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The Project Management Process - Week 5

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Week 5 in the course - this time on marketing and how it relates to projects.

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The Project Management Process - Week 5

  1. 1. Project Management 4. Marketing and Project Management
  2. 2. week 5
  3. 3. Anthony F. Tardugno; Thomas R. DiPasquale; Robert E. Matthews (2000) IT Services: Costs, Metrics, Benchmarking, and Marketingby Prentice Hall, ISBN-10: 0-13-019195-7Print ISBN-13: 978-0-13-019195-3, Chapter 5 James Cadle and Donald Yeates (2004) Project Management for Information Systems , Pearson Education, ISBN 0 273 68580 5, Chapter 17
  4. 4. <ul><li>Why is marketing important? </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>What is Marketing? </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution of Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Market Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Marketing Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing Research </li></ul><ul><li>Selling the Project </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>What is Marketing? </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is Marketing? <ul><li>Marketing is a process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is Marketing? Plan & Execute Exchange Satisfaction Conception Pricing Promotion Distribution People & Organisations Goods and Services
  9. 9. 8
  10. 10. Selling Buying Exchange
  11. 11. Distribution Transport Storage Selling Buying
  12. 12. Selling Buying Transport Storage Facilitating functions Finance Risk Taking Standardize Gather Market Info
  13. 13. Selling Buying Transport Storage Finance Gather Market Info 8 Standardize Risk Taking
  14. 15. The marketing mix Price Promotion Product Place
  15. 16. The marketing mix Price Promotion Product Place People Process Physicals
  16. 17. The marketing mix Price Promotion Product Place People Process Physicals Personalization Peer to Peer Participation Predictive models
  17. 18. <ul><li>2. Evolution of Marketing </li></ul>
  18. 19. 19C WW1 20’s 30’s WW2 50’s 60’s 70’s 80’s 90’s Now Advertising industry develops Customer orientation What Next? Industrial Revolution Demand outpaced supply Production exceeds supply Marketing Mix (4 Ps)
  19. 20. Figure 11.2 Evolution of the customer orientation (Pride, Hughes & Kapoor, 1998, p321) 20’s 30’s 50’s 60’s 19C Now
  20. 21. Permission marketing Now
  21. 22. <ul><li>The Marketing Concept </li></ul><ul><li>is a </li></ul><ul><li>business philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>that involves the </li></ul><ul><li>entire organization </li></ul><ul><li>in the </li></ul><ul><li>process of satisfying </li></ul><ul><li>customers needs </li></ul><ul><li>while achieving organizational goals </li></ul>
  22. 23. The American Marketing Association (AMA) states, &quot;Marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders.”
  23. 24. <ul><li>3. Implementing Marketing </li></ul>
  24. 25. Is Your Business &quot;Sales&quot; or &quot;Marketing&quot; Driven? By Les Altenberg
  25. 27. Understand potential and existing customers Identify their wants and needs Look at the market – are their needs being met? Can you deliver the goods? Can you do it well, fast or cheap? How do customers feel about your brand image? Look at specific customer stories Mobilize your resources Build and sell your product
  26. 29. <ul><li>Organizations need to reflect on implementation of marketing concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can the product be improved? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is it being promoted properly? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is it being distributed efficiently? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the price too high? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make modifications on basis of this feedback </li></ul></ul>
  27. 30. <ul><li>4. Market Classification </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>A group of individuals, organizations, or both that have needs for products in a given category and the ability, willingness, and authority to purchase such products </li></ul>What is a Market?
  29. 32. There are different types of markets Consumer Reseller Industrial Producer Government Institutional
  30. 33. Consumer Purchasers and/or household members who intent to consume or benefit from the purchased products and who do not buy products in order to make a profit Consumer Reseller Industrial Producer Government Institutional
  31. 34. Industrial Purchases products for use in day-to-day operations or in making other products for profit. Producers consist of individuals and business organizations that intend to make a profit by buying certain products to use in the manufacture of other products Governments at all levels, purchase goods and services to maintain operations and to provide citizens with products such as roads, education, water, defense And institutional organizations include churches, civic clubs, charitable groups. Not driven by profit, ROI Consumer Reseller Industrial Producer Government Institutional
  32. 35. Resellers consist of intermediaries such as wholesalers, and retailers who buy finished products and sell them for profit. Consumer Reseller Industrial Producer Government Institutional
  33. 36. <ul><li>For the IT organization marketing entails knowing primary internal markets </li></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>enterprise executives </li></ul>
  35. 38. <ul><li>operation and line managers </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>work-area managers </li></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>Production/end users </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>You need to predict their requirements, develop feedback mechanisms for performance, and services relevant to the group </li></ul>
  39. 42. For example
  40. 43. <ul><li>Marketing to enterprise executives should focus on governance issues </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g., decision making, funding, metrics, and architecture) </li></ul>
  41. 44. <ul><li>Marketing to managers should focus on the changes and possibilities caused by IT's impact on business and the business's impact on IT </li></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>5. Developing Marketing Strategies </li></ul>
  43. 46. <ul><li>A Marketing Strategy is a plan that will enable an organization to make the best use of its resources </li></ul>
