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# Proper Concrete Design Methodology

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There are different types of pavement, highways, streets and local roads and parking lots, and each require a different design method. This presentation explains through the differences and then goes into detail specifically as to the method for designing concrete parking lots. The presentation ends with a brief discussion of the &quot;new realities&quot; in paving as concrete and asphalt are now essentially equal on first costs.

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### Proper Concrete Design Methodology

1. 1. Proper Concrete Design Methodology Roger Faulkner, PE Director of Engineering & Promotion Ohio Concrete
2. 2. Overview  TYPES OF PAVEMENT  ASSOCIATED DESIGN METHODS  PARKING LOT DESIGN  PAVING – “The New Realities”
3. 3. TYPES OF PAVEMENT  Highways Design Speed: 55 mph and greater High Frequency of Heavy Truck Loads  Streets and Local Roads Design Speed: 25 mph to 45 mph Low to Medium Frequency of Heavy Truck Loads  Parking Lots and Drives Design Speed: Typically Less than 15 mph Minimal (or None) to Low Frequency of Heavy Truck Loads
4. 4. DESIGN METHODS  Highways Linear Pavement – 2 or more lanes wide Transverse Joints - Dowels Edge Support – Tied Shoulders Concrete Design Thickness – 9” or greater  AASHTO 1993 Highway Design Guide ODOT Pavement Design Manual ACPA “WinPAS” Software
5. 5. DESIGN METHODS  Streets and Local Roads Linear Pavement – 2 or more lanes wide Transverse Joints – Dowels if Needed Edge Support – Curb and Gutter or widened lane Concrete Design Thickness – 6” to 8”  ACPA  “StreetPave” Software
6. 6. DESIGN METHODS  Parking Lots and Drives Complex Area Pavement – Width Varies Joints – Square Panels or Length to Width <1.25 Edge Support – Integral Curb or Thickened Edge Concrete Design Thickness – 4” to 8”  American Concrete Institute ACI 330R-08 – “Guide for the Design and Construction of Concrete Parking Lots”
7. 7. PARKING LOT DESIGN  ACI 330R-08  Section 3.6 – “Thickness Design”  Plain Concrete Pavement
8. 8. PARKING LOT DESIGN  ACI 330R-08, Section 3.6  Traffic Categories
9. 9. PARKING LOT DESIGN  Subgrade Support  Typ. K=100 psi/in.  Concrete Flexural Strength  MOR (psi) = 10 x Square Root of f’c  For f’c= 3500 to 5000 psi MOR = 600 to 670 psi  Table 3.4, Recommended 20 Year Design Thicknesses, with no dowels
10. 10. PARKING LOT DESIGN
11. 11. PARKING LOT DESIGN  Steel Reinforcement  Per 3.8.1 – “The use of distributed steel reinforcement will not add to the load-carrying capacity of the pavement and should not be used in anticipation of poor construction practices.”  Replaced with Shorter Joint Spacings
12. 12. PARKING LOT DESIGN  Joint Spacing  Per Section 3.7 Joint Patterns should be approx. square Length Not > than 125% of Width Spacing = 2 x thickness in Feet  Jointing Pattern can be used to delineate parking lanes and parking stalls
13. 13. PARKING LOT DESIGN  Tie-Bars  Per 3.8.3 – Tie only the first longitudinal joint from the pavement edge to keep the outside slab from separating  Tie Centerline Joints of Entrance Drives No. 4, ½” dia. – Typ. 24” long (See Table 3.7) 30” spacing
14. 14. PARKING LOT DESIGN  Dowels  Per 3.8.2 – Dowels generally not needed for parking lots  Per Table 3.4 – Category D Thickness can be reduced 1” to 7”, if dowels are used
15. 15. PARKING LOT DESIGN  Table 3.4 of ACI 330R-08 Developed using ACPA“StreetPave” Computer Program MC003  It is a pavement design tool for low volume roads (streets & local roads)  It is based on the PCA’s pavement thickness design methodology  PCA assesses adequacy of concrete thickness using both fatigue and erosion criteria
16. 16. PARKING LOT DESIGN  Engineering Services Center “ESC”  CAD parking lot and intersection layout Concrete Mix Design Pavement Thickness and Joint Spacing  FREE Service!
17. 17. Paving - “The New Realities”  Concrete and Asphalt have reached parity on Initial Cost  ODOT Initiated Alternate Pavement Bids  Those Projects Yielded HUGE Cost Savings
18. 18. ODOT Alternate Bid Projects  5 Projects Bid in 2009 w/ Alternate Pavement Bids  State’s Estimate for the 5 Projects - \$405 Million  Total Award for the 5 Projects - \$345 Million  \$60 Million Cost Savings or approx. 15%  Non-Alternate Bid Projects  3 Asphalt Only - \$170 M Est., \$157 M Award  \$13 Million Savings – Ave. 7% Cost Savings  Alternate Bids Yield TWICE the Costs Savings!
19. 19. ODOT Alternate Bid Projects  Key Aspects of Alternate Bid Process  Increased Competition  More bidders  Plus, competition between Asphalt and Concrete Industries  No Material Price Adjustments  ODOT Proposal Note 115, Price Adjustment Exclusions  Contractor Required to Submit Prices for Both ODOT chooses the alternate
20. 20. ODOT Drafts New Policy  Projects require an LCCA for both concrete and asphalt pavement alternates If LCCA’s >10% Alternate with Lower LCCA is selected alternate An Updated LCCA Required before Final Tracings • If LCCA’s still >10% - project bid with original alternate • If LCCA’s <10% - plans modified to bid with both concrete and asphalt pavement alternates If LCCA’s <10% Plans developed to bid for both concrete and asphalt alternates
21. 21. Questions?
22. 22. Proper Concrete Design Methodology THANK YOU !