Expanding the Boundaries of Optical Communications

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Cláudio Mazzali – Corning

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Expanding the Boundaries of Optical Communications

  1. 1. Expanding the Boundaries of OpticalExpanding the Boundaries of Optical CommunicationsCommunications Claudio MazzaliClaudio Mazzali Business Technology DirectorBusiness Technology Director TelecomTelecom
  2. 2. Exciting Times ! January 7th, 2013 January 15th, 2013 March 18th, 2013 May 2nd, 2013 Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 2 May 2 , 2013 May 20th, 2013
  3. 3. Exciting Times ! January 7th, 2013 January 15th, 2013 March 18th, 2013 May 2nd, 2013 Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 3 May 2 , 2013 May 20th, 2013
  4. 4. Exciting Times ! January 7th, 2013 January 15th, 2013 March 18th, 2013 May 2nd, 2013 Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 4 May 2 , 2013 May 20th, 2013
  5. 5. Exciting Times ! January 7th, 2013 January 15th, 2013 March 18th, 2013 May 2nd, 2013 Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 5 Corning Tecnologias de Communicação S.A. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil May 2 , 2013 May 20th, 2013
  6. 6. Exciting Times ! January 7th, 2013 January 15th, 2013 March 18th, 2013 May 2nd, 2013 Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 6 May 2 , 2013 May 20th, 2013
  7. 7. And just 4 days ago… May 22nd , 2013, McKinsey: The $33 Trillion Technology Payoff By STEVE LOHR Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 7
  8. 8. 150 200 250 Fiber market is already >2x the peak during Telecom Bubble M fkm China 280% Growth • Mobile traffic exploding driven by smart devices, requiring towers to be connected with fiber • China becomes the largest market globally in just a few years Global Fiber Market Demand 8% 49% 47% 47% Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 8 0 50 100 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 ROW • FTTH, FTTC, FTTB builds become common • New services such as cloud computing and OTT video further stimulate already robust bandwidth growth Source: Corning Analysis 1% 4% 21%
  9. 9. The Big Squeeze 3Q12 YoY Revenue Growth/Decline $2,000 $1,500 $1,000 PriceperPortperGbps Petabytespermonth 120 100 80 60 Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 9 Long haul Access • 100G • 400G • FTTx • LTE • Mobility, internet Video and Cloud offer new revenue streams • But require CapEx investment in Next Gen architecture: Source: 2012 Infonetics Fundamental Market Drivers • Carrier revenue growth is lagging traffic growth Technology and Innovation have a critical role in increasing simplicity and providing cost effective capacity 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 $500 $0 PriceperPortperGbps Petabytespermonth 40 20 0 Source: 2012 Infonetics Fundamental Market Drivers
  10. 10. And the boundaries are being expanded… …MultiCore and Few Moded Fibers are new players… Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 10
  11. 11. And the boundaries are being expanded… …MultiCore and Few Moded Fibers are new players… Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 11
  12. 12. But a different picture when distance is also considered… Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 12
  13. 13. Spectral efficiency and OSNR/Reach balance • 1 bit per symbol • 2 bits per symbol IncreasingSEandrequiredOSNR BPSK QPSK Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 13 Decreasingreach • 2 bits per symbol • 3 bits per symbol • 4 bits per symbol IncreasingSEandrequiredOSNR 8 QAM 16 QAM Source: Carena et. Al JLT vol. 30 No. 10, May 2012
  14. 14. In addition to MultiCore and Few Moded Fibers, Pure Silica Core fibers also playing a critical role…and shorter term ! 8 10 12 14Spectralefficiency(b/s/Hz) SiGe Fibers PCS Fibers Shannon Limit Hero Experiments PSC Fibers Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 14 0 2 4 6 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 Spectralefficiency(b/s/Hz) Distance (km)
  15. 15. Multi Core FibersMulti Core Fibers FewFew ModedModed FibersFibers Expanding Capacity and Capabilities… Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 15 Low Loss FibersLow Loss Fibers
