UX For Digital Humanists: A Primer

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In today’s technology-driven world, digital projects are not judged by how fast or attractive they are but rather by their ability to consistently offer memorable and engaging experiences for users. In this workshop, attendees will learn the key concepts and methods of User Experience (UX) and how a combination of design thinking and experience-centered strategy can help researchers and practitioners create digital tools that consistently engage users on both cognitive and emotional levels. Held as part of 2016 #NYCDHweek.

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UX For Digital Humanists: A Primer

  1. 1. User Experience For Digital Humanists: A Primer Craig  M.  MacDonald,  Ph.D.   Pratt  Institute   February  11,  2016  
  2. 2. About Me Full-­‐time  assistant  professor  in  the  School  of   Information  at  Pratt   Ph.D.  in  Human-­‐Computer  Interaction  from   Drexel  University   Developed  and  coordinate  UX  program     Provide  UX  consulting  for  various   organizations,  including  cultural  heritage   institutions,  media  companies,  and  start-­‐ups  
  3. 3. Workshop Goals 1)  To  break  down  the  concept  of  user   experience  and  provide  a  framework  for   thinking  and  talking  about  it.   2)  To  explain  the  user  experience  process  and   help  you  develop  strategies  to  employ  UX   methods/tools  more  effectively  in  your   projects.  
  4. 4. UX Design Challenge Interactive  Exercise  
  5. 5. 5   Interactive  Exercise   UX Design Challenge Step 1: Design Form  groups  of  3-­‐4  people  each.     On  the  next  slide,  you’ll  be  presented  with  a  design   challenge.       Each  group  will  have  10  minutes  to  sketch  a  design   solution.  
  6. 6. 6   Interactive  Exercise   UX Design Challenge Step 1: Design Challenge:   A  device  to  control  the  smart  home  of  the   future.   10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  7. 7. 7   Interactive  Exercise   UX Design Challenge Step 2: Discuss How  did  you  approach  the  challenge  at  the  start?     How  did  your  approach  –  and  your  design  –  change  once   you  focused  on  a  specific  user  group?     What  did  we  learn  about  UX  from  this  exercise?  
  8. 8. Case Studies What  can  we  learn?  
  9. 9. Case Study #1 Music  Start-­‐Up  
  10. 10. The Background Entrepreneur  with  love  of  music  and  strong   programming  skills.     Spent  10+  months  coding  a  database-­‐driven   website  that  automatically  pulled  music-­‐related   content  from  Wikipedia,  Spotify,  YouTube,   Setlist.fm,  last.fm,  etc.     Wanted  the  site  to  be:   •  A  music  encyclopedia   •  A  music  discovery/recommendation  engine   •  A  music-­‐based  social  network     Case Study #1
  11. 11. The Set-Up Client  wanted  some  UX  expertise,  so  approached   me  to  do  some  usability  testing  of  the  website.   •  Just  before  testing,  hired  a  graphic  designer  to  create   a  more  attractive  and  polished  UI.     We  tested  the  site  with  5  music  experts  (the  target   audience).     We  found  all  users  thought  the  UI  was  clean  and   attractive,  but…   Case Study #1
  12. 12. The Results Some  information  was  missing/incorrect,   leading  users  to  doubt  its  credibility  as  an   encyclopedia.   All  users  tried  and  failed  to  find  artists  or  songs   they  hadn’t  heard  before,  leading  them  to   doubt  its  reliability  as  a  music  discovery   service.   Nobody  was  interested  in  connecting  with   other  users  on  the  site,  leading  users  to   ignore  the  social  network  aspects.     Case Study #1
  13. 13. Case Study #2 Crowdsourcing     Platform  
  14. 14. The Background Ongoing  project  aimed  at  using  linked  open  data  to   provide  an  authoritative  resource  for  scholars  and   researchers  to  learn  more  about  musicians  and  their   connections.     Had  an  existing  database  containing  transcripts  of   interviews  with  famous  musicians  talking  about  their   music  background  and  musicians  they  knew.       Created  a  platform  where  users  could  read  through  a   these  transcripts  and  record  the  types  of  musician   relationships  described  by  the  interview.   Case Study #2
  15. 15. The Set-Up The  platform  was  fully  built  and  implemented,   but  was  still  in  the  beta  testing  phase.     They  wanted  to  know  how  usable  the  interface   was  so  they  could  release  it  to  the  public  and   begin  crowdsourcing  the  information  they   needed.   Case Study #2
