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  1. 1. Part II The Middle Ages and Renaissance 2011 © McGraw-Hill Higher Education Music: An Appreciation 7 th Brief Edition Roger Kamien
  2. 2. Time Line <ul><li>Renaissance (1450-1600) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guttenberg Bible—1456 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Columbus reaches America—1492 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci: Mona Lisa —c. 1503 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Michelangelo: David —1504 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raphael: School of Athens —1505 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Martin Luther ’s 95 theses—1517 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet —1596 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Renaissance Rebirth of human creativity <ul><li>Time of exploration & adventure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voyages of Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama and Ferdinand Magellan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Age of curiosity & individualism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Movement – Humanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Captivated by ancient Greece & Roman cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual arts depicted realism w/ linear perspective and illusion of space & depth </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic Church far less powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Education a status symbol for the aristocracy & upper middle class </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ch. 2 - Music in the Renaissance <ul><li>Invention of printing widened the circulation of music </li></ul><ul><li>Musicians worked in churches, courts, & towns </li></ul><ul><li>Church remained an important patron of music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Church choirs grew in size (all male) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Musical activity shifted to the courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Town musicians played for civic processions, weddings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musicians enjoyed higher status & pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composers sought credit for their work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy became leading music center </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Words and Music </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal music more important than instrumental </li></ul><ul><li>Word painting </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of emotion w/o extreme contrasts </li></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Polyphonic </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation among the voices </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds fuller; expanded pitch range; consonant chords are favored w/ use of triads </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm and Melody </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm a gentle flow rather than sharply defined beat </li></ul><ul><li>Melodic line has greater rhythmic independence </li></ul><ul><li>Melody usually moves along a scale w/ few large leaps </li></ul>Characteristics of Renaissance Music
  6. 6. Sacred Music in the Renaissance <ul><li>Motet – Josquin Desprez </li></ul><ul><li>Short polyphonic choral work </li></ul><ul><li>Latin text usually overlaid with vernacular text </li></ul><ul><li>Mass – Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina </li></ul><ul><li>Polyphonic choral composition of the Catholic church </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of 5 sections: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kyrie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gloria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanctus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agnus Dei </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Listening <ul><li>Ave Maria…virgo serena </li></ul><ul><li>Josquin Desprez </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal Music Guide: p. 80 </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Set, CD 1:76 Brief Set, CD 1:56 </li></ul><ul><li>Four voice motet </li></ul><ul><li>Polyphonic imitation </li></ul><ul><li>Overlapping voice parts </li></ul>
  8. 8. Listening <ul><li>Kyrie from Pope Marcellus Mass </li></ul><ul><li>by Palestrina (1525 – 1594) </li></ul>Palestrina ’s work became the model for mass composers <ul><ul><li>Vocal Music Guide: p. 83 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Set CD 1:79 Brief Set 1:59 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rich polyphonic texture – 6 voices </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal imitation </li></ul><ul><li>Spirit of Gregorian chant </li></ul>
  9. 9. Secular Music in the Renaissance <ul><li>Vocal Music </li></ul><ul><li>Music was an important leisure activity </li></ul><ul><li>People were expected to play a musical instrument and read notation </li></ul><ul><li>Madrigal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for several solo voices set to a short poem, usually about love </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined homophonic & polyphonic textures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word painting & unusual harmonies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renaissance Lute Song </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Song for solo voice and lute (plucked string instrument) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular instrument in the Renaissance home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homophonic texture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lute accompanies the vocal melody </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Listening <ul><li>As Vesta was Descending (1601) </li></ul><ul><li>by Thomas Weelkes </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal Music Guide: p. 84 </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Set, CD 1:82 Brief Set, CD 1:62 </li></ul><ul><li>Madrigal </li></ul><ul><li>Note text painting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitches rise on “ascending” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitches fall on “descending” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Running down” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Two by two,” “three by three,” “all alone” </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Listening <ul><li>Flow My Tears (about 1600) </li></ul><ul><li>by John Dowland (1563 – 1626) </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal Music Guide: p. 86 </li></ul><ul><li> Basic Set, CD 1:83 Brief Set, CD 1:63 </li></ul><ul><li>Very popular Lute Song </li></ul><ul><li>(Recorded by rock star, Sting) </li></ul><ul><li>Expression of melancholy - descending four-note pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Three brief musical sections: A B C </li></ul>
  12. 12. Instrumental Music <ul><li>Still subordinate to vocal music </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumentalists accompanied voices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harpsichord, organ, or lute </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More music written specifically for instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental music intended for dancing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pavane or passamezzo in duple meter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Galliard in triple meter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distinguished between loud & soft instruments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor (loud): trumpet, shawm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoor (soft): lute, recorder </li></ul></ul>

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