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  1. 1. Introduction toHuman Services
  2. 2. The Client• The Whole Person • Multifaceted Individuals • These Prospective are integrated within the individual to form the “Whole Person” • Psychological • Biological • Cultural • Social • Financial • Educational • Vocational • Spiritual
  3. 3. The Client• Problems for clients are rarely single issues• Human service Professionals should approach each client with the expectation of more than one problem • One problem can cause, influence or be related to other difficulties.
  4. 4. The Client• Perceptions of Client Problems • Problems are a normal part of life • Coping Skills• Defining Problems • It is difficult to predict what an individual will experience as a problem• Problems in living have two components • A description of the problem • A course of action leading to a definition• How clients view own situations and what they perceive to be problems are important factors in problem identification. • Person lacks to e resources to solve the problem • Person lacks the skills to solve the problem• No guarantee exists that an individual will seek help
  5. 5. The Client• Understanding Client Problems • Developmental Perspective • A Situational Perspective • Meeting Human Needs
  6. 6. The Client ERIKSON’S EIGHT PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT • Basic trust vs. mistrust • Autonomy vs. shame and doubt • Initiative vs. guilt • Industry vs. inferiority • Identity vs. role confusion • Intimacy vs. isolation • Generativity vs. stagnation • Ego integrity vs. despair
  7. 7. The Client • Erikson believed that Freud attached too much emphasis to the role of biological and sexual forces (the largely unconscious id) on human development. • Erikson’s psychosexual theory emphasized the interaction between biologically based maturation and the demands of society (incorporated into the ego). • Unlike Freud and many of his followers who believed that identity formation was largely complete by adolescence, Erikson believed that identity development continued across the entire life course. • Erikson divided life span development into eight stages, each characterized by a vital psychological task or psychosocial crisis.
  8. 8. The Client • Erikson divided life into eight stages, each characterized by a vital psychosocial crisis. • In Erikson’s meaning, crisis does not mean an extreme emergency or traumatic experience. • A crisis is a bipolar set of critical psychological tasks that require adaptation or coping. • Crises are resolved by the individual in interaction with the people around the individual and the social role expectations of society. • The degree to which one successfully resolves crises in earlier stages affects a person’s ability to resolve crises in later stages.
  9. 9. The Client BASIC TRUST VS. BASIC MISTRUST Infancy (birth to 12 months) Infants who consistently receive warm loving care and nourishment from caretakers learn to trust and view the world as a safe, dependable place. Inconsistent care yields anxiety and distrust. AUTONOMY VS. SHAME AND DOUBT Toddler (12 months to 3 years)Development of a sense of autonomy, separateness, feeling ofcompetence and self-worth. Child strives to accomplish thingsindependently; tests limits imposed by parents. Roots in toilettraining and development of motor skills. Children with a sense ofautonomy like to make decisions; those who have sense of shameprefer being told what to do.
  10. 10. The Client INITIATIVE VS. GUILT Pre-school (3 –6 years)Active imagination; desire to explore/investigate world; eager to learn;creative make-believe and play. Wants to try everything but mustdiscover limits set by society (parents). If over restricted or punishedchildren become fearful, passive observers and followers instead ofself-starters and leaders. INDUSTRY VS. INFERIORITY Elementary school (6-12 years)Major influence is school or learning adult roles in other cultures.Work and cooperate with others. Need to be productive and succeed inactivities – master skills. Much comparison with peers – do I ‘pass’ or‘fail’?
  11. 11. The Client IDENTITY VS. ROLE CONFUSION Adolescence (12-18 years)Massive physical changes (puberty). Drawing away from family tofind own identity. Who am I? Self-chosen values. Identification withpeer group enables teenager to escape family domination. Sense ofpersonal identity essential foundation for intimacy. INTIMACY VS. ISOLATION Young adult (20-35 years)The ability to share with and give to another person withoutsacrificing one’s own identity. Major issues: love and work, mateselection and career choice. Sex as part of an intimate relationshiprather than sex as a recreational or purely reproductive act.
  12. 12. The Client GENERATIVITY VS. STAGNATION Mature adulthood (35-60 years)Productivity. Creating one’s legacy for future generations. Raisingone’s family and career progression. Feeling that what one is doingis worthwhile, making a contribution. EGO INTEGRITY VS. DESPAIR Older adulthood (65+ years)The ability to look back over one’s life and find it complete.Satisfaction with one’s accomplishments. Closure, sense of readinessfor death. Sense of peace and satisfaction vs. regret and despair.
  13. 13. The Client• Understanding Client Problems • Developmental Perspective • Individuals engage in certain tasks or activities at different times during their life • Stages are experienced differently by each person • Their social context affects movement through developmental stages • Traditional stages are changing as society changes • A Situational Perspective • Meeting Human Needs
  14. 14. The Client• Understanding Client Problems • Developmental Perspective • A Situational Perspective • Such situations occur because an individual is in a particular place at a particular time • Problems can lead to short or long term difficulties or both • Experience results in a variety of feelings for the person • A person experience situational problems is often viewed as a victim • Meeting Human Needs
  15. 15. The Client
  16. 16. The Client• Understanding Client Problems • Developmental Perspective • A Situational Perspective • Meeting Human Needs • Basic survival, security, safety, recognition and acceptance are needs • Homelessness results for a variety of reasons • The very nature of homelessness makes a count of the numbers of homeless difficult to obtain • Families with young children, dually diagnosed individual and teenagers comprise a large groups of the homeless.
  17. 17. The Client• Clients as Individuals, Groups and Populations • What are some of the issues that your clients will present?
  18. 18. The Client• Ways of Getting Help • Referrals • Involuntary Placement in the System • Inadvertent Services
  19. 19. The Client• Barriers to Seeking Help • Clients perspective of the situation • Embarrassment • Reluctance to admit to having a problem • Perspective of the helper • Cultural Factors • Cost of Services • Transportation • Time • Fear • What others can you think of?
  20. 20. Resources• Allyn & Bacon, 2003• Woodside & McClam, 5th Ed.,2006