Fungus-------single cell organism with cell wall has chitin, no
reproduction by spores. study is mycology
most are resistant to antibacterial drugs.
Infection occurs when immune system is compromised.
microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, mushrooms
MOA: Antifungals work by exploiting differences between
mammalian and fungal cells to kill the fungal organism with fewer
adverse effects to the host. Unlike bacteria, both fungi and
humans are eukaryotes. Thus, fungal and human cells are similar
at the biological level. This makes it more difficult to discover
drugs that target fungi without affecting human cells. As a
consequence, many antifungal drugs cause side effects. Some of
these side effects can be life-threatening if the drugs are not used
• attack cell membrane, similar structure
nystatin used mostly topical.
amphotericin used intravenous unless fungus inside GI.
reactions---fever, chills, rigor, nausea,vomiting, myalgias,
arthralgias, and headache during intravenous infusions.
• interferes with enzyme for ergosterol
formation yields death.
• used for ringworm, candidiasis
• clotrimazole, miconazole,
• side effects--naseau, diarrhea, rashes,
• from Penicillium griseofulvum
• attacks dermatophytes by disrupting mitotic
spindle formation-a critical step in cellular
• for severe skin,hair, nails condition.
• not topical use
• oral use 2 to 4 weeks for skin infections, 4 to
6 weeks for hair and scalp infections, 4 to 8
weeks for foot infections, 3 to 4 months for
fingernail infections, and at least 6 months for
• Viruses have no cell wall and made up of
nucleic acid components
• Viruses are obligate intracellular parasite
• They do not have a metabolic machinery of
their own – uses host enzymes
• virus can be attacked somewhere along its
• most replication when symptoms appear or
• viral replication
• 1--penetrates cell
• 2--synthesis of early protein
• 3--synthesis of RNA or DNA
• 4--synthesis of late protein
• 5--particle assembly and release=cell death
• gamma globulin injection--blood protein with
antibodies hopefully act against virus antigen
to not allow entry into cell.
• to reduce infection of measles, rabies, others
• amantadine--(CDC sometimes disapproves)
prevents uncoating of virus
• for influenza A, rubella.
• maybe useful for chronic fatigue
• side effects---slurred speech, dizziness
• stopping intracelluar synthesis
• ribavarin---inhibits replication of DNA and
• for hepatitus C, respiratory infections,
• acyclovir--metabolized into a form that
replaces a nucleotide=no more dna
• for herpes simplex and zoster
• interferon--protein that dying cell
releases so other cells can produce
enzyme that reduces RNA.
• for hepatitus B and C, and cancers
• florophenylalanine---inhibit late protein
• inhibit protein coat for virus
• also destroys cell protein so too toxic.
• inhibit final assembly
• use puromycin antibiotic that causes
defective protein=no protein virus coat