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Values for Value Creation       Wisdom tradition principles for sustainable prosperity            By Charles V. Towle, MBA...
IntroductionCrisis and ambiguity       Global systems are in crisis. Despite significant gains in science, technology andm...
running out; those seeking to solve the problem are also causing it; and hyperbolic discountingoccurs.          In searchi...
and capitalism’s role in serving the needs of society. Yet they are, arguably, the importantbeginning of a new type of bus...
consciousness that drives business”. With an increase of titles on the subject such as “TheInspired Manager” by Shabeer Ah...
of life, of people, nature, actions and reactions, economies, societies and individual andcollective identities. It recogn...
applies generally to most everyone in most circumstances. They are understood as the underlyingprinciples that “carry life...
Three Approaches to Business - Expanding our Frame of Reference       Wisdom traditions begin by seeking to expand the fra...
achievem of a ben       ment     nign symbiot relation by attaining a mutually r                           tic        b   ...
Spiritual existence at the   Activities and            Deeper quality of life indicators   ‘deep sustainability’Deep      ...
company defines its ‘mission statement’ well, it is giving voice to its core truth. To keep abusiness vital, it must refle...
and economy (more from less or leveraged effort). The word effort is derived from the Sanskritword which literally transla...
Its effort – its discipline, focus and expense of energy support and deliver the outcomes itneeds to thrive in the market ...
Foundati is that we should be able to obser these val       ion        e           a           rve       lues operatin in ...
especially the finance sector. From falsified financial statements (Enron, WorldCom, Xerox,Global Crossing), to corporate ...
Respect – from narrow to the broad and deep       Steve Jobs sought to define the core truth of Apple as “cultural force”....
Going Deep       Taking a deep approach to business requires a more expansive, if you will, spiritual-likeoutlook that est...
Standards – from narrow to the broad and de               m        t                 eep       Narrow stand       N       ...
Going deep       Standards are both expansive and precise in their concern for lasting quality for thegreatest good (unive...
would therefore not be content with production efficiencies that produce cars with faulty breaks,baby prams that harm the ...
A Case Study that demonstrates all Four Values        The foregoing highlights the application of the various values by Ap...
The company stays aligned to its core truth by keeping all four values alive and dynamic.But does all this ‘happy-talk’ pa...
In this area Alpha is typical of the banking industry which thinks of themselves as the“experts” whereas their clients are...
shy to push them in manner sometimes notably disrespectful. “It’s the culture” so its toleratedand even exulted as a sympt...
The above comments and suggestions for Alpha are based on a broader application of thefour values, which could arguably he...
This paper has presented the early by-product of this five-step process as a model thatidentifies what is required to crea...
(Cranmore Foundation ©2009)                                                e                 )       The four valu are tra...
The concepts of narrow, broad and deep resonate with the Vedic idea of the gunas, aSanskrit word which means “modes of nat...
BibliographyGoogle Company. (n.d.). Google Corporate Website. Retrieved on May 3, 2011 from        http://www.google.com/c...
http://hbr.org/2011/05/the-big-idea-the-wise-leader/Nunes, P. & Breene, T. (2011). Apple goes to slow to win. Harvard Busi...
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Values for Value Creation

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MBA student writes sustainability thesis on Cranmore Foundation

Mr Charles V Towle, a graduate student at San Francisco State University has received a distinction for his thesis on sustainability and the work of Cranmore Foundation. Mr Towle’s thesis makes the case for the need for a new quality of thinking in addressing today’s complex global problems, which he describes as ‘wicked problems’. He explores emerging models of thought aimed at creating sustainability solutions such as the work of Michael Porter and Mark Kramer as well as Umair Haque. His thesis goes on to explore the premise of Cranmore Foundation’s work with wisdom traditions. Further he presents the conceptual outline of one wisdom model articulated by the foundation that supports sustainability.

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Values for Value Creation

  1. 1. Values for Value Creation Wisdom tradition principles for sustainable prosperity By Charles V. Towle, MBA Student Business 899– Special Study with Cranmore FoundationProfessor Murray I. Silverman, Department Chair, Management San Francisco State University May 27, 2011 1
  2. 2. IntroductionCrisis and ambiguity Global systems are in crisis. Despite significant gains in science, technology andmanagement know-how, the world is confronted by a breakdown of financial, business,governmental, societal and ecological systems. All of this presents us with a new order ofcomplexity. In an era where “discontinuity is the only constant” leaders are in need of a differentquality of solution if they are to successfully meet the challenges ahead. (Nonaka & Tekeuchi)Information and the speed of access to data is not enough. “All the knowledge in the world didnot prevent the collapse of the global financial system”. (Haque, Umair) It seems that ourmodern global culture has arrived at a place where “the ability to lead wisely has nearlyvanished”. (Ibid) This unprecedented crisis raises questions even about the future viability of capitalism aswe know it. Paul Samuelson in the New Perspectives Quarterly (2009) posits that “today we seehow utterly mistaken was the Milton Friedman notion that a market system can regulate itself”.(Ibid) It seems that Adam Smith’s notion of the market’s self-regulating “invisible hand”deserves a new scrutiny when Alan Greenspan comments that “the whole intellectual edifice” offinancial economics “collapsed in the summer [of 2008]”. (Ibid) The causes of this crisis can beattributed to “wicked problems”. (Rittel & Webber) In simple terms “wicked problems” can be described as unique and difficult to define – infact they are often not understood until after a solution is formulated. (Ibid) Further, they: haveno stopping rule; are neither true nor false but better or worse; they can be symptomatic of otherproblems; and their solution is a ‘one shot’ operation due to constraints that do not allow trialand error. In recognising the “wicked problem” nature of the current crises, Barack Obama’schief economic advisor and former Harvard President Larry Summer said that “large swaths ofeconomics are going to have to be rethought”. (Haque, Umair) Furthermore, the complexstructure of global systems contributes to the creation of “super-wicked problems” (Lazarus &Richard) which have the additional conditions where: there is no central authority; time is 2
