Fisheries in an agro-ecosystems
            approach


     Martin van Brakel & Sophie Nguyen-Khoa
Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries

  Fisheries governance framework
• based on both conventional fisheries management and
  ...
Modern fisheries management
• strongly based on ecosystem theory
• sectoral, vertically integrated
• focuses primarily on ...
Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries
• Originally formulated in relation to marine capture fisheries,
  the concept is relevant...
Ecosystem approach to aquaculture

  More clearly expressed in a holistic
  “ecosystem approach” to development:

  “An Ec...
Fisheries “vs.” Aquaculture?

Capture fisheries                                     Aquaculture
Natural resources manageme...
Agro-ecosystems & fisheries

• (part of) a framework for integrated assessment which:

• requires clear vision of agro-eco...
Agro-ecological basis and ‘scale’

(i)   Identification of agro-ecosystems ‘boundaries’ (seasonal
      floodplains, rain-...
Agro-ecosystems and seasonality
                • Vegetation Index (VI) or
                  vegetation greenness


      ...
Time series analysis
Output: farming systems seasonality
Agro-ecosystems approach
  Serves to:

• Delineate systems boundaries within which certain options
  and constraints for d...
Options and constraints
                             Rainfed
• Ponds (fish and                        • Seasonal water sho...
Possible applications in:
• integrated aquaculture
• ecosystem-based approaches of mitigating negative
  impacts of aquacu...
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Fisheries in an agro-ecosystems approach

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Presented at the Basin Focal Project Fisheries Workshop at Cali, Colombia, Feb 2008

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Fisheries in an agro-ecosystems approach

  1. 1. Fisheries in an agro-ecosystems approach Martin van Brakel & Sophie Nguyen-Khoa
  2. 2. Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Fisheries governance framework • based on both conventional fisheries management and ecosystem management Purpose “to plan, develop and manage fisheries in a manner that addresses the multiple needs and desires of societies, without jeopardizing the options for future generations to benefit from the full range of goods and services provided by fisheries”.
  3. 3. Modern fisheries management • strongly based on ecosystem theory • sectoral, vertically integrated • focuses primarily on fishing activity and target fish resources Ecosystem management • area based • loosely cross-sectoral • focuses on habitats and ecosystem integrity.
  4. 4. Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries • Originally formulated in relation to marine capture fisheries, the concept is relevant to inland fisheries (FAO, 2005) where it requires: • definition and scientific description of the ecosystem in terms of scale, extent, structure and functioning • assessment of its state in terms of health or integrity as defined by what is acceptable to society • assessment of threats • maintenance, protection, mitigation, or rehabilitation using adaptive management strategies (Garcia et. al., 2003).
  5. 5. Ecosystem approach to aquaculture More clearly expressed in a holistic “ecosystem approach” to development: “An Ecosystem Approach for Aquaculture (EEA) is a strategy for the integration of the activity within the wider ecosystem in such a way that it promotes sustainable development, equity, and resilience of interlinked social and ecological systems” (Soto et. al., 2007).
  6. 6. Fisheries “vs.” Aquaculture? Capture fisheries Aquaculture Natural resources management Farming systems management Greater control of the resource
  7. 7. Agro-ecosystems & fisheries • (part of) a framework for integrated assessment which: • requires clear vision of agro-ecosystems boundaries • Involves assessment of the different scales and options of fisheries and aquaculture among social groups • includes explicit analysis of how different stakeholders value fisheries and aquaculture differently
  8. 8. Agro-ecological basis and ‘scale’ (i) Identification of agro-ecosystems ‘boundaries’ (seasonal floodplains, rain-fed or irrigated farming systems etc.) of importance to inland fisheries and / or aquaculture (ii) Valuation of (agro-) ecosystems goods & services from fisheries and aquaculture (iii) Identification of capacities that stakeholders have or need to develop to influence trends positively and effectively (incl. rights-based approaches)
  9. 9. Agro-ecosystems and seasonality • Vegetation Index (VI) or vegetation greenness • High - green vegetation • Low - water and barren • Time series of VI - seasonality
  10. 10. Time series analysis
  11. 11. Output: farming systems seasonality
  12. 12. Agro-ecosystems approach Serves to: • Delineate systems boundaries within which certain options and constraints for different aquatic production systems are more or less similar • Extrapolate and scale up information on systems in use locally (both for “likelihood of occurrence” and identifying potential) • Target development of well integrated and ecologically efficient aquatic production systems
  13. 13. Options and constraints Rainfed • Ponds (fish and • Seasonal water shortage supplementary irrigation and trade-offs • Rice-fish (fisheries and • Dependent on level of rice aquaculture) intensification (trade-offs) • Aquaculture or enhanced • Drawdown fisheries in irrigation reservoirs Irrigated
  14. 14. Possible applications in: • integrated aquaculture • ecosystem-based approaches of mitigating negative impacts of aquaculture • inter-sectoral integration • broadening stakeholders participation • use of appropriate incentives • use of local and other relevant knowledge • promotion of EAA-specific research (e.g. estimate carrying capacity at farm level, at the aquatic ecosystem level, the regional level etc.)

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