  16. 16. The Results Most  participants  said  the  site  was  pleasant  to   use,  but:   •  They  struggled  with  basic  functionality  (e.g.,   logging  in  or  registering).   •  They  didn’t  fully  understand  the  workflow  (and   were  unable  to  view  the  tutorial  more  than   once).   •  They  had  difficulty  navigating  the  transcripts   and  figuring  out  how  to  assign  relationships.   •  They  were  confused  about  when  their  tasks   began  and  ended  and  were  unsure  if  their   contributions  were  being  recorded.   Case Study #2
  17. 17. Key Lessons If  providing  great  experiences  isn’t   your  first  priority,  you’ll  lose.  1 Music Start-Up Crowdsourcing Platform Site  was  trying  to  be  too  many   things  to  too  many  people     The  components  were  poorly   conceived  and  disconnected     No  coherent  experience  for  users;   what  was  the  site  trying  to  be?   Didn’t  design  basic  functions     Focused  on  the  end  goal  for  the   researchers,  not  the  actual   experience  of  the  users     The  experience  was  OK  and  users   weren’t  sure  if  they’d  come  back  
  18. 18. There’s  no  such  thing  as  thinking   about  UX  too  early  or  too  often.  2 Key Lessons Music Start-Up Crowdsourcing Platform Started  development  too  early     Focused  on  look/feel  without   considering  usability     Features  trumped  user  needs  and   experiences   Didn’t  do  usability  testing  until   the  end  of  the  project     Ignored  some  standard  usability   best  practices     Had  no  other  mechanisms  to   assess  the  user  experience  
  19. 19. Key Lessons If  providing  great  experiences  isn’t   your  first  priority,  you’ll  lose.  1 There’s  no  such  thing  as  thinking   about  UX  too  early  or  too  often.  2 Think  about  UX  from  the  product  perspective   Think  about  UX  from  the  process  perspective  
  20. 20. What does a great user experience look like? What does great User Experience look like? -­‐  and  -­‐   (product)   (process)  
  21. 21. What does a great user experience look like? Part  I  
  22. 22. UX  is  often  thought  of   as  a  property  of  an   interface:     “This  app  has  a   great  UX!”     “This  website’s  UX   is  terrible!”  
  23. 23. Is that really accurate? For  a  long  time,  usability  was  the  defining   property  of  an  interface:  it  was  either  usable  or   not.   This  conclusion  was  reached  through  an   (occasionally)  rigorous  process  of  usability   evaluation.   •  Are  users  able  to  complete  tasks  with  effectiveness,   efficiency,  and  satisfaction?   •  Is  the  interface  sufficiently  easy  to  learn  and  use?   •  Are  there  minimal  errors  and  are  these  errors  easy  to   recover  from?     SOURCE:     http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2011/03/15/why-­‐user-­‐experience-­‐cannot-­‐be-­‐designed/  
  24. 24. UX is not usability As  the  industry  shifted  away  from  “usability”  and   toward  “UX”  as  its  main  focus,  it  was  seen  by  some  as   merely  a  change  in  terminology.     But,  UX  is  not  just  a  new  buzzword  for  usability:  it  is   an  entirely  new  paradigm.   •  Usability:  find  and  fix  problems  that  prevent  people  from   doing  what  they  want  to  do   •  UX:  design  interfaces  that  are  pleasurable  and  engaging   to  use     UX  is  “designing  for  pleasure,  rather  than  absence  of   pain.”     SOURCE:     Hassenzahl  &  Tractinsky  (2006).  User  experience  –  a  research  agenda.  Behaviour  &  Information  Technology,  25(2),  91-­‐97.  
  25. 25. “Your  [product’s]  customers  aren't  won   over  by  features.  They're  won  over  by   the  product  experience...If  you  don’t   focus  on  the  core  experience,  and   instead  create  a  wide  but  shallow   product,  you’ll  find  your  users  lost,   confused,  or  bored,  and,  more  than   likely  ready  to  walk  away.”   -­‐  Lee  Dale,  UX  Magazine   Is UX a product?
  26. 26. This is a product
  27. 27. “User  Experience  Design  somehow  suggests  that  a  designer   has  direct  control  over  how  every  user  experiences  the   product.  A  massive  exaggeration…Design  defines   experience,  it  doesn’t  control  it.  Used  like  this,  ‘User   Experience  Design’  is  a  big  promise  that  cannot  be  kept.”   -­‐  Oliver  Reichenstein,  Information  Architects  Inc.   Products are designed
  28. 28. This is not a product
  29. 29. “User  Experience  is  just  a  sub-­‐ category  of  experience,  focusing  on   a  particular  mediator...[Experience   Design]  is  the  question  of  how  to   deliberately  create  and  shape   experiences.”   -­‐  Marc  Hassenzahl,  Folkwang  University  of  Arts   Experiences are shaped
  30. 30. UX is an outcome You  can’t  design  an  experience.   You  can  only  design  for  an  experience.  