  3. 3. running out; those seeking to solve the problem are also causing it; and hyperbolic discountingoccurs. In searching for solutions to our super-wicked problems some thinkers have argued forthe need to evolve a new model of prosperity that would revitalise our fundamental notions ofcapitalism (Haque, Umair), away from industrial age attitudes to one that is more humane,environmentally resource efficient and sustainable. In his New Capitalist Manifesto, Umair Haque argues that our crisis is rooted in a “deepdebt” approach to prosperity. This means borrowing assets from future generations while alsoshifting the burden of current real costs (externalities) forward to them. He convincingly arguesthat this approach is not only unsustainable but is destructive and amoral. (Ibid) He describes theprosperity of this type of “industrial age capitalism” as the creation of “thin value” and arguesthat we need a new way of thinking that is aimed at “thick value” creation. While being a strongadvocate of the capitalist ideal, he argues that “thin value” prosperity grew out of the “gamereserve” abundance of the industrial age era – a time when there was no awareness of theproblem of finite natural resources. Our current shrinking bank of resources demands a new viewof “thick value” creation that meets the needs of everyone, which he analogously likens to thetight confines of an “ark”, where the presence and actions of one passenger immediately affectseveryone else. In “Creating Shared Value”, Michael Porter and Mark Kramer echo the need for a “thickvalue” model of prosperity in their argument for the “creation of shared value” (CSV) thataddresses not only stakeholder needs, but also the needs of the broader host communities where abusiness operates. (Porter & Kramer) In this they advance the notion of re-vitalising capitalismby reframing attitudes to encompass the society at large, “bringing business and society backtogether”, and in so doing create new markets and new prosperity. Holistic-leaning ideas like “thick value” and “shared value” are not only new to businessthinking but would be anathema to the business ethics of industrial age capitalism. In respondingto the changes and challenges of early 21st century capitalism Haque, Porter, Mark and others arefollowing Einstein’s adage that “a problem can not be solved by the same consciousness inwhich it arose”. Ideas like “thick value” and “shared value” are beginning to shape the contoursof potential solutions to today’s wicked problems. They are based in a broader view of society 3
  4. 4. and capitalism’s role in serving the needs of society. Yet they are, arguably, the importantbeginning of a new type of business consciousness that will help shape the future of sustainablebusiness. Solutions to wicked problems requires one to think outside of the paradigm in which oneis operating. To achieve this, one will ideally have access to new sources of inspiration. Businessthinkers are indeed exploring for new sources of inspiration in addition to the rational, discursiveand efficiency models of industrial age capitalism. In fact it is in response to the singular andoverly rational mode of thinking and its unwanted by-products that new ideas like corporatesocial responsibility have gained currency. Responding to consumer demands and followingguidelines in SA 8000, new legislation was written that addressed the injustice of child labourand fair treatment for workers. What is now generally accepted as good common sense is in factquite recently implemented in the last ten years. The search for better solutions have also taken business-thinking into the realm ofaesthetics, resulting in Daniel Pink’s claim that the “the MFA is the new MBA” in his book “AWhole New Mind – Why Right Brainers will Rule the Future.” (Kennicott, Philip) TheGötenborg University of Business, Economics and Law hosted a “Design of Prosperity” Summitbringing together thinkers from science, technology, humanity and the arts along with businessand economic thinkers for a trans-disciplinary discussion on the driving forces that affect ourpresent and future societies and their prosperity. The exploration of aesthetics is the result of arecognition that those people who count value are not necessarily the people who create value.Also that creating the “value experience” generates loyalty, participation and deep emotionalconnection – a direct counterpoint to the rational, discursive model. CEOs from Eriksson, Volvo,Nokia and other companies met with leading designers to explore the question of how to create abetter prosperity. The result was a recognition that the “rhapsodic mind” contributes at thecollective as well as the individual level. Another source of inspiration for seeking new answers is the emergence of the topic of‘spirituality in business’, with books like “Reinspiring the Corporation” by Mark Scott. Heargues that until recently business has focused largely on ‘the external’ with examples likeTheory X, Theory Y and Sigma Theory. His idea is that the next generation of development willmove away from the logical and discursive to the internal, to the “soul of business and the 4
  5. 5. consciousness that drives business”. With an increase of titles on the subject such as “TheInspired Manager” by Shabeer Ahmad & Maaz Gazdar; “Spirituality Inc.” by Lake Lambert;“Islamic Business Ethics” by Dr. Rafik Issa Beekun and “Jewish Wisdom for Business Success”by Rabbi Levi Brackman, the trend towards seeking new perspectives that will help deepen andrevitalise a more conscious capitalism such as that advocated by organisations like the ConsciousCapitalism Institute indicate a trend towards the “changing mind” of modern business. This paper explores a new and further source of inspiration for reframing our attitudestowards success and prosperity, which is found in the work of the UK based, CranmoreFoundation. The Foundation researches the world’s wisdom traditions to identify what it calls“universal principles” that support sustainability. Working with ‘culture-bearers’ from thedifferent traditions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity and Indigenous cultures(Shamanism) to name a few, the Foundation aims to articulate those universal principles as“design principles” for practical use in business, organisational development, education andgovernment.Why Wisdom Traditions? Wisdom traditions are repositories of collective human experience built over themillennia. The quality of the knowledge found in these various traditions is acquired from directfirst-hand experience, not experimentation and peer review. As such it is not “scientific”knowledge per se, but as Professor Mircea Eliade described its rooted in a deep collectivesubjective that describes the way things are for the benefit and survival of future generations.Such traditions are often, but not exclusively, orally transmitted and are thus more inductive(received wisdom) than deductive (empirical). The “truths” of these traditions, their principlesand values are presented as parable, stories and metaphors that make access easy for anyone, butmay also make them seem provincial or simple. Thus these knowledge repositories can oftenseem naïve to the modern mind, yet buried within their symbolism is a practical view of howthings are and how things work. Wisdom traditions may offer us inspiration for not only better solutions, but also differentsolutions, because their starting point assumes that the world is more than material or empirical,rather it is deeply layered in ways not easily accessible to the singular rational or scientific mind.This deeply layered approach is holistic in perspective as it recognises the inter-connected web 5
