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  1. 1. SSILTT 2012Comprehension: During and After Reading
  2. 2. Word Sort
  3. 3. During Reading/ Reading Comprehension• Teaching activities to focus on comprehension• Concrete activities to ensure they READ and comprehend what they read• Some resources from the CCSSO Adolescent Literacy Toolkit
  4. 4. Adolescent toolkit: oolkit/resources_for_teachers/10620.php
  5. 5. Sticky Notes•Self-monitoring strategies or fix-up strategies forstudents to do themselves (ex. During test!)•Exactly the same as college students activelyreading in their textbooks!•Uses sticky notes to tab specific points of interestor points of strategy application in a text duringreading. It helps readers engage with text andfocus on specific aspects of the reading process. Itrequires them to consciously apply readingstrategies – and to think metacognitively aboutthese strategies, in other words, to think about andarticulate their thinking. And most importantly, itbuilds readers who are active participants, notpassive recipients, of the reading process.
  6. 6. Sticky Note Uses (teach and model each use for a sufficient period of time)•Making Connections:Comprehension is a transaction between thereader and the text (Louise Rosenblatt, 1978).Uses schema/background knowledgeAdrienne Greer suggests that students “BIBB –Bring It Back to the Book.Effective Prompt (lower grades): When I read __________, I made aconnection to ________ because __________.
  7. 7. Sticky Note Uses•Visualizations:Mental Images, Mind MoviesStudents purposefully construct visual – or othersensory – images to support comprehensionStudents could do a quick sketch on their post-itnote of the image that comes to their mind.
  8. 8. Sticky Note Uses•Predicting:Not just random guessesGood readers use clues in the text to anticipatefuture events!Most important part of predicting: Using the clues in the text to come up with a reasonable and credible thought.Students can track their own thinking as theyconfirm or correct their predictions. (I think itit….Now I think it is…..)
  9. 9. Sticky Note Uses•Drawing Inferences:Good readers infer all the time they just don’tknow it!Part of the challenge is teaching students torecognize an inference and understand both thetextual clues and the background knowledge theyneeded to draw on in order to make the inference.I think….., Now I think…., My thinking changedbecause….. What I read What I know What I infer
  10. 10. Sticky Note Uses•Vocabulary:Highlighted What I I How I I might Highlighted What I How might HighlightedWord What think/know itit How I might remember itit Word think/know it remember it Word think/know means remember means Highlighted What I think/ How I might means Word know it remember it means
  11. 11. Sticky NotesStudents think as they read by making notes on sticky notes all through the text, then discuss or write about their sticky notes after reading. • *************Questions************* • Examples of (kinds of cells, equations, migration, charitable acts, etc.) • Steps in a process • Things you want to discuss • Things you disagree with • Get fancy with different colors to color- code
  12. 12. Sticky Notes•After:Make sure you model each strategy until studentsare capable of completing it on their own.Can share with a partner or small groupMake sure students don’t do a lot of writing – thistakes away from important reading timeMight want to set parameters on # of sticky notesallowed.
  13. 13. • Think of 3 different ways students could use sticky notes to mark-up informational text as they read. – Where should they put them and what should they write on them?• Share• Or, mark with codes as read, see handout
  14. 14. Try it with a magazine independently then share as a small group.Pick the one most interesting post- it to share with the whole group!
  15. 15. Partner Reading Partner reading is one of the most efficient ways of increasing time spent reading.• Gives you a purpose to read• Gives you support when you encounter problems• Results in far greater time spent reading than whole-class turn taking• See handout
  16. 16. Partner ReadingResearch-based fluency strategy used with readerswho lack fluency.Purpose: supporting each other through the oralreading of connected textSupports and enforces student modeling andreinforcement of quality reading behaviorImproves fluency, reading rate, word attack skillsEar to ear, knee to knee
  17. 17. Partner ReadingFishbowl first time…maybe with a neighbor teacher,administrator, or someone wandering around outsideyour classroom!Hold students accountableBe purposeful about pairing (high/low, high/high,problem pairs, special needs {learning, emotional})Encourage pairs to ask questions as they read (“whatwas your page about?”, “What was your favorite part?”)ANO ROUND ROBIN!!!! (why?)
  18. 18. Partner Reading•More to evoke ideas:Summarize the section readAsk a question to clarify meaning of a word or ideaIdentify an important question that is answered by thepassageRelate the content to a personal situation or real-lifeexampleShare a reading skill that was useful during reading
  19. 19. Partner ReadingReact to the ideas in some way that reflects analysisor evaluation of the reading: • Agree or disagree with the content or the author’s point of view • Discuss the style or logical development of the writer • Draw inferences from the reading • Compare or contrast this passage with the other readings or ideas. • Identify effective use of a writing skill.Initially teachers may slect the passage, have studentsread it quietly, write if finished early, all pair, pairs share,
  20. 20. Try it!•Use a text on your table•Partner with the person sitting next toyou•You read a paragraph/page (if short)and have partner “say something”•Then switch•Complete “say something” a couple oftimes each
  21. 21. Say SomethingForces students to think, summarize, or respond as they are reading.2. Students read together in pairs or small groups (silently, usually)3. Students stop briefly every 3-4 paragraphs or at the end of every page to “say something.”