  31. 31. This is a product
  32. 32. This is an outcome
  33. 33. Outcomes are holistic
  34. 34. Outcomes are multi- faceted
  35. 35. “You  can't   experience  the   experience  until   you  experience  it.”   -­‐  Bill  Moggridge,  IDEO   Outcomes are specific
  36. 36. So, an experience is a holistic, multi-faceted outcome resulting from an interaction with a product. We  can’t  design  the  experience.     We  can  only  design  the  product.   (which,  in  turn,  provides  the  experience)  
  37. 37. “I  bet  a  lot  of  people  worked  really  hard  on  this  tool,  so   I’ll  cut  them  some  slack  if  something  doesn’t  work   exactly  the  way  I  want  it  to  work.”   -­‐  Nobody,  ever   Users are demanding
  38. 38. “This  interface  doesn’t  provide  a  good  user  experience,   but  that’s  OK  –  I’ll  still  keep  coming  back  to  it  because   there’s  no  where  else  I  can  go  to  get  what  I  need.”   -­‐  Nobody,  ever   Users are fickle
  39. 39. Q: So, what does a great user experience look like?
  40. 40. 1 When  the  interface  is   Useful
  41. 41. Usefulness means... It  fits  the  user’s  context;   it  addresses  a  need  that   actually  exists   It  works;  it  helps  users   do  something  they  need   to  do  
  42. 42. Fit the context; what is context? Context  is  an  analytical  construct  applying  to   those  phenomena  that:     a.  surround  a  given  focal  event,     b.  are  relevant  to  that  focal  event,  and     c.  are  liable  to  enter  into  dynamic  interplay  with   that  focal  event     Source:  Connolly,  Chamberlain,  and  Phillips   (2008)   Usefulness  
  43. 43. User   Task   Tool   Environment   Diagram  adapted  from  Shackel,  1991.   Context is everything* *Technically,  context  is  everything  that  matters   Usefulness  
  44. 44. What can we design? Context  is  the  intersection  of:   – The  user(s)     their  needs,  behaviors,  backgrounds,   expectations,  etc.   – Their  task(s)   what  users  are  trying  to  do   – Their  environment   where,  why,  and  how  users  are  trying  to   complete  their  task   – The  tool   what  users  need  to  use  to  complete  the   task(s)   Can’t     be  designed   Can     be  designed   Usefulness  
  45. 45. User   Task   Environment   “We  can  design  the  product...[but]  we  can  shape  neither  our   users’  expectations  nor  the  situation  in  which  they  use  what   we  have  designed.”   -­‐  Helge  Fredheim,  Smashing  Magazine   Only the tool is designed Tool   Usefulness  
  46. 46. The perpetual challenge of UX User  experience  is  not   about  the  inner   workings  of  a  product   or  service.     User  experience  is  about   how  it  works  on  the   outside,  where  a   person  comes  into   contact  with  it.     Everything  the  user   experiences  should  be   the  result  of  a  conscious   decision  on  your  part.   SOURCE:     The  Elements  of  UX  (2nd  Edition)   Design   Model   Designer   System   Image   System   User   Model   User   Where  the   product  is   experienced   Where  the   product  is   designed   Usefulness  
  47. 47. You are NOT your user! YOU   NOT   YOU   SOURCE:     Danielle  Gobert  Cooley.  http://www.slideshare.net/dgcooley/introduction-­‐to-­‐ux-­‐methods   Usefulness  
  48. 48. The UX Mantra:   Know  The  User   (and  his/her  context)     Usefulness  
  49. 49. How? Through empathy   “…understanding  an  other  or  more  specifically,   ‘knowing  the  user’  in  their  lived  and  felt  life   involves  understanding  what  it  feels  like  to  be   that  person,  what  their  situation  is  like  from   their  own  perspective.  In  short,  it  involves   empathy.”   -­‐  McCarthy  &  Wright  (2008)   Usefulness  
  50. 50. Understanding and Respect Recognizing,  perceiving,  and  feeling  the  emotion   of  another;  i.e.,  ‘walking  in  another’s  shoes’     According  to  Wright  and  McCarthy,  design   empathy  is  therefore  the  establishment  of  a   “personal  connection  between  the  designer  and   the  user  that  facilitates  seeing  and   understanding  users  from  their  own   position  and  perspective  as  people  with   feelings  rather  than  test  subjects.”     Usefulness  
