Wholesale tev

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Wholesale tev

  1. 1. ©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  2. 2. Wholesaler Training Program – Part 1 THERMOSTATIC EXPANSION VALVES (TEV’S)©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  3. 3. Thermostatic Expansion Valves General Thermostatic expansion valves and solenoid valves were Sporlan’s first products. Sporlan calls the device a “thermostatic expansion valve” abbreviated “TEV”. Among industry person- nel it may also be referred to as a “Thermo Valve”, “TX Valve” or just “expansion valve”. The TEV product line has grown to include many different body styles for use on many refrigerants for many applications.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  4. 4. Thermostatic Expansion Valves Its principle of operation is explained in Bulletins 10-9 and 10-10 but in the simplest of terms, it is merely a refrigerant metering device to regulate the proper amount of refrigerant flow into the evaporator. It accomplishes this by sensing and regulating the amount of superheat at the outlet of the evaporator where the bulb is fastened to the suction line. Superheat is a term that will be heard frequently when discussing TEV’s. In order to become more knowledgeable on their operation a more thorough study of “superheat” is suggested.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  5. 5. The Valve Types Basic valve types have always been identified by letters. Unfortunately there is a limit to the number of letters in the alphabet so as Sporlan has expanded its line over the years it has been necessary to use some letters a second time usually after the original valve model has discontinued for a period of time. For the sake of simplicity each standard cataloged valve has certain standard specifications supplied unless otherwise specified. Some deviations are possible on special order but are limited and should be avoided to eliminate delays and special handling. The following describe the standard specifications.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  6. 6. Type of Connections Flare (also called SAE): To connect a copper line to a valve having an SAE connection, it is only necessary to “flare” the end of the line and connect to the valve with the correspon- ding size of flare nut. SAE connections are usually 1/4, 3/8 or 1/2. 5/8 is rare and larger sizes are not available. Valve types F, G and C have flare connec- tions as a standard in the sizes shown in Bulletin 10-10.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  7. 7. Type of Connections Solder (also called “sweat” or ODF): The nominal size for refrigeration tubing is measured on the outside diameter (OD). Thus a 7/8 line size is 7/8” OD. To connect this line to the inlet of an expansion valve, a 7/8 ODF (outside diameter - female) inlet connection will allow the tube to slide inside the fitting where the brazing or soldering takes place. Because of the never-ending combination of fitting sizes the wholesaler normally stocks only the standard connections. If the line size does not match the standard connection, the use of reducing bushing and/or couplings will allow the connection to be made. Standard valve types EG, S, SBF, EBS, O, SQ and©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation EQ are furnished with ODF connections.
  8. 8. Type of Connections ODF flange connections: A TEV with ODF flange connections has bolt-on steel flanges with a brass bushing. The line is soldered to the ODF bushing. The flange fits over the bushing and is bolted to the valve body. Once the bushings are brazed to the line installation and removal of this type valve only requires bolting or unbolting of the flange. Types H, M, V and W are furnished with ODF flange connections.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  9. 9. Type of Connections FPT (Female pipe thread) connections: Type D and A valves for ammonia have FPT flange connections. Types H, M and V valves that normally come with ODF flange connections can be adapted to FPT with the H valve requiring special adaptors.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  10. 10. Other Standard Specifications Nominal capacity: The nominal capacities available for every valve type is shown in Bulletin 10-10 for each refrigerant. Capillary tube length: The standard length for each valve type listed can vary from 30 inches for the type F to 10 feet for the W, D and A valves. Size of power element: Each valve type is made with a particular size of power element (example: 53, 83, 33, et cetera). The bulb size is determined by the thermostatic charge furnished. Information on both element and bulb size is also shown for each valve type in Bulletin 10-10.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  11. 11. Other Standard Specifications Size and type of external equalizer connection: All standard cataloged valves with SAE (Flare) and flange connections have 1/4 SAE equalizer fittings as standard. Those with ODF (Solder) connections are furnished with 1/4 ODF external equalizer fittings. The flanged H, M, V and W valves have 1/4 SAE equalizer fittings. The D and A valves have 1/8 FPT equalizer fittings.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  12. 12. More About Refrigerants andThermostatic Charges Refrigerants The material used in most valve types are compatible with all common refrigerants. The principle exception is the D and A valves which are used on ammonia only. The code letter for the refrigerant is always found in the valve’s designation (GV is a type G valve for “22” and GJ is for 134A). A complete list of refrigerants and their letter code is in Bulletin 10-10.