance. I will attempt to show how to create a working production workflow using Fedora, Cinelerra and various open source tools to produce a video ready for YouTube, iTunes, DVD and Vimeo.

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Video Production Using Open Source Tools

  1. 1. Video Production Using Open Source Tools <ul><li>Scott C. Frase </li><ul><li>webmaster
  2. 2. blogger, musician, video enthusiast
  3. 3. travails of video editing on linux </li><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><li>You </li><ul><li>Video editors in the crowd? </li><ul><li>Preferred OS? Any Linux users? </li></ul><li>Total beginners? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Video Production Using Open Source Tools <ul><li>Agenda </li><ul><li>Why use Open Source to work with video?
  5. 5. Video production in Linux </li><ul><li>Take some video
  6. 6. Edit it
  7. 7. Output it to common formats
  8. 8. Automate repetitive tasks </li></ul><li>Examples </li></ul><li>Feel free to interrupt and ask questions! </li></ul>
  9. 9. Why You Shouldn't Use Linux for Video <ul><li>Steep learning curve </li><ul><li>Not for novice computer users </li></ul><li>Be ready to deal with unexpected problems </li><ul><li>If you don't mind troubleshooting, you'll like editing with Linux </li></ul><li>New version -> new problems </li><ul><li>Ubuntu, Gentoo, Fedora, Debian, SUSE </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Why You Should Use Linux for Video <ul><li>Software wants to be free </li><ul><li>The tools cost nothing but your time and effort </li></ul><li>Open source </li><ul><li>Change it if you want </li></ul><li>Script repetitive tasks, like exporting video
  11. 11. Open ended and powerful </li><ul><li>Can create most any effect you want through a variety of tools </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Why do I choose to edit in Linux? <ul><li>Cost
  13. 13. Feeling of satisfaction
  14. 14. High quality results
  15. 15. Creative freedom
  16. 16. Giving back to the community
  17. 17. But sometimes I ask.. </li><ul><li>Lord, why do I put myself through this torture?
  18. 18. ..for the results! </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Cinelerra example <ul><li>Oil painting effect </li><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Cinelerra example <ul><li>Chroma keying </li><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Cinelerra example <ul><li>Camera automation and chroma key </li><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Cinelerra example <ul><li>Rotate and Perspective </li><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Editing results <ul><li>Motion stabilization .. before </li><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Editing results <ul><li>Motion stabilization .. after </li><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Cinelerra example <ul><li>And you can make a neat animated map </li><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Work of Video Production <ul><li>Take some video with a camera
  27. 27. Bring it into your PC
  28. 28. Edit it with specialized software
  29. 29. Burn a DVD of the video
  30. 30. Share with others </li></ul>
  31. 31. Video Production, 2009 <ul><li>Take some video with a camera
  32. 32. Bring it into your PC
  33. 33. Edit it with specialized software
  34. 34. Export the video to different formats </li><ul><li>DVD, also HDTV, Internet, iPod
  35. 35. Test to make sure they work </li></ul><li>Have the world view your creations </li><ul><li>Distribute it via online services
  36. 36. Get the word out by syndication (RSS) </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Video Production with Linux <ul><li>Take some video with a camera
  38. 38. Bring it into your PC with DVGRAB
  39. 39. Edit it with Cinelerra
  40. 40. Export the video using mplex and FFmpeg </li><ul><li>DVD, also HDTV, Internet, iPod
  41. 41. Test to make sure they work </li></ul><li>Have the world view your creations </li><ul><li>Distribute it via online services
  42. 42. Get the word out by syndication (RSS) </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Capturing Video from Tape/Live <ul><li>Use DVGRAB </li><ul><li>Comes standard with most distributions
  44. 44. If not, download it </li><ul><li>yum install dvgrab*
  45. 45. apt-get install dvgrab </li></ul></ul><li>Let's grab some video </li><ul><li>Turn on camera
  46. 46. Verify it is working (dmesg, plugreport)
  47. 47. dvgrab <filename.ext> </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. DVGRAB <ul><li>Once grabbed, let's import the video into our editing software, Cinelerra </li><ul><li>Import video
  49. 49. See it on the timeline </li><ul><li>Video stream
  50. 50. Audio stream </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Video File Formats <ul><li>Container </li><ul><li>contains both video & audio streams
