BFP Fisheries Workshop
Valuing fisheries and aquatic ecosystems
in multiple water use systems
6-7 February 2008
APIA & Agro-Ecosystem Analysis
Acknowledgement: CAAEP & DAE, Cambodia, 2007
APIA: an Adaptive, Participatory and Integrated Approach
Based on identification of: i) requirements for an approach to IA
and ii) merits and limitations of existing methods.
1) Adaptive. Progress and outcomes continuously monitored and
evaluated. Lessons integrated back into the process.
2) Participatory. Genuine participation by stakeholders and policy
3) Integrated. Application of a holistic approach viewing the
problem as a whole and in its broader context.
Analysis across sectors and disciplines,
Throughout the hierarchy of governance and institutions.
Spatial and time scales initially set based on a-priori
assumptions and preliminary assessments and then
Significance of Fisheries Impacts
Level of Impact Assessment
ITERATION and LEARNING
TRADE – OFF
Source: Nguyen Khoa, 2005
The Concept of Farming System
Recognises the importance of interactions between different parts of
agricultural systems in the process of transforming inputs
Aims to provide research and extension worker with adequate
understanding of agricultural system on which they are working as the base
for planning and activities
Focuses on entire system as a whole rather than on their separate parts or
Components of the system
1.Purpose, 2.Boundary, 3.Context or environment, 4.Interaction, 5.Sub-
system, 6.Hierarchy, 7.Input, 8.Output, 9.Performance
Productivity, Stability, Sustainability and Equitability
disturbance Sustainable High
etc. etc. Low
or High Med
profit Income Income
Time or space
Village A Village B
TOOLS FOR AGRO-ECOSYSTEM ANALYSIS
1. Time line of the commune
2. Hierarchy of system
3. Commune map and agro-ecosystem map
4. Seasonal calendar of croping and animal raising
5. NTFP analysis
6. Gender analysis on Agriculture activity
7. Communal transect
8. Venn diagram
9. Flow(flow labor, income, resources, economic analysis)
10. Problem tree
11. Problem matrix ranking
Example of a commune in Cambodia
1976 - Pol pot regime
1979 - Crom samaky system for agriculture production.
1980-85 - ---------------
1986-90 - many of the farmer grow water melon as the
cash crop.Begen the using pesticide of their crop.
1991-95 - ------
1996-2000 - ---------
2000-03 - -----------
2. Hierarchy system of Chung duong Commune
Flood Plain Low land Up land
Rice Fish Integrated Animal Animal Integrated crop:
crop: Raising raising:
rice -Sweet potato
-fruit tree -Cattle -Bean
-Watermelon -Pig -Friut tree
Location of specific crops: rice field, water resources,
mountain, road, plantation,...
Draw the line of boundary of agro-ecosystem by zone
Put the legend under the map
Use the color for clearly
Commune Map of Chong Dong (Commune boundary, roads, etc.)
Chong Dong Commune Map
∗ Thnout Chum Commune
Santuk District 3
Khsach laat Toul sala Kampaoy
Chinith Rivers 3
Kampong leng District
Commune office Boundary
Village National road
0 2 4
Hospital Village road
3 Pagoda Canal
Lake Chinith rivers
Seasonal calendar of croping and animal raising
Description of the following parameters:
Climate: rainfall, temperature
Crop by agro-ecosystem zone: Rice crop, sweet potato
Animal raising (cattle and poultry)the disease by
Labor on step of crop production and animal raising by
% gender participant
Main of festivals
Working labor outside of the commune
Market price of agricultural product
Hypothetical Seasonal Calendar
MONTH J F M A M J J A S O N D
Cropping DS Hill Etc.
patterns rice rice
Livestock No grass Etc. F&M Etc.
Labour Off- Burn Rice Etc. Cut
Market Rice, Etc.
Social Pii Bong Etc. Etc.
Order Transect row- Type of information presented
1 Name Descriptive name of each agro-ecosystem
Digital photo representative of each agro-
2 Land type Highland, lowland, terrace level, etc.
Topography (flat, rolling, steep, etc.)
