Anxiety----uneasiness from apprehension and worry about
Try psychotherpay first.
drug dependance, sedation, depression, possible birth defect,
Mechanism of Action
• Benzodiazepines bind to benzodiazepine
receptors in the CNS and act as agonists.
• They enhance the action of the inhibitory
neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid
• Reduce anxiety and panic.
• Cause sedation.
• Skeletal muscle relaxation
•The short-term treatment of anxiety, panic attacks, insomnia, and
•Some benzodiazepines are used to treat seizure disorders.
These drugs are the original sedative-hypnotics.
They have been associated with a high rate of abuse
and complete respiratory and cardiovascular
They are lethal in an overdose.
Benzodiazepines have pretty much replaced
barbiturates in treating anxiety, insomnia and panic
because of their more acceptable safety profile.
Barbiturates are used to treat seizure disorders and
to induce general anesthesia.
like benzodiazepine but also help block glutamate,
the principal excitatory CNS neurotransmitter.
feelings of pessimism, worry, sadness,
reduced eating and sleeping,
Types of antidepressants---- SSRI
moa--block reuptake of seratonin
or norepinephrine(hormone and
responsible for alertness )
indications--depression, bedwetting children
adverse reactions---cardiotoxic in high dose,
drowsiness, several weeks to work
monoamine oxidase inhibitor
catecholamines are monoamine---mostly
epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine
(noradrenaline) and dopamine
MAOIs act by inhibiting the activity of
monoamine oxidase, thus preventing the
breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters
and thereby increasing their availability.
adverse effect---hypertension, avoid certain
wines,yeast,cheese. avoid ephedrine,levopoda
swings between mania and depression
lithium moa unknown….has sodium
properties to generate action potentials,
also enhance seratonin.watch salt diet.
use carbamezepine more severe cases
but interferes with many many drugs
adverse reactions--bloating, abnomral
fetus, increased weight, acne
not living in reality,hallucinations, bizarre
dose varies drug to drug
adverse reactions---sedation, bone
marrow suppression, pseudoparkinson’s
allow 6-12 weeks for improvement