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  1. 1. CRANIAL NERVES Tell your table buddy where to find cranial nerves _____________ we will learn cranial nerves and test cranial nerves, and spinal nerves.
  2. 2. Peripheral Nervous System • Nerves that branch out from the CNS • The spinal nerves comes out of the spine, and the cranial nerves come out of the brain directly. • There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves • They are numbered with Roman numerals.
  3. 3. The 12 Pairs of Cranial Nerves Figure 14.8
  4. 4. how will I ever learn the 12 cranial nerves???? stupid mnemonics! on old olympus towering top a finn and german viewed some hops. olfactory optic oculomotor trochlear trigeminal abducens facial acoustic glossopharyngeal vagus spinal accessory hypoglossal
  5. 5. how will I ever learn what they do? stupid mnemonics! Nerves carry information or tell the body to do something. this is sensory or motor. some cranial nerves do sensory and motor, or maybe just one of these. s ome s ay m arry m oney b ut m y b rother s ays b ig b usiness m akes m ore olfactory optic oculomotor trochlear trigeminal abducens facial acoustic glossopharyngeal vagus spinal acc hypoglossal s=sensory m=motor b=both sensory and motor
  6. 6. I. OLFACTORY • Transmit the sense of smell. • Outside of the CNS they are called olfactory nerves, and inside of the CNS they are called the olfactory tract.
  7. 7. II. OPTIC NERVE • Transmits information from the eye’s retina.
  8. 8. III Occulomotor Nerve • This controls most of the extrinsic muscles of the eye (that move the eyeball).
  9. 9. IV. Trochlear Nerve • Innervates an extrinsic eye muscle
  10. 10. V. Trigeminal Nerve • This is the main sensory nerve of the face. • It has a large branch that passes through the foramen ovale of the skull. It has three parts. • motor is chewing muscles
  11. 11. VI: Abducens Controls one of the eye muscles (lateral rectus).
  12. 12. VII Facial Nerve • This innervates the muscles of facial expression. • sensation to anterior tongue • Bell’s Palsy is damage of the facial nerve causing paralysis on one side.
  13. 13. VIII. VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR • Transmits hearing and balance. (also called Auditory nerve)
  14. 14. IX: GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL • carries information from the head and neck to the brainstem about blood pressure (baroreceptors) • and taste for posterior tongue • fires to one throat muscle
  15. 15. X: Vagus Nerve • (vagrant = “wanders”) - the only cranial nerve that travels into the abdomen. • This is the most important cranial nerve because it innervates all of the organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities
  16. 16. XI: ACCESSORY NERVE • Enters the skull through foramen magnum and leaves through the jugular foramen. • It supplies the shoulder muscles.
  17. 17. XII. HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE • Supplies the tongue. • Damage causes impairment of speech.
  18. 18. Spinal Nerves 8 pairs of cervical nerves (C1 – C8) what is weird about 8? 12 pairs of thoracic nerves (T1-T12) 5 pairs of lumbar nerves (L1-L5) 5 pairs of sacral nerves (S1-S5) 1 pair of coccygeal nerves (Co) 31 Total
  19. 19. Roots – connect nerves to spinal cord
  20. 20. PLEXUSES • Main portions of the spinal nerves combine to form complex networks called Plexuses
  21. 21. DERMATOMES(sensation)
  22. 22. REFLEXES
  23. 23. REFLEXES