3 Soil type (s) Soil group(s) (if known)
Soil fertility, other soil characteristics
4 Land use Agricultural type, residental, natural resources,
Communal transect (continue)
5 Water Water source,irrigation, flooding, etc.
6 Crop Cropping system(s)
Major crops (1st, 2nd, 3rd)other if significant
7 Livestock Significant use (cattle, pigs, poultry, fish, others)
Livestock movement (in-out) by season
8 Socio-economic Average land holding size
Average no.of cattle/family
Average no.of pigs/family
Average family labour nos.
% of families with off-farm labor
No. months of rice self-sufficiency
Mojor income souces ( 1st, 2nd, 3rd )
9 Problem Major problems occurring
10 Opportunities Development opportunities which exist
11 Key issues Environment, Gender, poverty, others as identified
kab E bPtMkS ri ß
rEgckReT n ; R sa
b t-b n
LA D TYPES FOR AGRO-ECOSYSTEM CHARACTERISATIO
kMB Tl c
rt kM k i
i s; w
Bunded Paddy Rice Land Seasonally Permanently
n P tMx rb
ns Ta <; Ta Fm Ta a
M s nbmü
M d iT
l k RPT
An area of higher elevation,
Un-bunded land of higher
mUd Water resource
Remains under water
sometimes mountainous, elevation than the Bunded rice land Bunded rice Bunded rice land Seasonally throughout the year,
often with steeper slopes. lowland rice terraces. It is typically inundated land with typically inundated flooded but may be used for
Usually found around the typically hilly or of for shorter periods characteristics for longer periods fish farming or
gently rolling Un-bunded land growing aquatic
border areas of Cambodia than the lower between the than the higher that remains under
along the Cardamom range topography. terraces. Usually upper and lower terraces. plants
deep water for
in the southwest and the This land is not the last paddies to terraces. Usually the first significant periods
Dangkrek range in the north. seasonally inundated and be planted, Usually planted paddies to be of the year. May
These zones tend to be more can support a variety of normally with with medium planted, normally support flooded
remote and are often still field and fruit crops or shorter duration duration WS with longer forests and often
forested. They may have upland rice. photo-sensitive WS varieties. duration photo- used for recession
only limited agriculture, but varieties. May not sensitive WS cropping or
can be important sources of be planted in very varieties. May deepwater rice.
NTFPs dry years flood in very wet
Example Transect from Banteay Chhmar Commune, Banteay Meanchey.
Description Hilly Zone Mixed crop upland zone
Crops -A little early rice -Wet rice (early, medium and late rice).
-Upland rice (a little)
-Mango, Banana, Coconut, Jack fruit.
-Vegetables (pumpkin Wax gourd).
Livestock -Wildlife/beast -Cow, Pig, Chicken and
Comments -Fertile soil -Gravel soil (no fertile soil)
-White alluvial soil -Sandy clay soil (no fertile soil)
-Regular calcium tic -Clay soil (no fertile soil)
-Red soil (labansek group) -Calcareous soil (no fertile soil)
-Soil erosion -Fertile soil (forest area)
-Land mine -Land mine.
Problems -Soil erosion -Lack of water
-Drought -Insect pests
-Wild pig destroyed crops. -Drought
-Livestock disease (cholera).
Opportunities -Forest output -Farm all seasons
-Farm -Crop a vegetable
-Livestock -Plants a fruit tree
Productivity -Rice: medium yield. -Rice: medium 1.5 T/ha.
-Forest is low. -Mungbean: low 2 bags/rai.
-Wildlife is low. -Livestock is low
Assessment of Poverty, Gender and Environmental Impacts: Pro Forma
Proposed solution ………………………………………………………………….
or technology ………………………………………………………………….
Is the problem addressed faced equally by all villagers in the agro-ecological zone, mainly the better off
or primarily the poorest?
(tick √ one) All ............. Better-off ................ Poorest ...............
What factors may constrain adoption/use of the technology by poor households? E.g. high investment,
high operation and maintenance costs, high labour need, large land holding requirement, need for
specialist equipment or skills, etc.
What are the potential positive and negative consequences on the poorest farm families of the widespread
adoption of the proposed solution in place of the traditional practices and how can the positive ones be
enhanced and the negative ones reduced?