  51. 51. How do you know your users? Involve  them  in  your  design  process!     Users  as  Designers  (Participatory  Design)   •  Include  users  as  members  of  the  design  team.   Users  as  Contributors   •  Continuously  consult  users  for  feedback.   Users  as  Informers   •  Uses  knowledge  about  users  to  inform  design   decisions;  may  not  involve  real  users  at  all.   Usefulness  
  52. 52. Asking users? “If  I  had  asked  people  what  they   wanted,  they  would  have  said   faster  horses.”   -­‐  Quote  falsely  attributed  to  Henry  Ford   Usefulness  
  53. 53. Listening, not asking You’re  listening  to  learn   what  your  users’  pain   points  and  frustrations   are  and  what  kinds  of   things  they  enjoy  and  take   pleasure  in.   Once  you  understand   that,  you  can  then  design   a  truly  useful  solution  for   them.   Usefulness  
  54. 54. 2 When  the  interface  is   Usable
  55. 55. Usability means... It  is  easy  to  learn;  users   can  figure  out  what  it   does  and  how  it  works   It  is  easy  to  use;  users   can  do  things  quickly   and  without  frustration  
  56. 56. The key to usability is... Simplicity   FALSE     To  make  something  simple,  you   have  to  reduce  the  number  of   features.   Instead,  we  want  things  that  do  a   lot,  but  do  not  confuse.   Usability  
  57. 57. The key to usability is... Understandability   Usability  
  58. 58. Guiding Design Principles Functional  Minimalism   •  The  range  of  possible  actions  should  be  more  than  is  absolutely   necessary;  break  complex  tasks  into  manageable  sub-­‐tasks  and  limit   functions  to  only  those  that  are  needed.   Functional  Layering   •  Make  the  most  common  or  important  functions  the  easiest  to  find;   consider  using  default  or  preset  choices  for  new  users  and  shortcuts   for  advanced  users.   Cognitive  Load   •  Reduce  the  amount  of  thinking  a  user  has  to  do;  let  computers  do   what  they  are  good  at:  math,  memory,  tracking  things,  comparing   things,  spell-­‐checking.   Error  Prevention  &  Recovery   •  Prevent  errors  using  constraints  and  clear  instructions,  but  also   provide  clearly  marked  ways  to  recover  from  errors  (which  are   unavoidable).   SOURCE:     http://shortboredsurfer.com/2010/08/11-­‐principles-­‐of-­‐interaction-­‐design-­‐explained/   Usability  
  59. 59. Speak the users’ language SOURCE:     http://www.nngroup.com/articles/navigation-­‐cognitive-­‐strain/   Usability  
  60. 60. Group things together SOURCE:     http://www.nngroup.com/articles/form-­‐design-­‐white-­‐space/   Usability  
  61. 61. Distinguish between actions SOURCE:     http://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2012/05/7-­‐basic-­‐best-­‐practices-­‐for-­‐buttons.php   Usability  
  62. 62. Give meaningful feedback Usability  
  63. 63. Offer shortcuts for experts Usability  
  64. 64. 3 When  the  interface  is   Desirable
  65. 65. Desirability means... It  is  appealing;  it  is   attractive  and  looks  like   something  users  want   It  is  engaging;  users   have  positive  memories   from  using  it  
  66. 66. Make it aesthetically pleasing Desirability  
  67. 67. SOURCE:     All  screenshots  from  Little  Big  Details:  http://littlebigdetails.com   Make it convenient Desirability  
  68. 68. SOURCE:     All  screenshots  from  Little  Big  Details:  http://littlebigdetails.com   Make it personal Desirability  
  69. 69. SOURCE:     All  screenshots  from  Little  Big  Details:  http://littlebigdetails.com   Make it fun Desirability  
  70. 70. A: When the product/service is: Q: So, what does a great user experience look like? Useful•  Does  it  match  users’  needs?   •  Does  it  actually  work?   Usable•  Is  it  easy  to  learn?   •  Is  it  easy  to  use?   Desirable•  Is  it  appealing?   •  Is  it  engaging?  
  71. 71. Usefulness   Usability   Desirability   UX  
  72. 72. Usability   Desirability   Usefulness   UX
  73. 73. What does great User Experience look like? Part  II  
  74. 74. Ignorance is not bliss Every  tool  provides   an  experience   regardless  of  how   much  time,  energy,   and  resources  are   put  putting  into   shaping  it.  
  75. 75. UX as a process “Great  user  experience   is  about  translating   user  goals  and   business  needs  into   compelling  stories”   -­‐  Patrick  Neeman   ?