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  13. 13. More About Refrigerants andThermostatic Charges Thermostatic Charges Like body types and refrigerants, thermostatic charges are also identified by a letter. Generally, each charge covers an evaporator temperature range but some other application considerations can be involved particularly on the pressure-limit or maximum operating pressure (MOP) charges designated by the addition of the letter “P” and sometimes a number (example CP100). Many of the thermostatic charges used with the newer refrigerants are interchangeable with the older refrigerants being replaced. As an example, the following refrigerants use the same thermostatic charge: R-12, R-134a, R-401A, and R- 409A. This is further illustrated here for thermo- static charges use for commercial temperature ranges of -10°F to 50°F. The pressure limit charges (MOP) will limit the amount a TEV opens so that the evaporator pressure will not exceed the “Nominal System” values shown. This can be an important feature at pull-down or after a defrost.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  14. 14. More About Refrigerants andThermostatic Charges Internal or external equalizer The purpose of the external equalizer (designated by the letter “E”) is to compensate for pressure drop through the evaporator and/or refrigerant distributor. It is generally known if a refrigerant distributor will be used on the evaporator. However, it is rare that wholesaler customers will know evaporator pressure drop. Therefore, the following rule-of-thumb is suggested: A. Use the externally equalized valve on any evaporator equipped with a refrigerant distributor. B. Use the externally equalized valve when there is any doubt and particularly on valves with nominal capacities above 1 ton. There is no disadvantage to using it even if it is not required. C. Use the internally equalized valve on small tonnage TEV’s (below 1 ton) when it is known that the evaporator is single- circuit with no refrigerant distributor.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  15. 15. Balanced Port ThermostaticExpansion Valves The port construction of standard thermo- static expansion valves is such that the pressure drop across it (difference between inlet and outlet) tends to open the valve. This pressure imbalance has little effect on the TEV’s operation under most normal operating conditions, particularly on small valves.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  16. 16. Balanced Port ThermostaticExpansion Valves On larger valves with greater port areas it becomes more of a factor and our type V and W valves have always been made with semi balanced ports. The type “O” valve was later introduced which has a completely balanced port.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  17. 17. Balanced Port ThermostaticExpansion Valves The type “O” valve with its balanced port construction has been widely accepted for its ability to maintain close control under conditions of varying inlet pressure and fluctuating loads. With its large capacity ratings the O valve is ideally suited for chillers or other applications where head pressure can fall and loads can change.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  18. 18. Balanced Port ThermostaticExpansion Valves The balanced port version of the F valve is the Type BF, EBF and SBF. The balanced port S valve is type EBS. Bulletin 10-10 provides further information on the BF valve.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  19. 19. Power Elements The power elements are replaceable on most standard TEV’s. The power element consists of the bulb, capil- lary tube, diaphragm case assembly and the thermostatic charge it contains. Replacement power elements are supplied in kit form with a prefix KT (for Kit, Thermostatic) to the designation followed by a number indicating the lock ring size, as well as the refrigerant letter designation. The length of the cap tube should also be specified when ordering. This KT-83-VCP100 indicates the following: 1. KT - 83 Element size 83 2. V Refrigerant 22 3. CP100 Thermostatic charge CP100©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  20. 20. About Changing Power Elements The type “Q” Valve is designed to provide the flexibility for changing power elements and nominal capacities. For more information about the Type Q Valve, there is a separate program available covering its features. When other standard valves are involved in power element changes, other considerations are involved:©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  21. 21. About Changing Power Elements When changing from one thermostatic charge to another using the same refrigerant, the nominal capacity remains the same and the stamping on the valve body will still reflect the correction identification. However, the customer should be advised that a super- heat adjustment might be required. When changing from one refrigerant to another, the nominal capacity will probably change. As an example, the same port size is rated for nominal 5 tons on R-22 and 3 tons on R-12 and R-134a. Also, it is very likely that a superheat adjustment will be required because of variations in the superheat spring sizes. One other point to remember is that the identification stamped on the valve body, showing the original refrigerant and nominal capacity, will no longer correctly identify the valve. The Q valve design is such that these problems are eliminated.