Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. SKELETAL! No bones about it!
  2. 2. tell your table buddy why the skeletal system is important
  3. 3. Background to skeletal   Skeletal system is made of tough bone tissue that supports the body and allows it to move. Bones protect vital organs like the heart and brain
  4. 4. structure Skeletal systems is made up of bone and other connective tissues such as ligaments and cartilage. Bones have their own system of blood vessels and vessels and nerves which allow circulation to occur within the bone
  5. 5. Bones change…..   From birth to old age…. In the first month after conception, an embryo’s skeletal framework is made of cartilage. In the second and third months after conception, you can see calcium deposits in the bone.
  6. 6. Bones change……   Calcium continues to form in the bone structure throughout life. A three year olds bones are more flexible than a 30 year old person’s bone A 60 year old may lose calcium from the bone and the bone will become porous and break easily
  7. 7. Functions of bone      Serves as a framework for the body Protects internal structures like brain and spinal cord Storage for calcium To produce blood cells, red marrow produce most of the red blood cells Allows flexibility when muscles move them
  8. 8. Different types of bones       Long bones- bones that are longer than their width: Humerus Radius Ulna Tibia fibula
  9. 9. Types of bones    Short bones- length and width are nearly equal Wrist and hands Ankles and feet
  10. 10. Types of bones      Flat bonesSkull Sternum Ribs Shoulder blade
  11. 11. Types of bone     Irregular bones- bones that don’t fit into other groups Face Spine hip
  12. 12. groups The human skeleton is divided into 2 groups Axial- made of 80 bones which make up the ribs and sternum, tailbone  Vertebrae  Skull appendicular- skeletal involves the appendages and includes 126 bones that make up the arms, hands, legs, feet, pelvis 
  13. 13. joints----arthro     Joints fall into 3 groups: 1. immovable synarthrosis- like the cranium 2. slightly movable amphiarthrosis- vertebral discs or the attachment of the ribs to the thoracic vertebrae 3. freely movable diarthrosis- like the ball and socket joints of the shoulder and the hip or the hinge joint of the elbow and knee
  14. 14. joints     Hinge joint- knee, and elbow Ball and socket joint -the hip, shoulder Pivot joint- atlanto/axial Gliding joint -lower spine(facet),ankle allows bones to glide over each other for movement
  15. 15. Pathology of bones Most common is arthritis- or inflammation of the joints.  2 main types are : osteoarthritis- usually from aging, caused by prolonged wear and tear.  Symptoms are joint pain and stiffness, aching And limited ROM 
  16. 16. osteoarthritis
  17. 17. 2 types of arthritis Rheumatoid- is not just a disease of the joints, it is a systemic disease, meaning it affects the whole body. It can destroy bone and disfigure the joints. Abnormalities occur in the thickened joint capsule, cartilage destroyed, fibrous tissue, then calcification. Usually more than one joint is involved in RA, with the hands almost always affected.
  18. 18. RA
  19. 19. RA
  20. 20. Pathologies for bone   Bursitis- inflammation of the bursae (Bursae are thin, slippery sacs located throughout the body that act as cushions between bones and soft tissues. They contain a small amount of lubricating fluid that allows the skin to move freely over the underlying bone) Symptoms include: severe pain, limited movement and fluid accumulation around the joint.
  21. 21. bursitis
  22. 22. Pathologies of bone       Fractures- a crack or break in the bone Types of fractures: 1. greenstick- bone is bent and splits causing a crack or incomplete break- common for children 2. simple or closed- complete break of the bone without damage to skin 3. compound fracture- bone breaks and ruptures through the skin 4. impacted- broken bone ends jam into each other
  23. 23. Greenstick fracture
  24. 24. Simple fracture
  25. 25. Compound fracture
  26. 26. Impacted fracture
  27. 27. Pathologies of bone     5. comminuted- bone fragments or splinters into more than 2 peaces 6. Spiral- bones twists resulting in one or more breaks 7. Depressed- a broken piece of skull bone moves inward- seen in severe head injuries 8. Colles- breaking and dislocation of the distal radius that causes a characteristic bulge at the wrist- caused by falling on an outstretched hand.
  28. 28. comminuted
  29. 29. Spiral break
  30. 30. Depressed fracture
  31. 31. what would be the outcome of a skull depression fracture?
  32. 32. colles
  33. 33. Ways bones can heal   Open reduction- bone needs surgical repair with pins or plates to maintain position of the bone Closed reduction- positioning the bone in correct alignment then applying a cast or split to maintain position
  34. 34. Pathologies of bone    Osteomyelitis- bone inflammation caused by a bacteria. Bone is normally resistant to infection, but trauma, bacteremia, surgery, or foreign bodies may disrupt and lead to the onset of osteomyelitis The organism causes an abscess within the bone and pus forms within the bone. Symptoms include: fever, chills, pain. Sometimes this condition requires amputation.
  35. 35. osteomyelitis
  36. 36. Pathologies of the bone      Osteoporosis- bone becomes increasingly porous due to loss of calcium Happens to women more than men Sedintary lifestyle and lack of calcium in the diet can cause osteoporosis. Bones can become brittle and break “help I’ve fallen and can’t get up!”
  37. 37. osteoporosis
  38. 38. Pathologies of the bone     Congenital deformaties Club foot- talipes equinovarus when the foot is adducted on one or both sides. Osteogenesis imperfecta- brittle bones disease is caused by a mutation in the gene that affects the cells responsible for producing collagen. Scoliosis- curvature of the spine caused by congenital defect, muscle imbalance, poor nutrition, poor posture.
  39. 39. Club foot
  40. 40. Osteogenesis imperfecta
  41. 41. Pathologies of bone  Rickets- Rickets is the softening and weakening of bones in children, usually because of an extreme and prolonged vitamin D deficiency. (absorption of calcium)
  42. 42. rickets
  43. 43. Pathologies of bone   Paget's disease of bone is a condition that affects the way your bone breaks down and rebuilds (metabolizes). In Paget's disease of bone, the rate at which old bone is broken down and new bone is formed becomes distorted. Over time, the affected bones may become fragile and misshapen.
  44. 44. pagets
  45. 45.  Break a leg! bye