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Valuing fisheries and aquatic ecosystems


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Presented at the Basin Focal Project Fisheries Workshop at Cali, Colombia, Feb 2008

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Valuing fisheries and aquatic ecosystems

  1. 1. BFP Fisheries Workshop Valuing fisheries and aquatic ecosystems in multiple water use systems 6-7 February 2008 CIAT Cali, Colombia Agro- APIA & Agro-Ecosystem Analysis Acknowledgement: CAAEP & DAE, Cambodia, 2007
  2. 2. APIA: an Adaptive, Participatory and Integrated Approach Based on identification of: i) requirements for an approach to IA and ii) merits and limitations of existing methods. 1) Adaptive. Progress and outcomes continuously monitored and evaluated. Lessons integrated back into the process. 2) Participatory. Genuine participation by stakeholders and policy makers 3) Integrated. Application of a holistic approach viewing the problem as a whole and in its broader context. Analysis across sectors and disciplines, Throughout the hierarchy of governance and institutions. Spatial and time scales initially set based on a-priori assumptions and preliminary assessments and then refined.
  3. 3. PROBLEM APIA IDENTIFICATION SCREENING Significance of Fisheries Impacts Adaptive Participatory SCOPING Integrated SCOPING Level of Impact Assessment Assessment ASSESSMENT ITERATION and LEARNING ASSESSING Hydrological, Ecological, Economic, Livelihood, Institutional Impacts MITIGATION and ENHANCEMENT Measures DECISION - MAKING TRADE – OFF ANALYSIS Selection of OPTIONS RECOMMENDATIONS Source: Nguyen Khoa, 2005
  4. 4. The Concept of Farming System Recognises the importance of interactions between different parts of agricultural systems in the process of transforming inputs Aims to provide research and extension worker with adequate understanding of agricultural system on which they are working as the base for planning and activities Focuses on entire system as a whole rather than on their separate parts or components Components of the system 1.Purpose, 2.Boundary, 3.Context or environment, 4.Interaction, 5.Sub- system, 6.Hierarchy, 7.Input, 8.Output, 9.Performance System Properties Productivity, Stability, Sustainability and Equitability
  5. 5. Sustainability Productivity Stress or disturbance Sustainable High development Yield Yield Medium profit Sustainable profit etc. etc. Low Non Sustainable Time Stability Equitability High Low Low Rich Yield Rich or High Med Medium Poor profit Income Income etc. Med Poor Time or space Village A Village B
  6. 6. TOOLS FOR AGRO-ECOSYSTEM ANALYSIS 1. Time line of the commune 2. Hierarchy of system 3. Commune map and agro-ecosystem map 4. Seasonal calendar of croping and animal raising 5. NTFP analysis 6. Gender analysis on Agriculture activity 7. Communal transect 8. Venn diagram 9. Flow(flow labor, income, resources, economic analysis) 10. Problem tree 11. Problem matrix ranking
  7. 7. Time line: Example of a commune in Cambodia 1976 - Pol pot regime 1979 - Crom samaky system for agriculture production. 1980-85 - --------------- 1986-90 - many of the farmer grow water melon as the cash crop.Begen the using pesticide of their crop. 1991-95 - ------ 1996-2000 - --------- 2000-03 - -----------
  8. 8. 2. Hierarchy system of Chung duong Commune Flood Plain Low land Up land Water Wet Rice Fish Integrated Animal Animal Integrated crop: melon season crop: Raising raising: rice -Sweet potato -fruit tree -Cattle -Bean -Watermelon -Pig -Friut tree -Vegetable Chicken
  9. 9. Commune map Commune boundary Location of specific crops: rice field, water resources, mountain, road, plantation,... Draw the line of boundary of agro-ecosystem by zone Put the legend under the map Use the color for clearly
  10. 10. Commune Map of Chong Dong (Commune boundary, roads, etc.) Chong Dong Commune Map ∗ Thnout Chum Commune Balang Commune Samroang Santuk District 3 Ku 3 Khsach laat Toul sala Kampaoy 3 Chinith Rivers 3 Chong dong 3 Popech Toul damnak 3/ Kampong leng District Boeung Commune Lagend Commune office Boundary Village National road 0 2 4 Hospital Village road kilometers / 3 Pagoda Canal Lake Chinith rivers Pond
  11. 11. Chong Dong Commune Map ∗ 0 3.5 7 kilometers
  12. 12. Seasonal calendar of croping and animal raising Description of the following parameters: Climate: rainfall, temperature Crop by agro-ecosystem zone: Rice crop, sweet potato Animal raising (cattle and poultry)the disease by season(F&M disease) Labor on step of crop production and animal raising by % gender participant Main of festivals Working labor outside of the commune Market price of agricultural product
  13. 13. Hypothetical Seasonal Calendar MONTH J F M A M J J A S O N D Climate Rain Rain, Etc. Cropping DS Hill Etc. patterns rice rice NTFPs Etc. Livestock No grass Etc. F&M Etc. Labour Off- Burn Rice Etc. Cut farm Market Rice, Etc. prices Social Pii Bong Etc. Etc. mai Fai activities
  14. 14. Communal transect Order Transect row- Type of information presented heading 1 Name Descriptive name of each agro-ecosystem Digital photo representative of each agro- ecosystem. 2 Land type Highland, lowland, terrace level, etc. Topography (flat, rolling, steep, etc.) 3 Soil type (s) Soil group(s) (if known) Soil fertility, other soil characteristics 4 Land use Agricultural type, residental, natural resources, others