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  22. 22. Supplying the Customer with theCorrect TEV Wholesalers are often confronted with the problem of supplying their customers with the correct TEV based on information that is incomplete, or inaccurate. When this occurs, asking the right questions can often lead to a solution. Generally, one of the following situations is involved:©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  23. 23. Supplying the Customer with theCorrect TEV Selection of a TEV for a new application This can become a case of how precise the customer may be in his requirements. One extreme is the engineer who supplies every detail on the system characteristics. On the other end of the scale is the service mechanic who may say, “give me a 5 ton valve!” Finding the correct valve capacity The nominal capacity rating (except for ammonia) is based on: a. 40 degrees F evaporator temperature b. 100 PSI pressure drop across TEV (60 PSI for R-134a) c. 100 degrees F vapor-free liquid entering TEV. TEV’s for air conditioning applications including water chillers will usually fall roughly into the conditions shown above. This means that a nominal 5 ton valve will be selected for a 5 ton or 5 horsepower system. This situation calls for an SVE-5- CP100 or SVE-5-GA.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  24. 24. Supplying the Customer with theCorrect TEV For refrigeration applications the selection can become a little more involved, particularly when operating conditions become more variable. TEV capacity tables assume that the pressure drop across it will be in accordance with the evaporator pressure that is expected at the particular evaporator temperature. In other words, with a constant discharge pressure (TEV inlet) the pressure drop increases as the evaporator pressure (temperature) is reduced. Therefore, for R-22 and equivalent refrigerants, the pressure drop is assumed to be 100 psi at a 40°F evaporator, 125 psi at 0°F to 10°F evaporator, 150 psi at -10°F to -20°F, and 175 psi drop at -40°F. The entering liquid temperature is based on 100°F at all evaporator temperatures.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  25. 25. Supplying the Customer with theCorrect TEV In the example shown, valve types NI, F, EF, G, & EG all have rated capacities of 1.09 tons at a 20°F evaporator and standard conditions of 125 psi pressure drop and 100°F entering liquid temperature.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  26. 26. Supplying the Customer with theCorrect TEV When the entering liquid temperature and/or pressure drop across the TEV is significantly different from stated standard conditions, correction factors are applied to the TEV’s rated capacity as shown in the capacity tables. In this example, an adjusted capacity is calculated for the valve selected from the capacity table based on standard conditions at a 20°F evaporator.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  27. 27. Supplying the Customer with theCorrect TEV The correction factor for 70°F liquid is found from the table to be 1.17 and the factor for 100 psi is shown as 0.89. The two correction factors multiplied by each other and then times the rated capacity of 1.09 results in new capacity of 1.13 tons and the type EGVE-1 is chosen for a one ton load.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  28. 28. Supplying the Customer with theCorrect TEV Assuming that a refrigerant distributor is used, a TEV with an external equalizer will be required. When determining the pressure drop through the evaporator, the drop across the distributor must be included. In this typical example, the suction pressure at the compressor is 43 psig, but the pressure at the outlet of the TEV is only 78 psig. Therefore, an external equalizer is required designated by the letter “E”. Again, the purpose of the external equalizer is to compensate for the pressure drop through the evaporator and /or refrigerant distributor. The final consideration is the thermostatic charge. Since the specified evaporator temperature is 20°F, a “C” charge is selected. The complete designation for the selection is EGVE-1- C, 3/8 X 1/2 ODF-5”©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  29. 29. Supplying the Customer with theCorrect TEV Selecting a Replacement TEV For Another Sporlan Valve • Standard Cataloged Valves A. This is a case of getting the required information from the old valve not always an easy task! B. Bulletin 210-60 will serve as a guide to directing the customer to the location of the identifying numbers and letters on the valve. All Sporlan TEV’s have permanent identifying marks and most have an identifying label on the power element showing sufficient information to select a replacement. Unfortunately this label can become obliterated with age and it then becomes necessary to seek out the permanent markings as shown in Bulletin 210-60.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  30. 30. Supplying the Customer with theCorrect TEV Replacement of Special Non-Cataloged Valves Sporlan manufactures many special TEV’s for OEM’s - usually modifications of standard valves to meet the particular requirements of their unit. Identifying and selecting a replacement can often be handled with the assistance of bulletins in the “210” section of your wholesaler’s manual.