Institutional Analysis

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Presented at the Pre-Forum BFP meeting, 7-8 November, 2008 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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Institutional Analysis

  1. 1. WP 4 -- Institutional Analysis Institutions for pro-poor water access and use
  2. 2. Questions to WP4 1. Who controls blue water? 2. How do institutions at multiple levels interact to facilitate or inhibit access to water? 3. What are the incentives for providing poor people with access to water? / How can water institutions help alleviate poverty? 4. How are institutions modified to cope with hydrology? 5. What institutions manage droughts or flood hazards? INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 2
  3. 3. Questions to WP4 1. Who controls blue water? 2. How do institutions at multiple levels interact to facilitate or inhibit access to water? 3. What are the incentives for providing poor people with access to water? / How can water institutions help alleviate poverty? 4. How are institutions modified to cope with hydrology? 5. What institutions manage droughts or flood hazards? INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 3
  4. 4. Property Rights low high Type of Institution region high Large canal systems Watershed Management Small reservoir Drainage Collective Coordination Spatial Salinity Control Marketing Terracing Tube Treadle well Drip plot kit pump low Short Temporal Long Scale term term
  5. 5. Coordination institutions • Can be provided by: • State (a public tubewell that supplies many farms), • Collective action (farmer group) • Markets (farmer selling water). • Which is most appropriate depends on: • Scale • Technical sophistication of technology and farmers • Cultural factors (social capital, market orientation) • Capacity of state, market institutions, etc. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 5
  6. 6. Types of Coordinating State Institutions Collective Market
  7. 7. Types of Coordinating Institutions by Spatial and Temporal Scale Spatial—large- scale, complex State Market Collective Small-scale, low
  8. 8. For group-based approaches • Look beyond formal rules and membership roles • Is the group acting collectively • Who is included and excluded from active membership and decision-making. • Women/men • Land owners/ tenants • Farmers/ other water users (fishers, livestock keepers, home gardens, domestic users, other enterprises). • Formal and informal barriers to participation • Different motivations and returns INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 8
  9. 9. For group-based approaches • Active participation of men and women can be more effective by drawing on skills, resources of both • But costs of mixed organizations also greater, especially where high gender segregation • Consider when identifying which groups to work with, particularly if that organization will gain stronger control over technology or water • More than setting up the organizations-- need to become internalized and ‘institutionalized’ INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 9
  10. 10. Water Rights • “the claims, entitlements and related obligations among people regarding the use and disposition of a scarce resource” • Rights accompanied by duties: • Duties of rights-holders • Duties of others to respect those rights • Rights vs. access INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 10
  11. 11. Why Do Water Rights Matter? • Water is essential for life and livelihoods • Water rights are key assets • Determine distribution of benefits • Rights clarify • Who can use, manage water • What responsibilities they have • Increasing interaction between uses within basins • Need better “rules of the game” to coordinate water use • Secure rights can provide incentives for investment, conservation • Projects often change property rights • Recognized rights provide “seat at the table” for negotiations over changes in water use INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 11
  12. 12. Need to Go Beyond Simplistic Assumptions “There are no water rights here” or “The State owns all water” Careful analysis reveals multiple types and holders of water rights Important implications for water management—equity, efficiency, environment INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 12
  13. 13. Property Rights • All rights don’t derive from the state (government)—also from project regulations, local custom, religious law, etc. • Rights are only as strong as the institution that stands behind them • Customary rights may be stronger than those determined by the state INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 13
  14. 14. Basin International State Religious Local/ customary
  15. 15. Some Critical Questions • How are rights recognized? • Who holds rights? • For how long? • To do what? • From what source? • What about return flows and groundwater? • Transferable? • Environmental allocations? “sticks in the bundle of rights” INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 15
  16. 16. Multiple Uses Multiple Users • Field crop irrigation • By occupational • Household gardens • By gender • Livestock • By generation within the • Fishing household • Harvesting lotus, reeds • By location • Industry/enterprises • Look for marginalized groups • Domestic use • Recreation • Religion INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 16
  17. 17. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 17
  18. 18. Water Rights Reform • Acknowledge existing rights, esp. of marginalized groups • Participatory inventories • Avoid “cadastre disasters” • Gradual and selective licensing • Two-way education and communications • Interactive planning and modeling • Legal literacy • Strategically strengthen agencies and users INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 18
  19. 19. Water rights reforms • Laws and policies are important, but not the sole determinant of water rights • Reforms should be based on solid understanding of existing rights • Rapid reforms can be counter-productive, unlikely to be fully implemented as planned • Negotiation with stakeholders, looking for ways to compensate, leads to more legitimacy INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 19
  20. 20. Beyond panaceas • Not social engineering—institutions are organic, path dependent • Need range of technical and institutional options • Understanding to be able to tailor them to their physical and institutional context INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 20
  21. 21. Questions to WP4 1. Who controls blue water? Urban-based power structures 2. How do institutions at multiple levels interact to facilitate or inhibit access to water? At higher levels more government and lower level more CA institutions; (irrigation) water-related organizations seldom have a mandate for poverty alleviation; once water becomes scarce, power structures tend to exclude weaker users, unless they have strong property rights INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 21
  22. 22. Questions to WP4 3. What are the incentives for providing poor people with access to water?/What water institutions can help alleviate poverty? National food security (irrigation), job creation, rural development (to avoid migration), health concerns 4. How are institutions modified to cope with hydrology? – Institutions following hydrologic boundaries, but often powerless, need to ensure that they are empowered INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 22
  23. 23. Questions to WP4 5. What institutions manage droughts or flood hazards?—Farmers tend to lose out first when droughts occur (national laws) or implementation; again strong property rights needed for farmers to have a share in water- scarce situations INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 23
  24. 24. Institutional Research for WP4 a) What is the link between water access, poverty and wellbeing?-- Is lack of access to water a contributor to poverty? b) Look at existing power structures (administrative, political) and how they are linked to basins and water institutions c) Identify institutions that fit the current power structures while helping the water-poor: Ex: pay farmers to use less water more water for domestic/industry—examine feasibility INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 24
  25. 25. Institutional Research for WP4 d) Create a voice for the poor (India media, panchayat, Supreme Court; Andes, similar); e) Possibility to transfer obligatory stakeholder consultation processes of developed countries f) Alternatively, identify the possibility to generate alliances (Sabatier/Schlager); f.ex. Alliance with environmental organizations to protect biodiversity INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 25
  26. 26. Institutional Research for WP4 g) How can water institutions help alleviate poverty?—Recognition of traditional water rights (Andes) to obtain compensation when water is transferred out h) When there is drought—identify mechanisms that support sharing of information, water, and compensation INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 26
  27. 27. Institutional Research for WP4 High impact interventions can be on institutions High impact interventions require conducive institutions and infrastructure f.ex. Volumetric pricing at village level has lead to water savings in parts of China, but would not work in most of India, Adoptability can only be assured once institutional issues are taken into account INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 27

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