  6. 6. of life, of people, nature, actions and reactions, economies, societies and individual andcollective identities. It recognises that there are different qualities of mind and consciousness andthat a better mind, refined by observation and reflection is able to perceive reality in a differentway that accounts for the subtle dynamics of the interconnected web of life. It is from this placeof wholeness, of seeing “the world as one”, that wisdom traditions guide individual effortstowards a harmonious existence, sustainable in the long run because such existence does not alterthe delicate balance of natural reality. Thus the superior mind steeped in such a disciplinedrelationship to everything has a superior perception of reality that can justly be called “wise”. How do wisdom traditions claim that we can create sustainable systems? In very simpleterms they state that there are two different ways of being and living in the universe: 1. Living in accord with the universe and natural law – which leaves no negative results 2. Living out of sync with the universe and natural law – which produces negative results and further complicationsThe cultural and knowledge repositories of wisdom traditions are therefore aimed at realising theformer. When they talk about the nature and well-being of man, by extension they are alsotalking about the vitality of business affairs. If they describe the potential of the enlightened orperfected individual they are also implying the creation of the perfect business – one that meetsthe needs of its shareholders, employees, stakeholders, society and the greater world in which itoperates. The promise of these traditions is that acting in accord with universe principles results inthe creation of shared value and deep value. Their wisdom gives underpinning and meaning tothe importance of shared value and its resultant prosperity. What follows is the presentation ofone holistic model found in both Indo-Vedic and Chinese cultures. We will explore it as apotential model that supports decision making that would lead to the creation of prosperoussustainable systems.A brief definition of ‘universal principles’ By universal principle we mean that which is axiomatic – the self evident which requiresno proof, or a universally accepted principle or rule. In wisdom traditions a universal principle 6
  7. 7. applies generally to most everyone in most circumstances. They are understood as the underlyingprinciples that “carry life” and which define the conditions with which everyone must deal with.While there is not much room in post-modern thinking for the idea of a universal anything,common sense and experience tells us that there are indeed principles that underpin humanexistence and experience. When we say that these principles are axiomatic, we do not meannecessarily perfect unanimity, but rather a wide applicability. Equally important to an understanding of wisdom tradition notions of universal principlesis that they are normative as well as axiomatic. Their existence and influence in human affairscreates continuity and consistency in the outcome of human effort. Many wisdom traditions talk about universal principles as “the law” or nature’s way ofensuring continuity and enduring quality. That which goes against the law will experience theresults that accrue to the “out-law”. One example of our changing mind in this regard recognisesthat working with nature and within her law holds out the promise of a new model of enduringand benign prosperity that carries no negative effects. McDonough & Braungart in their “TheNext Industrial Revolution” article presents one such alternative approach that acknowledgesthat the deep interdependence between business and nature is inherently and potentially fecundand productive. (McDonough& Braungart) 7
  8. 8. Three Approaches to Business - Expanding our Frame of Reference Wisdom traditions begin by seeking to expand the frame of reference of the individual bydegrees, away from the selfish and narcissistic, to encompass a more broad minded perspectivethat recognises one’s essential role within the greater whole. They create context by expandingone’s frame of reference to account for factors outside of one’s self, such as others, society,nature and the world – even up to the idea of the universe itself. In researching the Indo-Vedic wisdom tradition, Cranmore Foundation has identifiedthree perspectives or approaches defined which the Foundation describes as the Narrow, theBroad and the Deep. The Narrow approach can be described as ‘business as usual’, where the priority is short-term profit at the expense of everything else. In this approach business is not concerned with thelong-term consequences of its actions — externalities like pollution, depleted natural resourcesor adverse social impacts are not accounted for. This “thin value” (Haque, Umair) approachworks against the larger long-term interests of business by limiting its perception of opportunity.This “narrow conception of capitalism has prevented business from harnessing its full potentialto meet society’s broader challenges”. (Porter, Michael & Kramer, Mark) The Broad approach is symptomatic of the “superior mind” of a more consciousindividual or business. Such an individual accounts for its relationship with the world and is bydegrees more responsive and responsible to a larger circle of stakeholders than those taking thenarrow approach. Companies that take a broad approach invest in stakeholder relationshipmanagement [SRM] programs (Sisodia, Wolfe & Sheth), CSR initiatives, humane partneringapproaches to their work force, and acknowledge their responsibility for the impact of theirexternalities. Yet, the Broad approach does not guarantee a sustainable reality, something more isrequired. (Hart, Stuart) The Deep approach, according to the degree of its application, gives the perspectiveneeded to achieve genuine sustainability. It is characterised by a deep awareness of theinterconnected web of life and nature and operates consciously from a place of service, care andcontribution for the greatest possible good. It acknowledges the interests of an expanded set ofstakeholders and thinks of its good as non-different from the good of all. (Savitz & Weber) The 8
  9. 9. achievem of a ben ment nign symbiot relation by attaining a mutually r tic b recognised b beneficialcommon ground is what Savitz and Weber ca the ‘susta w a all ainability sw spot’. Th Deep weet heapproach brings an in h ndividual or business eventually (by degrees) int a place of deep y to feffectiven ness, efficien and pros ncy sperity. The deep approa acknowl ach ledges the on neness, unio or on,common good of all the stakehol lders. In so doing, it unle d eashes the po otential to fu realise th ully he‘creation of shared va n alue’ and the creation of ‘thick value As Haque and Porter et al argue, by e f e’. roperating from the su g uperior mind of the deep approach, b d p business ope new mark by bein ens kets ngconsciou of hitherto unrecognise social and market opp us o ed d portunities. The three app T proaches are not contiguo with one starting wh the othe leaves off, but ous e here er f,overlap by degrees to give three gradual but distinct phas of evolut b o ses tion in appro oach andconsciou usness. The table bel summar T low rises the thre approache applied in business an gives a bri ee es nd iefindication of their sco of conce approach to relation n ope ern, nships, and su uggests poss sible long-te ermoutcomes s. Th hree appro oaches to business Individual existenc at ce stakehol lders seen in Short term shareh older valueNarrow the centre terms of financial and f Financial and econ nomic economic revenue indicators on oppositio Collective existence at Activities and s Ecological, social a and S SustainabilityBroad the centre stakehol lders seen in psychological indic cators S Social accountability terms of ecological, f social and psychological C Coaching, personal revenues de evelopment Collabor ration C Cradle to cradle 9
  10. 10. Spiritual existence at the Activities and Deeper quality of life indicators ‘deep sustainability’Deep centre stakeholders seen in Moral indicators Feng shui / Vaastu terms of deeper / inner meaning of life Spiritual indicators Spiritual practice Synergy Sacred nature of work Beauty (?) ‘Effortless effort’ Values for Value Creation – Principles that Support Sustainability There are four principles or values found in the Indo-Vedic and Chinese traditions thatsupport the creation of vital, harmonious sustainable systems. A brief explanation of their originin the Puranic literature of India is given in Appendix A. The four values appear deceptive in their simplicity but on close study, their presence inany individual, organisation or system makes them vital. Not only their presence but theirinteraction with each other results in a dynamic condition of progressive development throughiterative cycles of improvement over time. They interact with each other, modify and enrich eachother’s presence and create stability. Where one is lacking, or the interaction between two ormore are weak, the result will be a diminished vitality. The four values are: Truth Respect Standards Effort A brief summary of each follows below. The descriptions and expositions that exist in theoriginal Sanskrit text are extensive. For brevity’s sake, what is presented here is based on thework of the Cranmore Foundation and is rephrased to the needs of the subject of business. Wewill elaborate on these four values later in the paper. Truth This is the first cardinal value which can be described as the “essential purpose andfunction” of a business. This truth relates to the nature and quality of a business or its raisondêtre — its core truth. This can be understood in different ways and to different levels. When a 10