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  31. 31. Supplying the Customer with theCorrect TEV The special designations will usually be one of the following: • Type I or BI valve (example - IVE-2-GA, BIVE-2-GA and BBIVE-2-GA): Sporlan type Q or RCVE valves can often be matched to the specifications of these models. The BBI valve having a balanced port might be replaced by a type SBF. The above original valves will most likely be non- adjustable. The standard replacements will have adjustable superheat to allow for an adjustment to match any special setting that was originally furnished to the OEM. • Type X Valve (example - XVE-7 1/2-CP100): This valve is usually field replaced with a standard type S, G, C, RCVE, or Q valve. • Valves Identified with a “Y” Number (example - Y362GR-1- Z): These are the most difficult to identify since the “Y” numbers that Sporlan have used over the years is now in excess of 1,000 and each number signifies some special feature known only to Sporlan and perhaps the OEM. This then becomes a case of contacting Sporlan or directing the customer to the OEM involved. Delivery is usually long.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  32. 32. Supplying the Customer with theCorrect TEV Selecting A Replacement For A Competitive TEV This is another case where there can be no easy guide to making a proper selection because of the wide number of manufacturers and model numbers involved. Sporlan does publish a cross-reference table with competitive valves. The cross references are based on nominal capacity matches. Valve performance, and thus system performance, cannot be guaranteed when replacing a valve using these cross references because of unique valve flow characteristics and potentially differing test and rating procedures by the valve manufacturers. There is also no assurance that the valve being replaced has been properly sized for the systemrequirements. Therefore it is always recommended to properly confirm the valve selection as outlined in Bulletin 10-10. Note: This is a nominal capacity cross reference only. Physical attributes, such as connection sizes, body configuration, lay in dimensions, and capillary tube length may not be identical. Due to some of the differ- ing valve physical attributes, some system modifications may be required. Most wholesalers have competitive catalogs for reference.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  33. 33. Supplying the Customer with theCorrect TEV Identification of Numbers and/or Letters Not Commonly Encountered Customers may occasionally provide unrecognizable designations other than “Y” numbers or OEM specials such as I, BI and X valves. The following are some of these cases: • Suffix numbers to “P” charges (example GRE-2- ZP35): These numbers indicate a pressure limit other than standard. Bulletin 10-10 shows the standard pressure limit values for all standard charges. As an example the RZP standard factory air test settings is 45 PSI. Therefore, an RZP35 charge has a pressure limit setting to 10 PSI below the standard RZP.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  34. 34. Supplying the Customer with theCorrect TEV • BP and RPB: TEV’s with either of these features are designed for use on systems having a “low starting torque” compressor motor (such as permanent split capacitor or PC motor). This type of compressor will start only if there is a negligible difference in high and low side pressures. Both the BP and the RPB features allow the TEV to equalize the high and low side pressures when the compressor is stopped. When restarting there is virtually no pressure difference and the compressor is stopped. • The letters BP stand for “bleed port” and will be followed by a number to indicate the percent of bleed. Thus BP/30 means a 30% bleed.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  35. 35. Supplying the Customer with theCorrect TEV The letters RPB stand for “rapid pressure balance” and does not include a number as in the case of straight bleed-port valves (BP). Replacement of a TEV on a system with a PSC motor (low starting torque) must have a bleed port or RPB feature. A standard TEV without the BP or RPB can only be used by adding a “hard-start kit” to the compressor motor. Also 3-phase compressor motors do not require the BP or RPB feature. Non-adjustable TEV’s: Some standard models of TEV’s are made non-adjustable for OEM’s. The designation for these use the “N” prefix such as NSVE-8 which is replaced in the field by a standard SVE-8.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  36. 36. Supplying the Customer with theCorrect TEV Replacement Parts for TEV’s Sporlan TEV’s are very trouble-free and service or necessity for replacement parts is extremely rare. Most complaints involving the operation of TEV’s can usually be traced to contaminants in the refrigerant. It is a well established fact that because of the valve’s location in the system, even the smallest trace of circulating contaminants will eventually be trapped by the TEV. Of course the Sporlan Catch-All is the best insurance against this happening and will be discussed later. Wear to any of the TEV parts is practically nonexistent which leaves only the loss of the thermostatic charge as a possible source of TEV failure. Replacement power element kits are available for this purpose. In general, even though replacement internal parts kits are available for some valves, repairing of TEV’s is considered impractical because of the cost of labor compared to the cost of a new valve.