  76. 76.  1  Computer  designed  by  buzzyrobot  from  the  thenounproject.com   What we design
  77. 77.  1  Computer  designed  by  buzzyrobot  from  the  thenounproject.com   2  Watch  designed  by  la-­‐fabrique-­‐créative  from  the  thenounproject.com   3  Check-­‐List  designed  by  Arthur  Shlain  from  the  thenounproject.com   How we design Create   What we do to learn Research   What we do to measure Assess   What we make
  78. 78. UX is not just a process “[UX]  strategy  is  about  uncovering  the   key  challenges  in  a  situation  and   devising  a  way  of  coordinating  effort  to   overcome  them  for  a  desired  outcome.”   -­‐Jim  Kalbach  
  79. 79. UX is a mindset You  can’t  just  follow  a  series  of  steps.   It’s  an  approach;  a  way  of  thinking.  
  80. 80. This is a process Sketch   Wireframe   Prototype   Develop   Create   Plan   Measure   Analyze   Report   Assess  Research   Plan   Gather   Analyze   Report  
  81. 81. This is a mindset Sketch   Wireframe   Prototype   Develop   Create   Plan   Measure   Analyze   Report   Assess  Research   Plan   Gather   Analyze   Report   Ask  the  right   question(s)  at  the   right  time   Make  the  right   stuff,  with  the   right  amount  of   detail   Collect  data  to   confirm  you’re   making  the  right   stuff  
  82. 82. UX Usability Testing is     not  
  83. 83. just ^ UX Usability Testing is     not  
  84. 84. “…an  approach  that  puts  human  needs,   capabilities,  and  behavior  first,  then  designs  to   accommodate  those  needs,  capabilities,  and  ways   of  behaving.”   -­‐  Don  Norman   It is human-centered
  85. 85. “Enlightened  trial  and  error   succeeds  over  the  planning  of   the  lone  genius.”   -­‐Peter  Skillman  (IDEO)   It is planned
  86. 86. “[UX]  is  a  practice  that,  when   done  empirically,  provides  a   much  better  chance  of  a   successful  digital  product   than  just  crossing  your   fingers,  designing  some   wireframes,  then  writing  a   bunch  of  code.”   -­‐Jaime  Levy   It is de-risking
  87. 87. “I  think  the  overt  message  of  'fail  fast'  is  actually  better   framed  as  'experiment  fast.'  The  most  effective  innovators   succeed  through  experimentation…by  stepping  out  of  the   lab  and  interacting  directly  with  customers,  running   thoughtful  experiments,  and  executing  them  quickly  to   learn  quickly  what  works  and  what  doesn’t.”   -­‐Victor  Lombardi   It is failing quickly
  88. 88. “How  little  design  can  I  do,  how  little  can  I  invest  in   developing  the  thing  and  how  quickly  can  I  learn   something  about  this  [so]  that  I  can  change  something   immediately…and…do  it  different  or  better  the  next  time   I  design?”   -­‐Randy  Hunt   It is failing safely
  89. 89. It is failing smartly “If  the  person  with  the  big  hunch  is  wrong  and  we  don’t   find  out  till  after  the  money  is  gone,  then  we  have  failed   …And  because  this  is  the  infancy  stage  of  our  product   vision,  we  don’t  want  to  get  too  attached  to  any  ideas  –   especially  without  proper  validation  that  real  customers   will  really  want  our  solution.”   -­‐Jaime  Levy  
  90. 90. “Inexpensive  and  iterative   prototyping  is  a  sure  fire  way  to   save  time  and  money  during   implementation...[and  user   research]  should  help  you   avoid  missing  the  mark  during   product  or  service  creation   which  could  [also]  save   significant  amounts  of  money.”   -­‐JD  Moore   Why? To save resources
  91. 91. Q: So, what does great User Experience look like?
  92. 92. It is grounded Are  you  sure  you’re   solving  real  problems  for   real  people?   Are  you  skeptical  and   willing  to  test  key   assumptions?  
  93. 93. It is deliberate Are  you  taking  steps  to   make  sure  you’re  headed   down  the  right  path?   Are  you  investing  the   right  amounts  of  time   and  money?  
  94. 94. It is iterative Are  you  regularly  testing   to  make  sure  it’s  on  the   right  track?   Are  you  using  test   results  to  fix  things  and   drive  improvements?  
  95. 95. A: When your mindset is: Q: So, what does great User Experience look like? Grounded•  Do  you  know  you’re  meeting  actual  needs  of  real  people?   •  Do  you  use  data  to  test  key  assumptions/hypotheses?   Deliberate•  Do  you  consider  all  possible  alternatives?   •  Do  you  use  your  resources  efficiently?   Iterative•  Do  you  use  assessment  wisely?   •  Do  you  use  assessment  results  meaningfully?  
  96. 96. This sounds great... ...but how do we do it?