  11. 11. company defines its ‘mission statement’ well, it is giving voice to its core truth. To keep abusiness vital, it must reflect on and live its truth purely, without distortion or dissonance. Theword truth is derived from the Sanskrit word meaning “that which endures, that which exists,that which has value”. The principle of truth thus implies one’s “authentic existence”, that whichhas “integrity and impeccability”. Respect This second cardinal value can be summarised as vital, harmonious relationships. Thisrelates to all the stakeholders, beginning with customers and extending outwards. It can besummed up in the aphorism: “do least harm – do most good”. This is the guiding principle thatdefines the expression of an individual or business’s expression of their core truth. It extends theawareness of self away from the selfish and narcissistic to encompass the “everyone” and gives aguide rule not dissimilar to the Golden Rule. More importantly it defines the domain in whichone’s core truth can only be fruitfully realised, which is the domain of relationships. The wordrespect is translated from the Sanskrit word which means “non-violence” or “no-violence”.Contained within this proscription is the prescription to “do only good”. Standards This third cardinal axiom defines the criteria for success – both for the expression of thecore truth of an individual or business and also as guides to creating and maintaining vitalrelationships. Standards set the bar for evaluating success in all spheres of a business. They alsohelp eliminate the unwanted, or impure elements that would adulterate the quality of a business’score truth and the vitality of its relationships. Standards also provide strategic guidelines forcompliance, accounting, quality control, design of policies, design of products and overallmanagement and planning. The word standards comes from the Sanskrit word for “cleanliness”,“purity”, or “refinement”, which implies the criteria by which one can achieve such a state. Effort The last cardinal value is effort or the disciplined application of energy, probably theprinciple most familiar to business along with standards. Yet, here effort as a value is not just theprosaic work of getting things done, but incorporates a range of action including: work;efficiency; responsibility; accountability; sacrifice; discipline; structure; the ardour of simplicity; 11
  12. 12. and economy (more from less or leveraged effort). The word effort is derived from the Sanskritword which literally translated means “the fire of austerity”. In this we have an idea of the deeperconnotation of effort as requiring “great focus”, “discipline” and “precision” which when appliedwithin the deep approach described above gives something called “effortless effort”, or aharmonic resonance of effort that results in exponential outcomes from minimal effort.Four Values in Harmony When all four of the above values are present in a system we can observe an elegance,efficiency and symmetry as much as one can observe the same in well designed architecture or amasterfully executed oil painting. This state of symmetry is achieved through the interaction ofthese four values, where one supports and refines the other, which in turn works in complimentwith the other two. Brief examples include:Truth & Respect The authentic and impeccable expression of a company’s core truth deepens and supportsit’s relations with its customers and stakeholders; Taking care to do most good in its relationships means that a company seeks to providebest of class products and services in a manner that directly addresses the needs, wants andinterests of its customers. In a broad or deep application this would extend further out to anyonewho would be touched by the company’s efforts.Standards & Effort Clearly defined standards and criteria set the benchmark for efforts and provide a meansto evaluate success; Focused, disciplined efforts create the high quality outcomes defined by standards; instriving for simplicity, economy and precision, effort helps achieve design criteria laid out instandards.Truth & Effort A company’s essential purpose and function, its authentic identity guides its efforts,ensuring that all undertakings are in support of the realisation of its essential aims; 12
  13. 13. Its effort – its discipline, focus and expense of energy support and deliver the outcomes itneeds to thrive in the market place and conduct fruitful relationships.Truth & Standards A company’s core truth is realised in iterative, on-going cycles of refinement andimprovement; its truth helps define the criteria of its success. A company’s standards eliminate the unwanted, refine its existence and improve its self-worth and market worth. A company relationships are enhanced when it expresses itself withclarity in all its dealings.Respect & Standards Business happens in the domain of relationship which are maintained and nurtured byvalues and high standards; Standards set boundaries and rules of engagement, they define what is expected bothfrom the company and customer; they offer guidelines on mutual benefit and improvement.Respect & Effort Relationships and effort go hand in hand. Relationships take investment and requirediligence and care if they are to be vital, honest and rewarding; The quality and condition of relationships define what is needed to make a companysuccessful. Reflecting on the condition of a company’s relationships with itself and itsprofitability (narrow); the larger market and the society it lives in (broad); and its relation withthe world, the environment, and the universe (deep); give a company a chance to improve andrefine its relationships according to its perspective and approach.Deep application of the Four Values To address the complexities of wicked and super-wicked problems we can use the fourvalues above to define and refine our approach to business. Using the inspiration of this wisdomframework we can reflect on the condition of our business and its relationship to the worldaround it. By expanding our frame of reference away from the short-term of the narrow approachto the long-term all-encompassing deep approach we can, using these four values, take strategicsteps toward the creation of “thick value” and “shared value”. In fact the premise of Cranmore 13
  14. 14. Foundati is that we should be able to obser these val ion e a rve lues operatin in successful, ngsustainab bility-oriente companies. ed (Cranmo Foundation ©200 ore 09) Four val lues case notes What follows is a cursory review of a few compa W s y anies and wh hether and to what extent o tthey follo the four values in the execution of their busin ow v e o nesses. We l looked at com mpanies suc as ch oods, Harley Davidson, Apple, Google, Southw Airlines, Yamaha an others. What isWhole Fo y west , ndencourag ging is that th are inde a numbe of compan who are working the way from the here eed er nies eir mnarrow th hrough to the broad and beginning to approach t fringes of the deep. H e o the However, we did enot find any solid exa a ample of com mpanies who are workin at the far end of the d o ng deep approac ch,nor did we expect to. In the end we chose Ap w . w pple, Google Whole Foo and Sou e, ods uthwest Airlinesfor their demonstrabl qualities as companies working to le a s oward a broa applicatio ad on. Our primary sources for case studies are books, a O s c academic jou urnals, and c corporatewebsites. The source provided enough infor es e rmation to in nitiate the ca studies an are indica ase nd ativerather tha conclusiv an ve.Thesis—A Antithesis We could hav filled our pages with plentiful exa W ve p amples of co erating with the ompanies openarrow approach or worse. This is no surpris given the crisis of pub confiden with bus a w se blic nce siness, 14