  22. 22. Rules for Say Something1. Decide who will say something first.2. When you say something, do one of these: • make a prediction • ask a question • clarify something you misunderstood • make a comment • make a connection3. If you can’t do one of these five things, then you need to re-read.
  23. 23. Simpler Version of Say Something• When partner reading: – Read a page – Stop to summarize – Partner “approves” your summary, if not you reread – Switch• Either way: teach the listening partner NOT to interrupt or correct if the reader stumbles or pauses. Let them self correct unless they ask for help• Teach with a fishbowl
  24. 24. Try it!• Read with a partner.• Stop every page or 3rd paragraph to “say something”• Discuss
  25. 25. Say Something on Paper• With a sticky note or right on the text, say something at the end of each page
  26. 26. During Reading: BookmarksEncourage students to notice and keep track of words, ideas, etc. as they read.3. Teacher models first4. Fill out bookmarks during reading5. Share/discuss/write about bookmarks after reading.
  27. 27. Comprehension StrategiesUSE ACROSS CONTENT AREAS!!!!Conscious plans – set of steps that good readers useto make sense of text.Comprehension strategy instruction helps studentsbecome purposeful, active readers who are in control oftheir own reading comprehension.Metacognition: Good readers use metacognitivestrategies to think about and have control over theirreading.Requires active engagement
  28. 28. Comprehension Monitoring StrategiesBefore Reading: they might clarify their purpose forreading, make predictions, preview the text (picturewalk)During Reading: students might monitor theirunderstanding, adjust their reading speed to fit thedifficulty of the text and “fix” any comprehensionproblems they haveAfter Reading: students check their understanding ofwhat they read
  29. 29. Comprehension• Discuss teaching comprehension- discuss what’s difficult?• Think of a text you had students read last spring. What were some discussion questions you asked or questions you had them write? (save for later)
  30. 30. Teaching Reading Strategies• Teaching the invisible process that go on inside a reader’s head to construct meaning – Monitor and fix up – Making connections – Asking questions – Making inferences – Using text features – Using text structures – Graphic organizers and text structures
  31. 31. Comprehension Strategy Instruction• Active, independent readers do things with their minds to comprehend the text.• Dependent readers hope the text will magically make sense.• Comprehension can be taught.• Getting you to comprehend is not the same as teaching you to comprehend.
  32. 32. “Guided release of responsibility” to teach strategies1. Teacher modeling – Explicit explanation of what, why, how – Think-aloud to demonstrate the strategy – Model with multiple texts, genres, etc.2. Guided practice-teacher and student together3. Independent practice-student alone with feedback4. Application-no coaching, feedback, or support
  33. 33. During Reading: Making ConnectionsTo schema – Text-to-self – Text-to-text – Text-to-world – ACTIVELY READ Miller’s think-aloud (pgs 14-18 in handout) – discuss what we see there based on the GRR steps
  34. 34. During Reading: More on Connections• Ignoring distracting connections• Marking connections with sticky notes so you can talk about them later
  35. 35. During Reading Strategies• Monitoring--does this make sense?• Fix-up strategies – Re-read******* – Slow down – Keep reading but pay attention – Ask yourself questions till you figure it out – Use the illustrations or graphics – Stop and think – Summarize what you’ve read so far• Prepare a think-aloud where you model one of these strategies
  36. 36. Comprehension StrategiesACTIVELY READ pages 14-16 in Handout
  37. 37. During Reading: Making Inferences• Combine what is on the page with what is in your head – drawing conclusions, filling in missing details, figuring out what’s going on, predicting, etc. – Discuss ads that require inferencesHe put down $10.00 at the window. The woman behind the window gave $4.00. The person next to him gave him $3.00, but he gave it back to her. So, when they went inside, she bought him a large bag of popcorn.
  38. 38. Teaching Inferencing: Syntax Surgery• Discuss the two different scripts from Beers• Syntax Surgery – Examine the two examples – Do the same with Sunderland/Teen Sailor – What inferences did you make? – How did you figure out what the pronouns were referring to? – How did you figure out what was going on?
  39. 39. Teach Making Inferences: Two Column Chart• See Miller example• Discuss how you’d do it
  40. 40. Making Inferences: It Says-I Say-But So• Using poems, modeling making inferences using It says-I say-And So . . . . It Says (the I say (what I And so . . . text says) know) (inference)
  41. 41. Using Text Features• Make a list of text features good readers know how to use, compare to framework• Discuss scavenger hunt, make chart Feature Where How used?/ Why found? in books?