  16. 16. MultiCore Fibers – The industry needs to focus on the critical challenges and most likely applications Multiple Multi-Core designs: Corning, OFS, Sumitomo, NTT, etc… Termination… Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 16 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 InsertionLoss(dB) Core Number of Input Fiber Termination…
  17. 17. Wouldn’t Multi Core bring more value in short distances for high density interconnects in Data Centers ? Ch 1 Ch 2 Ch 3 Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 17 • 25 Gb/s, PRBS 231-1, 1490 nm, unidirectional traffic • 200 m, direct coupling from Silicon waveguides gratings into MCF 24 5 ps/div Ch 4 Ch 5 Ch 6 Ch 7 Ch 8
  18. 18. Multi Core FibersMulti Core Fibers FewFew ModedModed FibersFibers Expanding Capacity and Capabilities… Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 18 Low Loss FibersLow Loss Fibers
  19. 19. Few mode fibers 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 RMSModalDelay(ns/km) 0.35% delta 0.40% delta 0.45% delta 0.50% delta -0.0005 0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025 0.003 0.0035 0.004 0.0045 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Radius (a.u.) Delta Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 19 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 Wavelength (um) RMSModalDelay(ns/km) 0.35% delta 0.40% delta 0.45% delta 0.50% delta 0 1.9 1.92 1.94 1.96 1.98 2 2.02 2.04 alpha Radius (a.u.) 1525 1530 1535 1540 1545 1550 1555 1560 1565 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 Wavelength (nm) ModeGroupDelayDifference(ps/km) (a) LP01 LP11 Mode field diameter (um) 13.2 13.3 Effective area (um2) 137 183 Cutoff wavelength (nm) n/a 2634 Attenuation (dB/km) 0.22 0.25
  20. 20. Transmission experiment (in collaboration with NEC Labs America) Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 20 • Use 3 spatial modes in a 50 km few mode fiber from Corning • 88 wavelength channels in each spatial mode • 112-Gb/s in each wavelength channel • 26.4 Tb/s MDM transmission over 50-km
  21. 21. …and more tricks may be necessary…but how practical ? Negative DMGD Positive DMGD 50 100 150 200 250 ModeGroupDelay(ps/km) A:18km-spool B:10km-spool C:22km-spool D:50km-spool 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Er 3+ Density(a.u.) Ring Doping Few Moded EDFA Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 21 1530 1535 1540 1545 1550 1555 1560 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 Wavelength (nm) AverageDMGD(ps/km) x-pol y-pol LP01 LP11,e LP11,o 1530 1535 1540 1545 1550 1555 1560 -150 -100 -50 0 Wavelength (nm) ModeGroupDelay(ps/km) 16 18 20 22 24 26 0 5 10 15 20 25 Pump Power (dBm) Gain(dB) LP01 LP11 Center-launch Pumping Offset-launch Pumping -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 0 0.2 Radius (µm)
  22. 22. …And if we are talking about expanding boundaries, why not combine them ?... • MCF has 12 single-mode, and two few-mode cores supporting LP01 and LP11 propagation • SM cores: step-index with mode-field diameter (MFD) of 9 µm at 1550 nm • FM cores: graded index, MFD of LP01 mode is 14 µm at 1550 nm • Pitch spacing: 45 µm • 12 cores × [386×91.54 + 384×102.66 ] + 2 cores × 354×213.1 Gb/s = 1.048 Pb/s • Total bandwidth from 1526.22 nm to 1611.38 nm: 10.38 THz • “Equivalent” Spectral Efficiency: ~ 110 b/s/Hz. • (By the way, I personally don’t agree with this “definition”…) Collaboration Corning – NEC America Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 22 • (By the way, I personally don’t agree with this “definition”…) SM2 SM6 SM1 SM5 SM1 0 FM 1 SM4 SM9 FM2 SM3 SM8 SM12 SM7 SM11 And just to remind ourselves…1 Petabit...per second… 117,281,240,296 pages of plaintext (1,200 characters) 586,406,201 books (200 pages or 240,000 characters) 44,739,243 digital pictures (with 3MB average file size) 33,554,432 MP3 audio files (with 4MB average file size) 206,489 650MB CD's 29,925 4.38GB DVD's 5,243 25GB Blu-ray discs