  15. 15. Communal transect (continue) 5 Water Water source,irrigation, flooding, etc. 6 Crop Cropping system(s) Major crops (1st, 2nd, 3rd)other if significant 7 Livestock Significant use (cattle, pigs, poultry, fish, others) Livestock movement (in-out) by season 8 Socio-economic Average land holding size Average no.of cattle/family Average no.of pigs/family Average family labour nos. % of families with off-farm labor No. months of rice self-sufficiency Mojor income souces ( 1st, 2nd, 3rd ) 9 Problem Major problems occurring 10 Opportunities Development opportunities which exist 11 Key issues Environment, Gender, poverty, others as identified
  16. 16. kab E bPtMkS ri ß rEgckReT n ; R sa b t-b n e LA D TYPES FOR AGRO-ECOSYSTEM CHARACTERISATIO kMB Tl c rt kM k i i s; w Bunded Paddy Rice Land Seasonally Permanently flooded flooded tMéBñ b;R M n P tMx rb b;<;a ns Ta <; Ta Fm Ta a nbx M s nbmü M nbTb M d iT I cw l k RPT b Bw k Highland An area of higher elevation, Upland Un-bunded land of higher Lowland upper terrace Lowland mid terrace Lowland low terrace tar v mUd Water resource Remains under water sometimes mountainous, elevation than the Bunded rice land Bunded rice Bunded rice land Seasonally throughout the year, often with steeper slopes. lowland rice terraces. It is typically inundated land with typically inundated flooded but may be used for Usually found around the typically hilly or of for shorter periods characteristics for longer periods fish farming or gently rolling Un-bunded land growing aquatic border areas of Cambodia than the lower between the than the higher that remains under along the Cardamom range topography. terraces. Usually upper and lower terraces. plants deep water for in the southwest and the This land is not the last paddies to terraces. Usually the first significant periods Dangkrek range in the north. seasonally inundated and be planted, Usually planted paddies to be of the year. May These zones tend to be more can support a variety of normally with with medium planted, normally support flooded remote and are often still field and fruit crops or shorter duration duration WS with longer forests and often forested. They may have upland rice. photo-sensitive WS varieties. duration photo- used for recession only limited agriculture, but varieties. May not sensitive WS cropping or can be important sources of be planted in very varieties. May deepwater rice. NTFPs dry years flood in very wet years.
  17. 17. Example Transect from Banteay Chhmar Commune, Banteay Meanchey. Description Hilly Zone Mixed crop upland zone Crops -A little early rice -Wet rice (early, medium and late rice). -Upland rice (a little) -Mung bean -Mango, Banana, Coconut, Jack fruit. -Vegetables (pumpkin Wax gourd). Livestock -Wildlife/beast -Cow, Pig, Chicken and -Hare/Rabbit Duck -Buck-Koe-deer Comments -Fertile soil -Gravel soil (no fertile soil) -White alluvial soil -Sandy clay soil (no fertile soil) -Regular calcium tic -Clay soil (no fertile soil) -Red soil (labansek group) -Calcareous soil (no fertile soil) -Soil erosion -Fertile soil (forest area) -Land mine -Land mine. Problems -Soil erosion -Lack of water -Drought -Insect pests -Wild pig destroyed crops. -Drought -Livestock disease (cholera). Opportunities -Forest output -Farm all seasons -Farm -Crop a vegetable -Livestock -Plants a fruit tree Productivity -Rice: medium yield. -Rice: medium 1.5 T/ha. -Forest is low. -Mungbean: low 2 bags/rai. -Wildlife is low. -Livestock is low
  18. 18. Assessment of Poverty, Gender and Environmental Impacts: Pro Forma Proposed solution …………………………………………………………………. or technology …………………………………………………………………. Is the problem addressed faced equally by all villagers in the agro-ecological zone, mainly the better off or primarily the poorest? (tick √ one) All ............. Better-off ................ Poorest ............... What factors may constrain adoption/use of the technology by poor households? E.g. high investment, high operation and maintenance costs, high labour need, large land holding requirement, need for specialist equipment or skills, etc. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. What are the potential positive and negative consequences on the poorest farm families of the widespread adoption of the proposed solution in place of the traditional practices and how can the positive ones be enhanced and the negative ones reduced? Positive impacts on the poor How can these be enhanced? egative impacts on the poor How can these be reduced? Based on this analysis, modify the proposed solution to maximize its positive impact on the poorest villagers in the agro-ecological zone. High positive (++), M positive (+), Non (0), M (-), Low(-)
  19. 19. Venn diagram SEILA PDA WFP Commune CAAEPII delopment ADRA council no relationship exchange informatiom some relationship Source: CAAP & DAE, 2007 good relationship
  20. 20. Flows (labor, income, resources; economic analysis) Family size: large, mediun, small family members. Average annual family income by family size. Resources of land and animal. Economics analysis on main crop
  21. 21. Possible schematic for flow diagrams Flows of: Farm produce, Agricultural inputs, Labour, Credit, Information, NTFPs, Livestock, Health services, Schooling, Etc. Zone 1 Zone 2 Province District Zone 3 Village Zone 4 etc.