  97. 97. Enter... The   Minimum   Viable   Product  
  98. 98. First, a quick detour: Lean UX Three  foundational  principles:   1.  Design  Thinking:  an  approach  to  innovation   that  optimizes  solutions  in  terms  of   desirability,  feasibility,  and  viability.   2.  Agile  Software  Development:  an  approach  to   software  development  that  prioritizes   collaboration  and  the  creation  of  working   software  over  documentation  and  plans.   3.  Lean  Startup:  minimizing  project  risk  through   an  iterative  “build-­‐measure-­‐learn”  feedback   loop.     SOURCE:     Gothelf,  J.  (2013).  Lean  UX:  Applying  Lean  Principles  to  Improve  User  Experience.  Sebastopol,  CA:  O’Reilly  Media.  
  99. 99. MVP = Hypothesis Testing An  MVP  is  the  smallest  thing  you  can  build   to  evaluate  a  given  hypothesis.   It’s  a  way  of  testing  assumptions  while  minimizing   the  work  put  into  building  out  unproven  ideas.     Key  idea:  think  about  every  design  you  create   as  a  hypothesis  that  you  need  to  determine  is   true  or  false.   SOURCE:     Gothelf,  J.  (2013).  Lean  UX:  Applying  Lean  Principles  to  Improve  User  Experience.  Sebastopol,  CA:  O’Reilly  Media.  
  100. 100. Planning Your MVP “What  features   or  functions   should  we   include?”   “What   assumption(s)   do  we  need  to   validate?”  
  101. 101. It starts with key experiences An  MVP  is  just  enough  product  to  validate   your  key  experiences;  it  contains  the  feature   set  that  defines  your  value  innovation.   To  come  up  with  your  key  experience(s),  think:   What  will  make  your  users  love  this  product?   What  moment  or  part  of  the  user’s  journey  makes  this   product  unique?   Based  on  your  research,  which  scenario  or  feature   resolves  a  major  pain  point?   What  kind  of  workarounds  are  your  potential  users   currently  doing  to  accomplish  their  goals?   SOURCE:     Levy,  J.  (2015).  UX  Strategy:  How  to  Devise  Innovative  Digital  Products  That  People  Want.  O’Reilly  Media:  Sebastopol,  CA.  
  102. 102. Desirable   Usable   Useful   Desirable   Usable   Useful   Not  This   This   Scoping Your MVP
  103. 103. Breaking down your MVP Distill  your  idea  to  its  core  value  proposition;  then,   simulate  the  most  important  part  of  the  experience  for   your  user.     Figure  out  how  to  make  smallest  MVP  possible,  then  go   smaller;  it  is  a  tool  for  learning,  so  it  will  grow  and   change  over  time.     No  coding  is  necessary!  Sketches,  wireframes,  and   prototypes  are  acceptable  formats  for  an  MVP.   •  There  are  even  non-­‐prototype  MVPs:  e-­‐mail  messages,   Google  Ad  Words,  landing  pages,  buttons  to  nowhere.   SOURCE:     Gothelf,  J.  (2013).  Lean  UX:  Applying  Lean  Principles  to  Improve  User  Experience.  Sebastopol,  CA:  O’Reilly  Media.  
  104. 104. MVP: A Simple Example A  medium-­‐sized  company  was  considering   launching  a  monthly  newsletter  as  a  new   marketing  tactic.   Should  they  invest  resources  into  preparing  a   content  strategy,  editorial  calendar,  layout  and   design,  plus  hiring  writers  and  editors  to  work   on  it?   •  First  Q:  is  there  enough  customer  demand  for  a   newsletter  to  justify  the  effort?   - MVP:  a  sign-­‐up  form  on  their  website.  If  enough  people   sign  up,  then  decide  on  the  next  MVP  (i.e.,  a  lightweight   version  of  the  newsletter).   SOURCE:     Gothelf,  J.  (2013).  Lean  UX:  Applying  Lean  Principles  to  Improve  User  Experience.  Sebastopol,  CA:  O’Reilly  Media.  