  15. 15. especially the finance sector. From falsified financial statements (Enron, WorldCom, Xerox,Global Crossing), to corporate looting (Adelphia, Bernie Ebbers, WorldCom), to insider trading(Martha Stewart, Sam Waksal, Galleon Group, One.Tel) the business press is legion with reportsof companies who fail to follow, even superficially, the four values of truth, respect, standards& effort as described above. To remedy the problem, business has to be seen to move from the narrow towards thebroad and beyond. Redefining business as a genuine citizen, with all the concerns of a moral andethical individual will help redeem business and revitalise capitalism in new interdependentsynergy with society at large. We will now look at a few companies that by degrees, have begunthe process of setting themselves as progressive examples.Truth – from narrow to the broad and deep Creating “thick value” begins with vital companies that are dependent on a vital society.Broad and deep expressions of truth as a cardinal value begin with the aim of providing usefulproducts and services, in a way that accounts for the costs of externalities. This means no longeraccepting that the world is able to provide infinite high-resource dependent intensity growthwhich has dominated capitalism since the industrial era. Businesses of the present can no longerjustify living off the resources of future generations. Hart & Milstein define a sustainableenterprise as one that “contributes to sustainable development by delivering simultaneouslyeconomic, social, and environmental benefits” to a triple bottom line. (Hart & Milstein) Google is an example of a company that seeks to authentically achieve its core purpose –which it describes as a mission to organise the world’s information in useful, universallyaccessible ways. (Google Company) Thus to some extent Google is thinking broad in regards tothe delivery of information. (Lyer & Davenport) Apple’s Steve Jobs defined the company’s truth as the aim of bettering the world throughtechnology. His approach lay more in the broad especially in his approach to the creation ofquality products that met the needs of customers, but also in this ability to think long-term,beyond decades to centuries. (Yoffi & Slind) Taking a broad approach to defining a company’s core truth requires anacknowledgement of the importance of relationships with the broadest scope of stakeholders. 15
  16. 16. Respect – from narrow to the broad and deep Steve Jobs sought to define the core truth of Apple as “cultural force”. (Yoffi & Slind)Implicit in this is his ability to take a broad approach in expressing the truth of Apple in itsrelationships (respect). What is clear about Apple’s success is that it begins with a definition ofits truth with the respect/relationship principle in mind. Companies that operate with a narrow approach to respect have little concern forrelationships that don’t have an immediate impact on profit. This “thin value” approach definesworthwhile relations largely to customers and suppliers. Not only does this limit their scope foridentifying market opportunity, but when things go wrong as in the case of BP and DeepwaterHorizon, not taking a broad approach can be costly in a wide variety of unpredictable ways. Companies that take a broad approach to respect tend to think pre-emptively, to anticipatewhat may go wrong can in fact go wrong. This frame of mind is best described as empathetic. Itallows the company to think of the needs of society, and in taking that broad approach it is betterpositioned to respond to crisis and uncertainty. Unlike BP which was perceived to be slow toreact and dismissive of collective concerns, a broad approach company will be proactive inaddressing the real concerns of others. Policies like CSV, CSR, CO2 reduction and others are practical examples of howcompanies act broadly in regards to respect. But there are other ways. For example, Googleprojects genuine passion to its customers, and seeks to emotionally connect with customers at adeep level. (Sisodia, Wolfe & Sheth) Google earns a larger share of customers’ wallets as aresult of earning a larger share of customers’ hearts by genuinely approaching them from a broadperspective. (Ibid) Google views its suppliers as ‘true partners’ and encourages them tocollaborate with Google in moving forward successfully. (Ibid) Apple also take a broadapproach to partnering with its suppliers and thus enjoys stable relationships that help themrespond to their customers. (Thomke & Feinberg) Another example of a broad approach is Southwest Airlines’ strong partnershiprelationship program, where all stakeholder groups are treated as valued partners. None ofSouthwest’s airline competitors have this partnership view or enjoy its consistent year-on-yearprofitability. (Sisodia, Wolfe & Sheth) 16
  17. 17. Going Deep Taking a deep approach to business requires a more expansive, if you will, spiritual-likeoutlook that esteems the intrinsic worth of people and nature. It begins by viewing one’s role inthe world as a part of a larger whole, a whole that expands outward to include everything – theuniverse itself. This helps those taking a deep approach to encompass the largest possible circleof stakeholders and more. It begins by recognising that business is not operating in vacuum, inisolation or without eventual consequences – good or bad. The deep approach is mindful of its“footprint” and so does not seek to eliminate or hide the results of its actions, rather it seeks totake the pains (fire) to make the effort to achieve an elegance of execution. It recognises thatsuch a refining (standards) approach make it a more effective, useful company. On this it banksit real net-worth and future value. It recognises that as a harmonious vital part of a natural largerwhole, that the nature of things, the natural law, will carry it, support it and sustain it. Such a deep form of respect can be called “eco-effectiveness” which leads humanindustry to be “regenerative rather than depletive”. (McDonough & Braungart) Eco-effectiveness involves the design of things that celebrate interdependence with other livingsystems, a fundamental point of view for those taking the deep approach. (McDonough&Braungart) From an industrial-design perspective, it means products that work within “cradle-to-cradle” life-cycles rather than cradle-to-grave ones. (McDonough& Braungart) Deep respect also expands the time-space frame of reference by asking questions like:does the product or service ‘do most good’ for the full cycle of its existence?; does it providebenefit far into the future?; does its use increase the quality of being for everyone?; and lastlydoes it create value in a ‘least harm way? If it does, then you have ‘thick value’. The deep approach creates relationships that have “thick value”, are long-lasting, andcannot easily be replicated, or mimicked. Deep way relationships add deep value to businesswhere stakeholders take an active interest in supporting and enhancing the business along withits functions, products and services and as a result establishing well-being for all. 17