Positive impacts on the poor How can these be enhanced?
egative impacts on the poor How can these be reduced?
Based on this analysis, modify the proposed solution to maximize its positive impact on the poorest
villagers in the agro-ecological zone.
High positive (++), M positive (+), Non (0), M (-), Low(-)
Source: CAAP & DAE, 2007 good relationship
(labor, income, resources; economic analysis)
Family size: large, mediun, small family members.
Average annual family income by family size.
Resources of land and animal.
Economics analysis on main crop
Possible schematic for flow diagrams
Flows of: Farm produce, Agricultural inputs, Labour, Credit, Information, NTFPs,
Livestock, Health services, Schooling, Etc.
POSITIVE (+) Type of Agro- NEGATIVE (-)
-Rice-Cash crops-Fruit trees- PRODUCTIVITY -Rice-Cash crops-Fruit trees-Livestock-Soil
Livestock-Soil fertility (medium)-There fertility (medium)-There is a river close to
is a river close to Siem Reap border. Siem Reap border.
-There is a road system STABILITY -The climate is variable.
-Paddy rice system -Feeding insect.
-There is orchard land -Rain is not regular.
-There is village common land -Cost of agricultural products fluctuates.
-Forest -Animal diseases
-Animal raising SUSTAINABILITY -Illegal forest cutting.
-Cash crops (mung bean, watermelon -Has no soil fertility (no forest)
and corn) -There is a water but it is easy to dry
-Mulberry -Lack of technique to raise an animals
-Fishing EQUITABILITY -No equality for those far from a pond or
-Forest cutting well.
-Water using (Pond and well). - People don’t have the right to occupy their
Problems 1 2 3 4 5 6
1. Animal disease
2. Insect and pest on rice 1
3. Lack of technique on vegetable 1 2
4. Lack of technique on fish raising 1 2 3
5. Lack of village veterinary service 3 4
6. Lack of irrigation system
1 6 3 4 5
4 3 3 2 2 1
1 2 3 4 5 6
KEY QUESTIONS, GUIDELINE AND WORKING
KEY QUESTION GUIDELINE WORKING
1.How can we overcome 1.Tube well irrigation 1. Demonstration
leaf curl, insect damage technology appropriate irrigation
and drough for -Safe pesticide use well technology.
watermelon growers? - Demonstrtion and
promote the correct
use of pesticides on
2. How to increase the Source quality seed of Vaiety demonstration and
yield of short duration early rice for a high field days
rice varieies? yield
WORKING PRODU SUSTAIN STABIL EQUITA COST DURATI FEASIBI PRIORITY
HYPOTHESIS CTIVITY ABILITY ITY BILITY ON LITY
Demonstrate ++ + ++ ++ H M L 2
Demonstrate +++ - ++ +++ L L M 1
Evaluation Framework: Performance of Key Features
Factor evaluated Indicators Means of verification
Adaptive Adaptation to resource constraints Study team & workshop
& Learning Response to outcomes & lessons assessments
Reaction to unanticipated outcomes
Participatory Commitment/genuine involvement Study team & workshop
Integral use of local knowledge assessments
Representation of interest groups
Communication & conflict reduction
Holistic Inter-sectoral & disciplinary analysis & Study team & workshop
& Integrated recommendations assessments
Comprehensive spatial & temporal Peer review
Diagnosis of complex causal pathways
Synergistic & innovative outcomes
Composite Cost-effective use of available data Study team assessment
assessment Ability to resolve critical questions &
Outcome oriented Relevance, practicality & wide Study team & workshop
acceptance of results & proposals assessments
Potential of APIA-AEA
Consideration of inter-sectoral and interdisciplinary issues
Flexible rather than prescriptive process allowing incorporation
of alternative concepts, tools and methods as necessary
Transparent process (assumptions, decisions, etc.)
Incorporation of local knowledge and facilitation of
‘ownership’ of management measures agreed for
Not only provides assessment results of scientific value,
also initiates a negotiation process
Potential to resolve conflicts between fishers and farmers
Ability to contribute to higher level processes and issues
(e.g. incorporation in IWRM initiatives in Sri Lanka)