  105. 105. Lightweight UX Assessment Methods Tutorials  in  Brief  
  106. 106. Lightweight Methods 1.  Usability  Checklists  
  107. 107. Usability Checklists Examine  your  interface  by  comparing   it  to  a  checklist  of  established   usability  principles.     Pros:   •  Easy   •  Quick   •  Free     Cons:   •  Can  be  tedious   •  May  not  be  systematic/exhaustive   •  Requires  some  expertise     Suggestions:   userium.com    
  108. 108. Lightweight Methods 1.  Usability  Checklists   2.  Paper  Prototyping  
  109. 109. Paper Prototyping Create  a  paper  version  of  your   interface  and  watch  users  “interact”   with  it.     Pros:   •  Easy   •  Quick   •  Free     Cons:   •  Need  users   •  Can’t  test  interactive  page   elements   •  Need  well-­‐defined  tasks  to   prototype    
  110. 110. Lightweight Methods 1.  Usability  Checklists   2.  Paper  Prototyping   3.  Guerilla  Usability  Tests  
  111. 111. Guerilla Usability Tests Informal,  quick  usability  testing  ‘on   the  fly’  with  randomly  selected   participants  (i.e.,  with  people  you   find  at  a  coffee  shop).     Pros:   •  Easy   •  Quick   •  Cheap  (relatively)     Cons:   •  Need  users   •  Need  a  working  prototype   •  Not  controlled   •  May  introduce  bias    
  112. 112. Lightweight Methods 1.  Usability  Checklists   2.  Paper  Prototyping   3.  Guerilla  Usability  Tests   4.  Cognitive  Walkthrough  
  113. 113. Cognitive Walkthrough Group  of  experts  does  a  systematic   walkthrough  of  an  interface,  asking   questions  at  each  step  to  simulate  the   cognitive  process  for  a  first-­‐time  user.     Pros:   •  Easy  (relatively)   •  Quick  (relatively)   •  Cheap     Cons:   •  Can  be  tedious   •  Can  be  too  prescriptive   •  Does  not  capture  emotional  factors  
  114. 114. More: Cognitive Walkthrough Focuses  on  learnability  for  novice  users.   How  quickly  a  hypothetical  first-­‐time  user  can  figure   out  how  to  use  an  interface  to  complete  a  particular   task.     It  is  based  on  the  following  assumptions:   1.  Users  learn  about  an  interface  in  an  exploratory   way.   2.  Users  have  explicit,  well-­‐defined  goals.   3.  Users  apply  simple,  logical  reasoning  to  accomplish   their  goals.  
  115. 115. Step 1. Define the Inputs Select  an  interface  (can  be  prototype  or  live)   Identify  and  describe  a  hypothetical  first-­‐time  user   Choose  a  task  or  set  of  task  to  evaluate   For  each  task,  define  the  “correct”  action  sequence  for   completing  it   Recruit  people  to  participate   •  One  Facilitator   -  Maintains  the  pace  of  discussion  (and  participates)   •  One  Scribe   -  Record  problems  and  suggested  solutions  (and  participates)   •  Several  Participants  (at  least  one,  preferably  more)   -  Engage  in  discussions  about  the  interface   SOURCE:    Wharton,  C.,  Rieman,  J.,  Lewis,  C.,  &  Polson,  P.  (1994).    The  cognitive  walkthrough  method:    A  practitioner’s  guide.  In  J.   Nielsen  and  R.  Mack  (Eds.),  Usability  Inspection  Methods  (pp.  105-­‐140).  New  York,  NY:  John  Wiley  &  Sons,  Inc.  
  116. 116. As  the  facilitator,  walk  the  group  through  the  entire   correct  action  sequence  for  the  given  task.     Then,  go  back  to  the  beginning  and  walk  the  group   through  the  steps  again;  this  time,  ask  the  4   Questions  at  each  step:   1)  Will  the  users  try  to  achieve  the  right  effect?   2)  Will  the  user  notice  if  the  correct  action  is  available?   3)  Will  the  user  associate  the  correct  action  with  the   effect  trying  to  be  achieved?   4)  If  the  correct  action  is  performed,  will  the  user  see   that  progress  is  being  made  toward  solution  of  the   task?   SOURCE:    Wharton,  C.,  Rieman,  J.,  Lewis,  C.,  &  Polson,  P.  (1994).    The  cognitive  walkthrough  method:    A  practitioner’s  guide.  In  J.   Nielsen  and  R.  Mack  (Eds.),  Usability  Inspection  Methods  (pp.  105-­‐140).  New  York,  NY:  John  Wiley  &  Sons,  Inc.   Step 2. Walkthrough
  117. 117. Example Interface:     Looney  Labs,  http://www.looneylabs.com     Users:     First-­‐time  visitors  to  Looney  Labs;  age  13+;  some  gaming   experience;  comfortable  using  the  Internet  to  make   purchases.   Task:   Learn  about  and  purchase  a  copy  of  the  card  game   Chrononauts.   Correct  Action  Sequence:   1.  Click  “Our  Games.”   2.  Click  “Chrononauts.”   3.  Click  “Order  it.”   4.  Click  “Buy.”   5.  Click  “Proceed  to  checkout.”    