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  37. 37. Wholesaler Training Program – Part 1 REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTORS©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  38. 38. Refrigerant Distributors General The refrigerant distributor is a device not often sold by a wholesaler since it is usually included with the evaporator coil by the OEM. Nevertheless, the wholesaler is frequently called on to supply parts to modify it to accommodate some design change such as a change in refrigerants, capacity or addition of hot gas defrost or hot gas bypass.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  39. 39. Refrigerant Distributors Basic Distributor Construction Standard refrigerant distributors consist of 3 parts: A. Body (designated by 4 digit number, i.e.: 1113) B. Nozzle (designated by a letter and a number, i.e.: G-6) C. Retainer Ring (designated by same letter as nozzle)©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  40. 40. Refrigerant Distributors Basic Distributor Construction Bulletin 20-10 is the guide to finding: A. Number and size of circuits available for each distributor body. B. Nozzle type (L, J, G, E, C, or A) that fit a particular distributor model. C. Nozzle orifice size and corresponding capacity for each (numbered 1/9 to 50).©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  41. 41. Refrigerant Distributors Basic Distributor Construction Refrigerant distributors for hot gas defrost, heat pump, or reverse flow (distributors with auxiliary side connectors) A. The 1650 series (1650, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9) are constructed with a connection on the side to receive hot gas for defrost purposes or to collect liquid from the evaporator on reverse flow such as a heat pump. B. Models 1651, 3, 5, 7 and 9 use standard nozzles J, G, E, C, and A respectively. Models 1650, 2, 4 and 6 have nozzles that cannot be removed. C. The purpose for using all the above models instead of a “Tee” between the TEV and distributor is to allow the hot gas or reverse flow to pass through the distributor without going through the restriction of the nozzle.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  42. 42. Refrigerant Distributors Basic Distributor Construction Refrigerant distributors for hot gas bypass: A. Refrigerant distributors for hot gas bypass applications have the same basic construction except for the inter- nal machining of the distributor body and the use of a “extended tube” nozzle. Both are designated by the letter “R” added to the number of the distributor and/or nozzle. Example: 1653R for the distributor and GR for the nozzle.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  43. 43. Refrigerant Distributors Basic Distributor Construction Refrigerant distributors for hot gas bypass: B. The “R” models use special distributor body machining and special nozzles to permit the mixing of the hot gas from the bypass valve and the refrigerant feed from the TEV. This is accomplished without upsetting the proper refrigerant distribution into each circuit of the distributor. C. “R” models can be used on both hot gas bypass and hot gas defrost and reverse flow systems. However, the standard 1650 series (without “R”) should not be used on hot gas bypass systems.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  44. 44. Refrigerant Distributors Basic Distributor Construction Converting standard distributors to side outlet models: Customers will occasionally want to add hot gas bypass or hot gas defrost to an evaporator that was originally furnished with a standard distributor. This can be accomplished with the use of an auxiliary side connector (ASC). A. ASC models that fit standard model distributors are listed in bulletin 20-10. B. Customers should follow the instructions for locating the ASC and relocating the nozzle from the distributor to the ASC.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  45. 45. Refrigerant Distributors Basic Distributor Construction C. The ASC adapter provides a second option for supplying a customer with a distributor with an auxiliary side connection. In this example, a 1651R-3-1/4-4 with a 1/2 OD side connection serves the same purpose as a 1620-3-1/4 in combination with an ASC-5-4 using a J-4 nozzle.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  46. 46. Wholesaler Training Program – Part 1 LEVEL-MASTER CONTROL©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation
  47. 47. Sporlan Level-Master Control The Sporlan Level Master control is a modified TEV designed for application to flooded systems only. The basic difference between the Level-Master and a TEV is in the construction of the power element. This LMC element has an insert type bulb and contains a small heating element. The complete power element including the heater is available as a separate part. The heater only is also avail- able as a replacement part. The Level-Master has limited application because of the relatively small number of flooded refrigeration systems in existence or being built. Most flooded systems use ammonia and are usually found in industrial applications. Bulletin 60-15 gives details of construction, operation and application.©2012 Sporlan Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation

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