  18. 18. Standards – from narrow to the broad and de m t eep Narrow stand N dards are stin and mea ngy agre. They ar aimed at s re satisfying the bare minim e mumrequirem and thus often result in outcome that are no even fit fo purpose. ment s t es ot or In contrast a broad approa to standa is expan n b ach ards nsive and inclusionary. I aims at Itexceedin the specifi ng ication. Its empowered by the fire of a strong foc b f cused effort to achievesomethin exceptional. This is tr for both process and products, wh ng rue p hether it be t sourcing of the gmaterials the repleni s, ishment of natural resource, or aimin for design efficiencie that reduce n ng n es eobsolesce ence. At Google the is no rigi expectatio for how n offering will integr into the A ere id on new gs ratecompany line. Ther is a balanc between the fire of eff y’s re ce t ffort, standar and the c rds creativeinspiratio of employ on yees (respect). Google executives ex xpect that a v values-based culture wil d lldeliver in nnovative pr roducts that either thrive – or don’t. E e Elimination (effort & sta andards) is s seenas part of the natural order of thin (Lyer & Davenport) Google tak a broad respect appr f ngs. t) akes roachby placin trust in the markets’ ability and right to decide which prod ng a e ducts are use eful. (Ibid) Thisattitude derives expli d icitly from th standard which are aimed at liv heir ds e ving their tru in uthharmonio relations ous ship to their markets. m Apple is anot A ther example of a compa whose st e any tandards are defined by the central eimportan of their re nce elationships (respect). A fundament al part of the on-going product eir grefinement (standard is their in ds) ntegration of customer ex f xperience an feedback into their nddevelopm process (Thomke & Feinberg This rela ment ses. e g) ationship bas software design is a sedstandard now called “participator design”. (Ibid) “ ry ( 18
  19. 19. Going deep Standards are both expansive and precise in their concern for lasting quality for thegreatest good (universal) in the deep approach. Deep standards aim at achieving the exceptional.They start with great concern for realising the pure essential in any undertaking and with the fireof effort provide continual cycles of on-going refinement and improvement. Deep standards result in a different type and quality of value – one that is lasting andauthentic. Possibly the best current example of deep standards is that of cradle-to-cradle designwhich starts with the dual aim of nothing impure and everything reusable, thus eliminating theproblem of obsolescence. Setting deep standards, cradle-to-cradle results in what Stuart Hartdescribes as “leapfrog innovation, exploration, disruptive innovation, creative destruction andcorporate imagination”. (Hart, Stuart) The deep approach to standards promises the eventual“rethinking and redesign of industry’s future”. (Ibid) Another example of a radical rethinkingthat results in exponential efficiencies and sustainable systems is the early efforts of thoseworking in the bio-mimicry field such as Janine Benyus, Michael Pawlyn, William McDonoughand Michael Braungart. (Treehugger) Deep standards are, arguably. the basis for creation of“thick value” and the realisation of sustainable development.Effort – from narrow to the broad and deep The fourth cardinal value is the focused application of effort and energy. The expense ofenergy is ideally defined by: the aim of expressing and realising the company’s essential purpose(truth); to achieve lasting, profitable, harmonious relationships (respect); guided by highstandards that catalyse on-going cycles of improvement and refinement; through the disciplinedand economising expenditure of energy. A narrow approach to effort is aimed at the bare minimum exchange between thecompany and its markets to achieve short-term profitability. There is a concern to economise atthe expense of standards and relationships, and a primary concern with the analysis ofefficiencies related to productivity and outputs. In short – industrial age capital rationale. A broad approach to effort is, by degrees, shaped by the other three values. While theconcern for efficiencies remains, it is enriched by the concern for what one could call “righteffort” or the expense of energy that encompasses a more holistic outlook. The broad approach 19
  20. 20. would therefore not be content with production efficiencies that produce cars with faulty breaks,baby prams that harm the baby or products that may not harm but don’t satisfy. The subject ofeffort, work and economising is along with standards common currency in business circles.Going deep Deep effort achieves maximum well-being with minimal input. The deep approach toeffort, according to wisdom thinking, is that a company achieves an eventual leverage of effortthat delivers a great deal more than the energy expended. This is what is called “effortless effort”.Effortless effort can be likened to the results achieved with harmonic resonance, when energy oreffort is rhythmically added to a system in accord with system needs which produces an increaseof gains in energy. We did not identify any examples of companies that have achieved this holygrail of effort, although we did find examples of companies working their way through the broadand towards the effortless effort of the deep. Google and Apple incorporate the discipline (effort) of seeking to redefine their industry,in a manner that is unorthodox, painstaking and strategically long-term (effort). (Haque, Umair)One example of Google’s broad approach to effort is the discipline of continual productimprovement in response to stakeholder feedback. This system is so intrinsic to Google culturethat it is now known as “Google’s innovative eco-system”. (Lyer & Davenport) Apple may be a company that takes a broad approach to effort which borders on the deep.An example of this is Apple’s self-restraint, which Paul Nunes and Tim Breene remark is anapproach that too few other companies grasp as an essential element of success. This restraintmeans that Apple takes an austere approach to their product development, both in terms ofdesign that is functional, minimal and elegant, as well taking care to not introduce productsprematurely before they achieve Apple standards. Apple refers to this design strategy asachieving “threshold competence” before scaling. (Nunes & Breene) It seems that Apple hasgrasped yet another wisdom idea which is that for growth to be sustainable it must, by degrees,be gradual (an idea outside of the scope of this paper). In any case Apple recognises that“slowing down” is a important part of business discipline (effort). This gradual disciplined broadapproach is one of the “game changing ways in which Apple has set out to redesign its industry”.(Yoffi & Slind) 20
  21. 21. A Case Study that demonstrates all Four Values The foregoing highlights the application of the various values by Apple, Google andSouthwest. The premise of Cranmore Foundation is that companies that apply all four values aspart of holistic strategy should be demonstratively successful and sustainable, to the extent thatthe four values are present and mutually supportive. What follows is the example of WholeFoods, which appears to consciously apply these four values as part of their holistic strategy.[Note: we do not make any claim that Whole Foods has consciously applied the model orapproach outlined in this paper, although we can conjecture that they may have been inspired atleast in part by wisdom tradition ideas]. Whole Foods articulates their core truth in their motto: “Whole Food, Whole People,Whole Planet”. This statement identifies their essential purpose and function (truth); theirconcern for their relationships and the contribution they aim to make to them; and notably theirbroad (and potentially deep) approach to what they do. As such they begin with a broadperspective which Sisodia, Wolfe and Sheth define as “a vision beyond being just a food retailer”. Whole Foods demonstrates that their motto is not just a window-dressing missionstatement through their constant measurement of: customer satisfaction (respect); team memberexcellence (standards) and satisfaction (respect); and larger extended community satisfactionand support (respect). They affirm their core truth and build the basis for good employeerelations by hiring “foodies”. (Sisodia, Wolfe & Sheth) Their expressed aim to be an example of“excellence for food retailers” (Ibid) articulates the high standards that define their company.Further in their “‘Declaration of Interdependence’ (posted in every store and office) the companyacknowledges the idea that stakeholder groups constitute a family whose members depend onone another” (respect) (Ibid). In aiming for this, the declaration acknowledges that it’s a“dynamic process” that requires participation, …communication (respect), listeningcompassionately, thinking carefully (standards) and acting with integrity (truth). Whole Foods is committed to provide goods and services that improve its customer’slives (standards & respect); to provide jobs and meaningful work to employees (effort &respect); and to create wealth and profits to its investors (respect, truth, standards & effort)(Ibid) The company aims to meet all these concerns in a balanced manner through thoughtfuldiligent effort. 21