  23. 23. Experimental setup (in collaboration with NEC Labs America) 385 C+L- Band DFB laser 3-km MCF SM1-12 FM1-2 τ1 τ2 τ3 τ4 τ5 τ6 τ7 τ8 τ9 τ10 τ11 τ12 τ13 τ14 τ17 τ18 OFFLINE PROCESSING Pol. Mux 90° Hybrid PD PD PD PD TOF Sampling Scope LO Core Selector (B) I/Q Mod-1 FS 12.5 GHz Pol. Mux DP-32QAM-OFDM Transmitter for SM Cores AWG ECL M-MUX I/Q Mod-2 Pol. Mux I/Q Mod-3 Pol. Mux DP-QPSK Transmitter for FM Cores τa τb τ τ WSS Odd λ Even 25G/50GIL PC τ15 Pol. Mux 90° Hybrid PD PD PD PD Sampling Scope WSS LP M-DEMUX Core-to-CoreS- MUX(A) SM1 SM2 SM3 SM4 SM5 SM6 SM7 SM8 SM9 SM10 SM11 SM12 FM1 FM2 Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 23 Micropositioner Receiving fiber: SM or FM Core Selector AWG = Arbitrary Waveform Generator DFB = Distributed Feedback FS = Frequency Shifter IL = Interleaver I/Q Mod= IQ Modulator LO = Local Oscillator M-(DE)MUX = Mode (de)multiplexer PC = Polarization controller PD = Photodiode Pol. Mux = Polarization Multiplexer TOF: Tunable optical filter WSS = Wavelength Selective Switch (B)(A) PPG Trigger τc τd Even λ τ16 Single mode fiber Few mode fiber Auto control loop Computer Auto measurement control loop 60× Micropositioner Single-core SM or FM fibers Core-to-Core S-MUX PD LP01 LP11e LP11o LO FM2
  24. 24. Multi Core FibersMulti Core Fibers FewFew ModedModed FibersFibers Expanding Capacity and Capabilities… Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 24 Low Loss FibersLow Loss Fibers
  25. 25. Spansph ch NNFPS P OSNRout ⋅⋅⋅ = 2/ nAeff∝ FiberFiber EffectiveEffective FiberFiber AttenuationAttenuation Effect of fiber attributes on OSNR and Fiber FOM Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 25 Spansph NNFPS ⋅⋅⋅ Fiber Independent )/(nAttenuatio kmdBα∝ EffectiveEffective AreaArea AttenuationAttenuation G. Charlet, ECOC 2010, paper We.8.F.1 [ ]         −⋅−−         ⋅ ⋅ = refeff eff ref refeff refeff L L LkmdBkmdB nA nA ,2, ,2 log10)/()/(log10FOM(dB)Fiber αα N. Bergano, OFC 2009, SubOptic 2010
  26. 26. Impact of Attenuation & Aeff on Fiber FOM 110 120 130 140 150 Effectivearea(sq.um) 5-5.5 4.5-5 4-4.5 3.5-4 3-3.5 2.5-3 2-2.5 GeO2-doped silica core, n2 = 2.3x10-20 m2/W Silica core, n2 = 2.1x10-20 m2/W VascadeVascade®® EX3000 fiberEX3000 fiber FOM (dB) Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 26 0.16 0.162 0.164 0.166 0.168 0.17 0.172 0.174 0.176 0.178 0.18 0.182 0.184 0.186 0.188 0.19 0.192 0.194 0.196 0.198 0.2 80 90 100 Fiber attenuation (dB/km) Effectivearea(sq.um) 2-2.5 1.5-2 1-1.5 0.5-1 0-0.5 Ref. fiber: Aeff = 80 µm2, α= 0.20 dB/km, n2 = 2.3x10-20 m2/W For this example, span length is 75 km VascadeVascade®® EX2000 fiberEX2000 fiber SMFSMF--28 ULL28 ULL REFREFREFREF
  27. 27. And we need to use all tools to enable this performance, including coatings… 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.21 Attenuation(dB/km) Silica-Germania Silica Core Fiber Manufac. Fiber type (dB/km) @1550 Aeff (mm2) Reference or comment Corning PSC 0.160 150 OFC 2013 papers OTu2B, PDP 5A.6 Sumitomo PSC 0.154 130 OFC 2013, PDP5A7 OFS SiGe 0.183 150 J.X. Cai et. al JLT, vol 30, p.652 (2012) Draka SiGe 0.185 155 OFC 2011 paper OMR2. Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 27 Aeff = 110-115 sq. um Aeff = 120-125 sq. um Aeff = 130-135 sq. um z e γ− ∝ 2/3 36 4 E b a ∆ ∝γ 2b2a Corning EX2000 PSC 0.162 112 Commercially available http://www.corning.com Sumitomo Z+ fiber PSC 0.168 112 Commercially available http://global-sei.com/ OFS UltraWave SLA SiGe 0.185 106 Commercially available http://ofsoptics.com Draka LongLines SiGe <0.190 120 Commercially available http://communications.draka.com/
  28. 28. Talking about combining attributes… Carriers were looking for this also in more general networks… Core Bend improved G.657.A1 fiber e.g. ClearCurve® XB fiber Low-loss G.652.D fiber e.g. SMF-28e+® LL fiber Business Name Security Marking 28 Access • Different fiber types presents many challenges: • Inventory management complexity • Mode Field Diameter (MFD) mismatch • Deployment and maintenance speed Corning®Corning® SMFSMF--28® Ultra28® Ultra fiberfiber
  29. 29. Talking about combining attributes… Carriers were looking for this also in more general networks… 1550 nm (dB/km) 1625 nm (dB/km) 1310 nm (dB/km) Typical G.652.D fiber ≤ 0.23 ≤ 0.20 ≤ 0.35 ≤ 0.20 ≤ 0.18 ≤ 0.32 Typical G.657.A1 fiber ≤ 0.23 ≤ 0.20 ≤ 0.35 Corning® SMF-28® Ultra fiber Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 29 1625 nm (dB/km) PMDQ (ps/√km) 1550nm bend @ 10mm radius (dB) 1310nm MFD(μm) ≤ 0.23 < 0.06 ≤ 0.20 < 0.04 < 0.50 9.2 ± 0.4 Not Specified 9.2 ± 0.4 SMF-28® Ultra fiber delivers better attenuation and macrobend performance, with no compromise in any other attributes…Compatible and simple. ≤ 0.23 < 0.06 < 0.75 8.6 ± 0.4
  30. 30. Short Dist. and Mega Data CentersShort Dist. and Mega Data Centers Convergence OpticalConvergence Optical -- WirelessWireless Expanding the Penetration of Optical Communications… Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 30 Consumer ElectronicsConsumer Electronics