  52. 52. Quicktime, MPEG-PS, MPEG-TS, AVI </li></ul><li>Video stream </li><ul><li>Compressed formats (smaller size, artifacts) </li><ul><li>MPEG1/2/4, H.264, JPEG, MJPEG </li></ul><li>Uncompressed formats (huge, best quality) </li><ul><li>RGB/RGBA/YUV </li></ul></ul><li>Audio stream </li><ul><li>MPEG2, MP3, MPEG4/AAC, PCM, Twos </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Video File Format <ul><li>Output from my cam: MPEG2-TS </li><ul><li>Container: transport stream
  54. 54. Video Stream: 720P video
  55. 55. Audio Stream: MPEG, Layer II </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Cinelerra Editing <ul><li>Set Your Preferences (shift-P) </li><ul><li>ALSA sound driver, Stop Playback Lockups </li></ul><li>Set Project Format (shift-F)
  57. 57. Timeline </li><ul><li>CTRL-click on it to cycle timeline scale
  58. 58. Playback, video fader, audio fader
  59. 59. Video fade, audio fade </li></ul><li>Viewer </li></ul>
  60. 60. Cinelerra Editing <ul><li>Compositor </li><ul><li>Camera
  61. 61. Projector </li><ul><li>Patchbay </li><ul><li>Play, record, tab, shift-tab </li></ul></ul><li>Masking </li><ul><li>Shift-alt to move entire mask </li></ul><li>Automation via keyframes </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Cinelerra Effects <ul><li>Fun
  63. 63. Video effects take a LOT of CPU power
  64. 64. Render overnight </li><ul><li>Confirm effect by rendering small sections at a time
  65. 65. Use a “renderfarm” for more power </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Cinelerra Output <ul><li>Rendering </li><ul><li>Where will the video be seen? </li><ul><li>DVD, YouTube, iPod, HDTV </li></ul><li>DVD </li><ul><li>MPEG-PS: MPEG2 video, MPEG layer II audio </li></ul><li>YouTube </li><ul><li>Quicktime: most video/audio formats </li></ul><li>iPod/iPhone </li><ul><li>Quicktime: H.264 video, AAC audio </li></ul></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Cinelerra Output <ul><li>Rendering </li><ul><li>Shift-R
  68. 68. Cin's rendering engine is a GUI front end to a command line interface
  69. 69. Output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video stream
  70. 70. Audio stream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combined into a container in the next step </li></ul></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Test, Test, Test <ul><li>Render small sections (< 30 sec)
  72. 72. Test the output in multiple apps </li><ul><li>mplayer
  73. 73. totem
  74. 74. ffplay
  75. 75. vlc
  76. 76. xine </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77. Automate the File Conversions <ul><li>Here is where Linux is your friend!
  78. 78. Automate via scripts wherever possible </li><ul><li>convert our source file to other formats </li><ul><li>DVD
  79. 79. HDTV
  80. 80. iPod/iPhone via iTunes
  81. 81. Internet </li><ul><li>YouTube, Vimeo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  82. 82. iTunes <ul><li>Copy iPod file to USB flash drive
  83. 83. Reboot to Mac
  84. 84. Load to iTunes
  85. 85. Load up to Vimeo </li></ul>
  86. 86. Open Source Video Production <ul>That's all folks.. I'm available for questions after the presentation Scott C. Frase </ul>
  87. 87. Cinelerra <ul><li>Requirements </li><ul><li>HD editing </li><ul><li>Dual core, 2.4Ghz, 2GB minimum
  88. 88. Use 64-bit OS best
  89. 89. Recommended: dual core, fast Ghz, 4GB min </li><ul><li>My main system: dual quad core, 1.6Ghz, 10GB </li></ul></ul><li>DV editing </li><ul><li>Single core, 2.4Ghz, 1GB </li></ul><li>Always go 64-bit </li></ul></ul>
  90. 90. Cinelerra Installation, easy <ul><li>Fedora 10, x86_64 </li><ul><li>Add Kwizart repository </li><ul><li> </li></ul><li>sudo yum install cinelerra-cv* </li></ul><li>Ubuntu Gutsy </li><ul><li>sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
  91. 91. deb ./
  92. 92. sudo apt-get update
  93. 93. sudo aptitude install cinelerra </li></ul></ul>
  94. 94. Cinelerra Installation from Source <ul><li>Anyone done this before?
  95. 95. install the dependencies for Cinelerra
  96. 96. get the Cinelerra source </li><ul><li>git clone git:// cinelerra_source </li></ul><li>run ./
  97. 97. run ./configure
  98. 98. run &quot;make&quot;
  99. 99. run &quot;make install&quot; </li></ul>
  100. 100. Cinelerra <ul><li>Optimizations </li><ul><li>Stripe set working drive (RAID0)
  101. 101. Mirror your assets directory (RAID1) </li><ul><li>You don't want to lose your work!!
  102. 102. Hardware RAID usually faster
  103. 103. Linux doesn't like hardware RAID
  104. 104. Software RAID fine </li></ul><li>Create large ramdisk for temp files </li><ul><li>Background rendering
  105. 105. Index files (.bcast directory) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  106. 106. Cinelerra Problem <ul><li>Knowing which container and compression schemes work! </li></ul>
  107. 107. Cinelerra Problem <ul><li>Audio, video synchronization </li><ul><li>Solved via audio or video delay effects
  108. 108. Also, the “nudge” feature in the patchbay </li></ul></ul>