  44. 47. <ul><li>Marketing Strategies consist of </li></ul><ul><li>selection and analysis of target market </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>creation and maintenance of an appropriate marketing mix. </li></ul>
  45. 48. <ul><li>A target market is a group of persons for whom a firm develops and maintains a marketing mix suitable for their specific needs and preferences </li></ul>
  46. 49. <ul><li>How to select a Target Market </li></ul>
  47. 50. <ul><li>Examine potential markets for effects on sales, costs and profits </li></ul>
  48. 51. <ul><li>Determine if you have sufficient resources to produce marketing mix </li></ul>
  49. 52. <ul><li>Ensure fit with the organization’s overall objectives </li></ul>
  50. 53. <ul><li>Analyze strength and number of competitor already selling </li></ul>
  51. 54. <ul><li>Take either total market approach or market segmentation approach </li></ul>
  52. 55. Figure 11.3 General approaches for selecting target markets (Pride, Hughes & Kapoor, 1998, p324)
  53. 56. <ul><li>Creating a Marketing Mix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common to use a wide variety of segmentation bases (see Table 11.2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations control important elements of marketing which must combine in a way to reach the target market (marketing mix) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations can vary elements of the marketing mix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>product; design, brand name, packaging … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>price; base price, discounts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>distribution; storage, transportation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>promotion; information </li></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 57. (Pride, Hughes & Kapoor, 1998, p325)
  55. 58. Figure 11.4 The marketing mix and the marketing environment (Pride, Hughes & Kapoor, 1998, p327)
  56. 59. <ul><li>6. Marketing Research </li></ul>
  57. 60. <ul><li>Marketing Research is the process of systematically gathering, recording and analyzing data concerning a particular marketing problem </li></ul>
  58. 61. <ul><li>Conducting marketing research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>define the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make a preliminary investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plan the research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gather factual information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interpret the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reach a conclusion </li></ul></ul>
  59. 62. Figure 11.5 Marketing information system (Pride, Hughes & Kapoor, 1998, p331)
  60. 63. <ul><li>Marketing Trends – Effect on IT Industry? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth in prime spending group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline in teenage population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in the number of senior citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better educated population, with greater purchasing power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater number of women working </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter workweek; more leisure time </li></ul></ul>
  61. 64. <ul><li>7. Selling the Project </li></ul>
  62. 65. <ul><li>Buying and Buyers </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows buyers go through identified stages when they buy </li></ul>
  63. 66. Figure 17.1 The buying cycle (Cadle & Yates, 2005, p280)
  64. 67. <ul><li>Systems development projects have buying committees and don’t often follow the stages </li></ul>
  65. 68. <ul><li>Committee buying influences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>economic decision maker; authority to spend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technical experts; evaluate merit of solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>end-users; indirect effect on purchase, concerned about affect on them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>champion or coach; assist in preparing solution </li></ul></ul>
  66. 69. Selling is an asking process
  67. 70. <ul><ul><li>People who are most successful in selling systems development project or consultancy assignments ask lots of questions </li></ul></ul>
  68. 71. <ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>customer’s situation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>customer’s problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>implications of problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>payoff or benefit from meeting the needs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  69. 72. <ul><li>Prepare proposal for a potential buyer. </li></ul><ul><li>When assessing proposals you should include: </li></ul><ul><li>terms of reference </li></ul><ul><li>technical details of the solution </li></ul><ul><li>outlines advantages </li></ul><ul><li>aimed at all readers/buyers </li></ul><ul><li>clear diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>cross-references and navigational aids </li></ul><ul><li>summarized statement of costs </li></ul><ul><li>executive summary </li></ul>
  70. 73. Who is the Target Market?
  71. 78. Review <ul><li>Marketing approaches have developed from a product-orientation to a customer-orientation – IT industry slow to catch on . </li></ul><ul><li>Markets are groups that have needs for products and can be classified as; consumer, industrial, and reseller. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing strategy is a plan to make the best use of resources, and consists of the target market, and marketing mix. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing research can provide valuable information such as; education, retirement age, birth rates etc… to project managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Buyers progress through stages when they buy, these include; need, options, concerns, implementation and change. Large IT projects have buying committees. </li></ul><ul><li>Selling is a process of asking, and includes creation of proposal for buyer includes; terms, details, advantages, diagrams etc… </li></ul>
  72. 79. Next Week References Pride, W., Hughes, R. & Kapoor, J. Business (2nd ed.). Boston, MA.: Houghton Mifflin. Gray & Larson, 2006, Ch 10. Reading: Project Leadership. Topic:
  73. 80.
  74. 81. <ul><li>Title page pic care of rick & CC @ Flickr </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
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Week 5 in the course - this time on marketing and how it relates to projects.


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