  31. 31. Mega Data Centers bringing new challenges for optics… Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 31
  32. 32. Disaggregation Impact: Electrical Optical SAN switch PCIe extension Disagregated Server Top of the rack (TOR) switch ServerLAN Connection SAN Connection In-rack connection Metro WAN Campus Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 32
  33. 33. New Challenges… Fiber-Chip Coupling The Fiber Dispersion becomes important again… Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 33
  34. 34. Short Distances and Data CentersShort Distances and Data Centers Convergence OpticalConvergence Optical -- WirelessWireless Expanding the Penetration of Optical Communications… Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 34 Consumer ElectronicsConsumer Electronics
  35. 35. Optical Comm. expansion into “Horizontal” enabling Wireless Coverage Launching ONE™ Wireless Platform - DAS • Mobile broadband demand growing at 66% CAGR • Connected devices to reach 19 billion by 2016 Wireless Trends “Bandwidth of fiber to every access point” Optical Distributed Antenna System (DAS) Source: Cisco Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 35 “Bandwidth of fiber to every access point” Lower cost • Less installation time (~40%) • Lower first-installed cost (~0-20%) • 20-40% less total cost of ownership More capability • Integrated GigE for small cells, WiFi • 1:1 architecture for advanced features High flexibility • Modular for cost effective upgrades • Dynamic capacity steering & multi-sector support
  36. 36. Optical Communications expansion into Access enabling Wireless Coverage Synergies leading to Convergence FTTx - LTE Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 36
  37. 37. Short Distances and Data CentersShort Distances and Data Centers Convergence OpticalConvergence Optical -- WirelessWireless Expanding the Penetration of Optical Communications… Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 37 Consumer ElectronicsConsumer Electronics
  38. 38. Optical Communications expanding into Consumer Electronics AOCs for Cons. Electronics – Thunderbolt (10G) and USB 3.0 (5Gb/s) Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 38
  39. 39. Simple Summary… 1. Lots of questions…and lots of options… 2. Consequently lots of juicy research areas 3. And lots of challenges and opportunities… Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 39 3. And lots of challenges and opportunities… Exciting and Busy Times Ahead of Us !
  40. 40. Thank You !... Obrigado ! Claudio Mazzali mazzalic@corning.com
  41. 41. Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 41
  42. 42. Business Name Security Marking 42
  43. 43. Dubai Link design using Corning® SMF-28® ULL fiber Using standard G.652 fiber 3 Huts needed 3 Amplifiers needed 75 km 70 km Focus on Performance SMF-28® ULL case study: backbone ring of UAE network Source: Google Maps Lower Attenuation Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 43 Abu Dhabi Al Ain 70 km 70 km 75 km 70 km 65 km 145 km 145 km 135 kmSMF-28® ULL Fibre
  44. 44. $ 1,5 M Equipment savings by using SMF-28 ® ULL fiber > $8 M savings!! Focus on Performance SMF-28® ULL case study: backbone ring of UAE network Lower Attenuation 3 Huts $ 2.5 M $ 3 M $ 2 M $ 3.5 M Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 44 SMF-28® ULL cable extra cost (48 FC) Hut ($500 K per Hut - construction & equipment cost) Net equipment savings Amplifiers ($300 K - 6 amplifiers per fibre pair) The Ultra Low Attenuation of Corning® SMF-28® ULL enables optimum link performance reducing significantly OPEX and CAPEX SMF-28® ULL Fibre Key takeaway 3 Huts # Fiberpairs 1 pair 2 pairs 3 pairs 24 pairs4 pairs
  45. 45. Few mode fiber 1. Mode division multiplexing – Use each spatial mode to transmit WDM signals 2. Fundamental mode transmission – Increase effective area beyond the limit (~150 µm2) for single mode fiber Telecom © Corning Incorporated 2013 45 ApproachApproach SISI GIGI Mode coupling Increase effective index differences Reduce overlap between modes = - = + Modal delay Reduce group index differences - + Multipath interference Reduce group index differences Use better coating - = + = Bending loss Use low index trench Use better coating = = = =

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