  42. 42. Teaching Text Features• Look at the examples of think- alouds in the think-aloud handout (in the vocab packet)• Prepare a think-aloud where you model how/when/why to use one of the text features on your list
  43. 43. Using Text Structures• Recognizing text structures• An architecture for organizing the information as you read• See handout for more• Creates “slots” in your mind
  44. 44. Examples of Text Structures• Text structures - sequential order, description, simple cause and effect, procedure, compare/contrast, order of importance, problem/solution, etc. (look in your framework)• Find them in the texts around you• Prepare a think-aloud with one, how does recognizing the structure help you build comprehension
  45. 45. Graphic Organizers and Text StructuresSelect the right graphic organizer (from handout) to use with particular texts, discuss• sequential order• Description• simple cause and effect• Procedure• compare/contrast• order of importance• problem/solution
  46. 46. Teaching Comprehension Strategies, Summary• Analyze example of Kate’s think-aloud• Good?• Could be better?
  47. 47. Teaching Students to Take Notes• Model, model, model• How DO you decide what’s important• Important vs. interesting• Two-column note taking (handout)• Other ideas?
  48. 48. After Reading• Show you’ve really read--accountability• Dig deeper for understanding and critical thinking• Apply learning
  49. 49. AFTER reading: Accountability• Prove you’ve read and understood the text• Every time• Not a quiz, worksheet, fill-in-the-blank or outline• Avoid lecturing/explaining (disincentive to read)
  50. 50. After Reading: Accountability• Discuss with a neighbor• Write a summary or a response (and share with the teacher or a neighbor)• Write a question you have about the text or three things you remember• Teacher randomly chooses 5 readers to tell the whole class what they’ve read
  51. 51. Save the Last Word for Me• Each in a group of 3 has 3 index cards• As read, write quote on one side, why on back• In groups, person reads quote, rest of group discusses the quote, then the first person/reader explains her thoughts• Rotate around• Try it• Extend: write about/whole class discuss which one was most important, etc.• Nonfiction?
  52. 52. Summarizing• Somebody-Wanted-But-So (narrative texts) – Multiple points of view – More than one for longer stories-SWBS, then SWBS, then . . . .• Determining importance (informational texts) • Read a passage. How did you figure out what was most important?• 5 Ws
  53. 53. Teach Rules for Summarizing• Delete irrelevant information• Delete redundant information• Use a general idea (category) to describe a list of ideas• Look for a topic sentence to borrow for the summary• Put it in your own words or create your own topic sentence if not provided• (Cranes example)
  54. 54. Practice Summarizing and Give Feedback• Read• Write summaries• Share and vote, which is best• Discuss/justify• 15-7-3-1 with Noah Webster passage
  55. 55. After Reading: Questions That Require Synthesis and Inferences• Analyze the questions you wrote at the beginning of the workshop – Do they require synthesis: information from more than one place in the text? – Do they require students to make inferences: to blend what’s on the page with whats in their minds? – Is there more than one right answer? Should there be? – Could students answer without even reading the text? (text dependent vs. independent questions) – Where fall on Bloom’s Taxonomy?
  56. 56. Use It Says to Answer Questions that Require Inference •Practice/see example in handout •Try with sample MCT 2 questionsQuestion It says I say And soWhy did GLbreak BabyBear’schair?Why did GLrun awaywhen shewoke up?
  57. 57. QARAnother test taking strategy. The answer is:In the text:Right thereThink and SearchIn my headAuthor and YouOn your own
  58. 58. Silent Discussion• Put provocative questions or statements on at the top of a blank page, one question/statement per group member• Students in groups read the question/statement, respond/ask a follow up question• After a set amount of time, they pass to the left, and the next person responds• Continue till all have read and responded at least once• Try it!
  59. 59. After Reading: Most Important WordEngages students in high DOK reflection.3. Students pick most important word, and write a few reasons why it’s so important4. Discuss as small groups or large class, then write to justify why it’s the most important word5. Could do most important sentence, paragraph, or passage
  60. 60. After Reading: Word Sort• Pick key words from the text related to major concepts and ideas (or use the words you sorted as a pre-reading activity).• Ask students to work in groups to sort those words into categories (either open sort or you provide categories).• Students write (or talk) to justify and explain their sorting.• Try it!• Discuss ways to use before, during, and after instruction
  61. 61. Wrap-Up 1• Read and discuss model think alouds in handout
  62. 62. Wrap Up 2• Make a list of all comprehension stuff we’ve done• Write on your framework which teaching strategy could help you teach each competency in comprehension