  118. 118. Q1:  Will  the  user  try  to   achieve  the  right  effect?     Does  the  next  step  make  sense?  Will  users   know  what  they  should  be  looking  for  in  order   to  move  on?  Is  there  a  good  conceptual   model?     [Would  a  first-­‐time  user  know  to  be  looking   for  a  button  labeled  ‘Buy?’]   YES NO
  119. 119. Q2:  Will  the  user  notice  if  the   correct  action  is  available?     If  they  know  what  they’re  looking  for,  will   they  be  able  to  find  it  easily?  Is  the  action   clearly  visible?       [Would  a  first-­‐time  user  be  able  to  quickly   find  the  button  labeled  ‘Buy?’]   YES NO
  120. 120. Q2:  Will  the  user  notice  if  the   correct  action  is  available?     If  they  know  what  they’re  looking  for,  will   they  be  able  to  find  it  easily?  Is  the  action   clearly  visible?       [Would  a  first-­‐time  user  be  able  to  quickly   find  the  button  labeled  ‘Buy?’]   YES NO
  121. 121. Q3:  Will  the  user  associate   the  correct  action  with  the   effect  trying  to  be  achieved?     Once  they  find  it,  will  they  know  what  to  do   with  it?  Does  it  look  like  a  link,  button,  etc.?       [Would  a  first-­‐time  user  know  to  click  the   button  labeled  ‘Buy?’]   YES NO
  122. 122. Q3:  Will  the  user  associate   the  correct  action  with  the   effect  trying  to  be  achieved?     Once  they  find  it,  will  they  know  what  to  do   with  it?  Does  it  look  like  a  link,  button,  etc.?       [Would  a  first-­‐time  user  know  to  click  the   button  labeled  ‘Buy?’]   YES NO
  123. 123. Q4:  If  the  action  is   performed,  will  the  user  see   that  progress  is  being  made   toward  solution  of  the  task?     If  they  do  it,  will  they  know  if  it  worked?     [Would  a  first-­‐time  user  know  that  clicking   ‘Buy?’  was  correct?]   YES NO
  124. 124. Q4:  If  the  action  is   performed,  will  the  user  see   that  progress  is  being  made   toward  solution  of  the  task?     If  they  do  it,  will  they  know  if  it  worked?     [Would  a  first-­‐time  user  know  that  clicking   ‘Buy?’  was  correct?]   YES NO
  125. 125. Step 3: Analyze At  the  end  of  the  walkthrough,  go  through  each   step  and  characterize  it  as  either  a  “success   story”  or  a  “failure  story.”   Consider:   •  How  many  of  the  4  questions  were  answered  with   “no?”   •  What  effect  would  the  “no”  answers  have  on  a  novice   user’s  ability  to  complete  that  step?   - If  you  think  the  task  could  still  be  completed  fairly  easily,   then  it’s  probably  a  success  story.   - If  you  think  the  task  would  be  difficult  to  complete,  then   it’s  probably  a  failure  story.   SOURCE:    Wharton,  C.,  Rieman,  J.,  Lewis,  C.,  &  Polson,  P.  (1994).    The  cognitive  walkthrough  method:    A  practitioner’s  guide.  In  J.   Nielsen  and  R.  Mack  (Eds.),  Usability  Inspection  Methods  (pp.  105-­‐140).  New  York,  NY:  John  Wiley  &  Sons,  Inc.  
  126. 126. Which method do you use? 1.  Usability  Checklists   2.  Paper  Prototyping   3.  Guerilla  Usability  Tests   4.  Cognitive  Walkthrough   It  depends!   Whichever  method  is  best  suited  to  answer  the   question  your  MVP  is  asking.    
  127. 127. A: When the product/service is: Q: So, what does a great user experience look like? Useful•  Does  it  match  users’  needs?   •  Does  it  actually  work?   Usable•  Is  it  easy  to  learn?   •  Is  it  easy  to  use?   Desirable•  Is  it  appealing?   •  Is  it  engaging?  
  128. 128. A: When your mindset is: Q: So, what does great User Experience look like? Grounded•  Do  you  know  you’re  meeting  actual  needs  of  real  people?   •  Do  you  use  data  to  test  key  assumptions/hypotheses?   Deliberate•  Do  you  consider  all  possible  alternatives?   •  Do  you  use  your  resources  efficiently?   Iterative•  Do  you  use  assessment  wisely?   •  Do  you  use  assessment  results  meaningfully?  
  129. 129. Next Steps for you Read:   •  The  Design  of  Everyday  Things  (Don  Norman)   •  UX  Team  of  One  (Leah    Buley)   •  Lean  UX  (Jeff  Gothelf)   Study   •  Pratt:  12-­‐credit  UX  Advanced  Certificate  (Post-­‐ Masters)   Ask   •  I  like  to  work  with  actual  clients  in  my  usability   and  UX  classes  –  if  you  need  help,  ask!  
  130. 130. Q & A Ask  me  anything  
  131. 131. Thank you. Craig  M.  MacDonald,  Ph.D.   cmacdona@pratt.edu   @CraigMMacDonald   www.craigmacdonald.com  

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