G iagents

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G iagents

  1. 1. GASTROINTESTINAL AGENTS ANTACIDS moa---weak bases that react gastric HCl to form salt and water to reduce gastic acid. adverse reactions----constipation, diarrhea consider----frequent doseage yields noncompliance impairs tetracycline, OTC available indication---gastroesophagelal reflux,duodenal ulcer examplesaluminum hydroxide/amphojel Al hydroxide & magnesium hydroxide/ maalox magnesium hydroxide/milk of magnesia
  2. 2. GASTROINTESTINAL AGENTS H2 receptor antagonists moa----used to block the action of histamine on parietal cells (specifically the histamine H2 receptors) in the stomach, decreasing the production of acid by these cells. adverse reactions----constipation, diarrhea consider----bedtime doseage works best, low dose OTC indication---gastric ulcer,duodenal ulcer examplescimetidine/tagamet ranitidine/zantac famotidine/pepcid
  3. 3. GASTROINTESTINAL AGENTS Proton pump inhibitor moa---inhibit parietal cell ATP pump adverse reactions----constipation, diarrhea consider----possible reduced bone density, hypertension(in studies) indication---stomach ulcer, GERD examplesesomeprazole/nexium lansoprazole/prevacid omeprazole/prilosec pantoprazole/protonix rabeprazole/aciphex
  4. 4. GASTROINTESTINAL AGENTS coating agents moa----form protective coat over gastric ulcer, binds to necrotic tissue consider----sucralfate requires several daily doses, do not take with antacid at same time. indication---gastric ulcer,duodenal ulcer examplesalginic acid/gaviscon carafate/sucralfate
  5. 5. GASTROINTESTINAL AGENTS antiinflammatory agents indication---Crohns disease/ulcerative colitis adverse reactions------naseau, headache,vomit consider---will bind to iron tablets, keep hydrated, yields orange/yellow urine, makes soft contact lenses yellow. sulfasalazine not used with sulfa and aspirin allergies. examplesmesalamine/pentasa sulfasalazine/azulfidine
  6. 6. GASTROINTESTINAL AGENTS antidiarrheals moa---similar to opioids. in the bowel peristaltic waves are diminished; this delays passage of the fecal mass and allows increased absorption of water adverse reactions----constipation, drowsiness, respiratory depression consider----severe diarrhea yields dehydration examplesattapulgite/kaopectate bismuth subsalicylate/pepto bismol loperamide/imodium AD (OTC)
  7. 7. GASTROINTESTINAL AGENTS emollient laxative----draw water in colon for evacuation examples--lactulose/cephulac mineral oil magnesium hydroxide/milk of magnesia stimulant laxative---stimulates/irritates intestine examples--bisacodyl/dulcolax bulk forming laxative---increase diet fiber distends intestine yields increased peristalsis examples--psyllium/metamucil methyl cellulose/fiber trim
  8. 8. GASTROINTESTINAL AGENTS ANTIEMETICS moa----block dopamine receptors in medulla for vomiting adverse reactions------drowsiness consider---phenothiazines may cause hypotension, seizures in children. examplesdimenhydrinate/dramamine chlorpromazine/thorzine meclizine/antivert prochlorperazine/compazine promethazine/phenergan
  9. 9. GASTROINTESTINAL AGENTS antiflatulents moa---reduce surface tension, yields gas released easily indication---bloating, flatulence examplessimethicone/gas-x, mylicon OBESITY DRUGSadverse reactions----CNS stim, dizziness, insomnia, hypertension, arrhythmia consider----regulations for processing, filling, dispensing examples--diethylpropion/tenuate sibutramine/meridia
  10. 10. GASTROINTESTINAL AGENTS antiflatulents moa---reduce surface tension, yields gas released easily indication---bloating, flatulence examplessimethicone/gas-x, mylicon OBESITY DRUGSadverse reactions----CNS stim, dizziness, insomnia, hypertension, arrhythmia consider----regulations for processing, filling, dispensing examples--diethylpropion/tenuate sibutramine/meridia

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