  22. 22. SYSTEM PROPERTY POSITIVE (+) Type of Agro- NEGATIVE (-) ecosystem zone -Rice-Cash crops-Fruit trees- PRODUCTIVITY -Rice-Cash crops-Fruit trees-Livestock-Soil Livestock-Soil fertility (medium)-There fertility (medium)-There is a river close to is a river close to Siem Reap border. Siem Reap border. -There is a road system STABILITY -The climate is variable. -Paddy rice system -Feeding insect. -There is orchard land -Rain is not regular. -There is village common land -Cost of agricultural products fluctuates. -Forest -Animal diseases -Animal raising SUSTAINABILITY -Illegal forest cutting. -Cash crops (mung bean, watermelon -Has no soil fertility (no forest) and corn) -There is a water but it is easy to dry -Mulberry -Lack of technique to raise an animals -Fruit tree -Fishing EQUITABILITY -No equality for those far from a pond or -Forest cutting well. -Water using (Pond and well). - People don’t have the right to occupy their own land.
  23. 23. Problems ranking Problems 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. Animal disease 2. Insect and pest on rice 1 3. Lack of technique on vegetable 1 2 production 4. Lack of technique on fish raising 1 2 3 5. Lack of village veterinary service 3 4 5 2 6. Lack of irrigation system 1 6 3 4 5 score 4 3 3 2 2 1 ranking 1 2 3 4 5 6
  24. 24. KEY QUESTIONS, GUIDELINE AND WORKING HYPOTHESIS (SOLUTION) KEY QUESTION GUIDELINE WORKING HYPOTHESIS 1.How can we overcome 1.Tube well irrigation 1. Demonstration leaf curl, insect damage technology appropriate irrigation and drough for -Safe pesticide use well technology. watermelon growers? - Demonstrtion and promote the correct use of pesticides on watermelons. 2. How to increase the Source quality seed of Vaiety demonstration and yield of short duration early rice for a high field days rice varieies? yield
  25. 25. INNOVATION ASSESSMENT WORKING PRODU SUSTAIN STABIL EQUITA COST DURATI FEASIBI PRIORITY HYPOTHESIS CTIVITY ABILITY ITY BILITY ON LITY Demonstrate ++ + ++ ++ H M L 2 appropriate irrigation wells technology Demonstrate +++ - ++ +++ L L M 1 and promote the effective use of pesticides on watermelons
  26. 26. Evaluation Framework: Performance of Key Features Factor evaluated Indicators Means of verification Adaptive Adaptation to resource constraints Study team & workshop & Learning Response to outcomes & lessons assessments Reaction to unanticipated outcomes Participatory Commitment/genuine involvement Study team & workshop Integral use of local knowledge assessments Representation of interest groups Communication & conflict reduction Holistic Inter-sectoral & disciplinary analysis & Study team & workshop & Integrated recommendations assessments Comprehensive spatial & temporal Peer review coverage Diagnosis of complex causal pathways Synergistic & innovative outcomes Composite Cost-effective use of available data Study team assessment assessment Ability to resolve critical questions & knowledge gaps Outcome oriented Relevance, practicality & wide Study team & workshop acceptance of results & proposals assessments Peer review
  27. 27. Potential of APIA-AEA Consideration of inter-sectoral and interdisciplinary issues Flexible rather than prescriptive process allowing incorporation of alternative concepts, tools and methods as necessary Transparent process (assumptions, decisions, etc.) Incorporation of local knowledge and facilitation of ‘ownership’ of management measures agreed for implementation Not only provides assessment results of scientific value, also initiates a negotiation process Potential to resolve conflicts between fishers and farmers Ability to contribute to higher level processes and issues (e.g. incorporation in IWRM initiatives in Sri Lanka)