  22. 22. The company stays aligned to its core truth by keeping all four values alive and dynamic.But does all this ‘happy-talk’ pay off? Or is it just ‘feel-good’? The numbers tell the real story ofsustainable prosperity delivered by Whole Foods. Over the last ten years Whole Foods has proven to be a better bet for investors than anyof the five biggest grocers: Wal-Mart, Kroger, Albertsons, Safeway and Costco. Whole Foodshas returned 185% over the past three years, 400% over the past five (whereas the S&P 500 roseby only 13%), and 921% over the last ten years. From December 1995 to June 2006 WholeFoods returned over 1800%. By comparison “Wal-Mart has not added a nickel’s worth of valueto shareholder’s wealth in the past six years” [as at Feb 2007]. (Sisodia, Wolfe & Sheth) Whole Foods demonstrates that a broad approach to value-creation pays off. Thecompany is a good example, but not the only one (Apple, Southwest Airlines, Costco, CommerceBank, etc.) of companies that are taking a different approach to sustainable value creation. The question arises as to how companies working to the “thin value” model can “crossover to other side”? In the pen-ultimate section of this paper, we will explore the possibilities forapplying these values to an existing company. How could a company use these four values as aguide to achieve greater and sustainable profitability? Values Creating Value – A hypothetical application Meet Alpha Capital. Alpha is in the business of providing banking and financingservices to small and mid-cap businesses in the USA and Europe. Alpha addresses a part of themarket that is historically underserviced by big finance. It provides the same quality ofconsultative advice, services and a variety of financing products that are geared to the uniquerequirements of individual clients. The company is growing and its partners are thriving.Alpha’s Truth Alpha prides itself on “saying what they do and doing what they say”. In other wordsthey present themselves as straight-talking, if not blunt in their approach to dealing withcustomers. In doing so, Alpha thinks that customers will value this candid approach and willunderstand that such frankness is an expression of their respect for their relationships.Alpha’s Respect 22
  23. 23. In this area Alpha is typical of the banking industry which thinks of themselves as the“experts” whereas their clients are “less experienced” or “inexperienced” and thus do notunderstand the variety of deal structures and their nuanced differences and complexities. Assessing by reference to the four values model, it is therefore no surprise to learn thatAlpha scores low on the customer/stakeholder satisfaction scorecard. Their dissatisfaction istaken as “proof” of their lack of financial sophistication and thus Alpha is slow to learn from itsmistakes, such as when clients turn bitter and litigious. Starting out with a lack of respect fortheir clients gives them a patronising air that does little to solve the problem of mutually lowrespect between Alpha (truth) and its clients (respect/relationships). This lack of respect iscommonly known to be endemic in the banking industry. Alpha’s internal respect between management and employees is predictably weak, andthere are even considerable differences between managers about the style of approach to clientsand staff, where morale fluctuates in response to a mixture of strong handed management styleand blandishments of bonuses and increased income possibilities. The unspoken opinion of rankand file staff is that they are undervalued, and that the company “lacks compassion and empathy”.Alpha’s Standards In contrast to their respect score card, Alpha do quite well with standards, although theapplication is generally confined to a narrow approach. Alpha takes great concern in meeting high standards of execution with client financialtransactions. It also encourages a strong culture of continuous improvement and refinement inexecution and follow through, which along with a diverse product offering is a principle draw fornew clients. Alpha is rigorous in: assessing its success in delivering “good deals” to clients; inevaluating the precision of their products and deals; on its deal success-rate; and its internalprofitability.Alpha’s Effort Like many “thin value” model businesses, Alpha excels in this area. In areas likediscipline; economising; reduction of unwanted deals, staff or clients; it is successful. Alphacultivates a work-first approach to life for its employees, demands much from them, and is not 23
  24. 24. shy to push them in manner sometimes notably disrespectful. “It’s the culture” so its toleratedand even exulted as a symptom of a “winners-world”. And in terms of execution Alpha is a winner, again in a narrow sense. The company has awell-developed, strongly imbedded deal methodology. Precision is the name of the game, both interms of detail and execution. In this the company tends to place methods and outcome beforerelationships and so has sometimes earned a reputation for being “heavy-handed” andintimidating. Again, management excuses this as the result of having to do business with the“uninitiated” in the small and mid-cap markets. Nevertheless, Alpha endures because it delivershard sought financing to “needy markets” thanks its strong effort and methodology.Four Values Recommendations It is evident from the above that Alpha’s area of weakness and opportunity is withrelationships. If the company could extend its perception to encompass a broader approach, itwould likely find new markets and new opportunities. Further it could achieve its stated long-term goal of being the “market leader who is setting new standards for a new model of bankingthat services the little guy”. Alpha could redesign its approach to clients along the lines of Whole Foods by seeking toengage the client as a respected equal. It could potentially broaden its market reach by applyingthe same strict standards of execution, to ensuring that customers are satisfied, not just with thedeal but with the experience. In doing so Alpha could muster through referral an extendedcommunity of small and mid-sized businesses to their offering. To do this, Alpha could seek toengage their clients in a new broad-based model of engagement, assessing satisfaction withquestionnaires and interviews. Currently there is relatively little competition from companies modelled like Alpha, thattarget primarily small and mid-cap companies. However, it is likely that other companies willenter Alpha’s market. Assuming that they can provide a similar quality of products and services,they could garner Alpha’s market share by taking a four values approach to relationship building.This is potentially a threat to Alpha, one that they currently dismiss from their “market leader”point of view. 24
  25. 25. The above comments and suggestions for Alpha are based on a broader application of thefour values, which could arguably help Alpha create sustainable “thick value” success for itselfand its clients. Summary of paper and concluding comments Endemic super-wicked problems have created the basis for current ambiguity and crises.The challenges are unprecedented and require a new quality of thinking that can give context andperspective to a multiplicity of uncertainties. This paper argues that the logical and discursiveapproach is inadequate to solve these problems. As such business thinkers are exploring newsources of inspiration that can help us collectively reframe our notions of prosperity, away froma “thin value” model to a “thick value” model that is more inclusive and sustainable. Newsources of inspiration include aesthetics that improve and broaden customer’s experience,corporate social responsibility programs that respond to the demands for business to be moresocially harmonious, and the emergence of how spirituality and religion can contribute to a bettermore enlightened way of doing business. At the further reaches of these trends is the work of Cranmore Foundation which isresearching wisdom traditions to identify universal principles that can be crafted into designprinciples for use in business. Wisdom traditions may provide a new perspective that gives business a holistic outlookand context for how to meet current challenges and turn them into market opportunities.Achieving this is however, not a simple task. “This requires a step-by-step process of identifying,translating, reformulating and realising the inspiration of the wisdom traditions for practicalapplication in the daily activities of society and business. Each step in this process is essentialand adds its own value.” (Cranmore) It requires the contribution of: culture-bearers who areliving the tradition; scholars who can give historical and intellectual perspective on thesetraditions; ‘rhapsodic thinkers’ who can reformulate universal principles into a languageunderstandable to those outside of the original culture; designers who can craft these principlesinto design principles for practical application in business; and lastly business leaders who areinspired to apply them for the creation of a new quality of “thick value-based” business. (Ibid) 25
  26. 26. This paper has presented the early by-product of this five-step process as a model thatidentifies what is required to create vital, sustainable companies. Despite the fact that the fourvalues model is still being researched, tested and developed, it does demonstrate the potentialuseful applicability of ancient wisdom in helping give us strategic context by introducing newcriteria, that gives new focus and prompts us to fundamentally rethink the viability of existingmodels. Wisdom traditions are a potential resource and provide inspiration for empowering ourability to respond to crises and create viable, sustainable alternatives. Appendix A – The Dharma Model The four values model outlined in this paper has its origin in the Puranic literatures ofIndia. Specifically the model appears in the Bhagavat Purana which describes them as the fouressential criteria for the creation and support of Dharma. Dharma is a Sanskrit word that is taken from the root word, dhri, which means “tosustain”, “to uphold”, “to preserve” and “to prosper”. It also refers to “natural law” or the“natural order of things”. In modern vernacular it is often translated as “religion” or “duty”. “Theetymology of dhri can be traced back to the Rig Veda to the root word rta, which means“nature’s way” and the implicit “order in nature”. Rta resembles the Chinese concept of Tao andthe Heraclitan, Stoic or Christian conceptions of the logos. Dharma is thus thought of as the stateof acting in harmony with all existence. According to the Isopanisad, when one achieves such astate, they achieve a durable condition that sustains and preserves. (Swami, AC Bhaktivedanta) 26
  27. 27. (Cranmore Foundation ©2009) e ) The four valu are transl T ues lated and int terpreted from the follow m wing Sanskri words, Sat it tya(truth), Ahimsa (respect), Sauca (standards) and Tapasya (effort). A ( a a The root word for Satya is sat, which means etern true, exi T d i h nal, isting, endur ring, authent tic,and so on It also im n. mplies knowle edge, learnin education and wisdo ng, n om. Ahimsa is a compound word based on himsa whic means “v A n ch violence”. Pl lacing the let tter‘a’ befor himsa give ahimsa meaning non-violence. Th word ahim has two meanings, t re es m he msa theexplicit proscription to “do no ha p arm” and imp plicit prescri iption to “do most good” The word o ”. drecognise the natura human ten es al ndency to ach hieve one’s e ends by disc cordant mean hence the ns eadmonition of non-vi iolence. Its dual meaning thus advoc d g cates taking an empathet approach to tic hdealing with others and the world at large. It also means compassion w a d n. Sauca means purity, clean S nliness, clari and whol ity lesomeness. The word im mplies the m meansby which the state of clarity is ac h f chieved. It is the criteria for eliminat s ting the unw wanted andrealising refinement. Sauca also means “with hout blemish h”. Tapasya is also a compou word der T und rived from t root word tapa which means fire the d h e.Tapasya means the wilful accept w tance of aust terity to achi ieve a higher aim. Implic in the wo is r cit ordthe idea of renunciati of doing without, simplicity or r o ion, g reducing thi ings to their essential ele ement.Tapasya prescribes focused actio with the im f on mplicit obje ctive of a higher minded outcome. A d Assuch, it also means sa a acrifice or te emperance. In simple ter tapasya is the wilful expenditure of I rms l eeffort to achieve one’s goals. It is the discipli through w s ine which one e excels. 27
  28. 28. The concepts of narrow, broad and deep resonate with the Vedic idea of the gunas, aSanskrit word which means “modes of nature”, “conditions of nature”, “qualitative energy”, and“qualitative states of being”. In Sanskrit the three modes are called sattva, rajas and tamas. Theyare the primary colours of “qualitative influence” that mix together and vie with one another tocreate the full colour spectrum of possible material condition and experience. Sattva is derived from the root word sat, again meaning that which is real, lasting andtrue. Sattva corresponds to the deep approach, because it represents harmony, goodness,nurturing, clarity and durability. Sattvic qualities are conducive to sustainable systems. Theiconography of sattva is related to the deity of Vishnu who sustains and maintains everything.Sattva is the state of harmonious equilibrium. Rajas is the mode of action, doing, creating and giving life. Its iconography is the deityBrahma who creates the universe. Rajas is progressive but unstable, energetic but changeable,expansive but prone to degradation. Rajas relates to the early stages of a broad approach. Mixedwith Sattva, Rajas creates the conditions related to a genuine broad approach. Tamas relates to the narrow approach because of its innate tendency toward entropy andreduction. Tamas is the mode of reduction, elimination and destruction. Its iconography is thedeity of Shiva who is responsible for destroying the universe at the end of time. Tamas is meagre,limiting, and destructive. Its positive purpose is to clear away the old to make way for the new. The above seven universal principles are found throughout the Vedic and Puranicliteratures and have resonance with Chinese thinking, especially that of Tao. Acknowledgements I would like to thank Prof Silverman for giving me the latitude to work with CranmoreFoundation to write this paper. I would like to thank Cranmore Foundation for providingresearch material on the subject. Specifically I want to acknowledge Associate Prof Bert Mulderof the University of Den Haag for agreeing to advise me and to Dr Michael Geary of CranmoreFoundation who provided lecture time, mentoring and editing assistance with this paper. 28
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