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B2B M&S Seminar on Customer Relationships & Business Negotiation


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B2B M&S focuses on buyer-seller relationships. The presentation was based on the real-world business scenarios that Paul Lee had personally gone through.

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B2B M&S Seminar on Customer Relationships & Business Negotiation

  1. 1. B2B M&S Seminar – Paul Lee Customer Relationships & Business Negotiation B2B客戶關係與溝通協商 積極協作 相互滿意 開放溝通有效聯繫 放眼長期
  2. 2. Univ. of Delaware (USA) -1981 MBA Marketing Concentration National Taiwan University – 1976 BBA Business Administration Those were the days…
  3. 3. Manufacturing, Sensors Service, Container Shipping Manufacturing, Crystals Entrepreneur, Ind. Measuring & Automation Multi-nation/culture: Operation, MIS, Domestic Sales(9) Local Family(1) : Sales System/Management Fortune 500 (5) + China Operation Local Niche (5) + China Operation Niche System : Import with Integrated Service(18) Interest, Teaching B2C Marketing (6) + e-Comm(1) + English(3) + B2B M&S(5) B2B Business English (2) Local Family : Int’l Sales (1.5) Experience : Nothing but B2B M & S Manufacturing, Sensors Manufacturing, Tele-Com In-house English training
  4. 4. B2B – Solution Oriented 解決問題 Case : Apple Inc. Relationships and communications 關係與溝通 • 2009-4 iPhone 2 • TE oscillator(石英震盪器) delayed 交期延誤 • Quanta(tw & cn)purchaser TE sales 廣達蘇州 • TE sales miscued. Apple interfered 蘋果介入 • Remedy(then & after 2009-6) 補救措施 • Crisis mgmt vs. biz opportunity 危機管理 vs. 商機
  5. 5. Key : Be empathic 關鍵:同理心面對問題 • Empathy -> positive attitude 同理心轉化為 正向態度 • Positive attitude -> constructive actions 正 向態度轉為積極行動 • Constructive actions -> business opportunity 積極行動化危機為商機 • Timing is crucial 時機拿捏非常關鍵 • Provide feasible solutions as early as possible 及早提出確切可行解決方案 • Timely remedy afterward(strike while the iron is hot) 隨後適時進行補救改善
  6. 6. Strategy : Telling the truth 策略:實話實說,避免惡化 • Honesty best policy 誠實:長(常)痛不如短痛 • Build trust to enhance relationships 建立信用強化關係 • Clear position & skillful execution 立場明確注意技巧 • Be flexible and avoid over-committing 身段柔軟避免過度承諾
  7. 7. B2B – Sophisticated Relationships 複雜微妙的關係 Case : Seagate Technology Int’l Singapore Dealing with extreme tension 處理極端緊張關係 • 2009-8 sales rep rotation 業務輪調 • Seagate purchasers backfired 採購強力反彈 • Threatened cut orders 威脅砍單 • Extremely unpleasant meeting 失格會議 • Bottom line – keep orders and relationships 底線 – 保訂單維持互惠關係 • Reactions and interaction ? 反應與互動?
  8. 8. B2B – Sophisticated Relationships 複雜微妙的關係 Case : Seagate Technology Int’l Singapore • Mind game 心理戰 • Relationships too sophisticated to change easily 算準供需關係不是那麼脆弱 • Protect bottom line 謹(緊)守底線 • Empathic and good gesture 同理心 + 軟身段 • Be firm but reasonable 理直氣和
  9. 9. Strategy : Keep & Say 策略:維持關係,表達立場 • Focused on issue itself 就事論事 • Facing vent, control emotion 責難出氣,控制情緒 • Listened and reacted properly 傾聽抱怨、適度回應 • Avoided confrontation 絕不正面衝突 • Conveyed firm position 清楚表達立場 • Apology doesn’t mean ≠ guilty 道歉不等於犯錯 • Be a bigger person 表現大氣
  10. 10. B2B (Ind. Mtkg) vs. B2C(Consumer Mktg) B2B customer relationships more impactful and sophisticated • Impactful(強度高) – rely on each other, help each other 互賴互助 • Sophisticated(複雜度高) – economic(price/profit)經濟性 , technical(specs/ approvals/features)技術性 、 individual(human relationships)個人性 Strategically, industrial marketing focuses on customer relationships(客戶關係).
  11. 11. What’s special about B2B? B2B 產業特色 • different product attributes(產品屬性) • emphasize profits more(更重視利潤) • sophisticated relationships(複雜微妙客戶關係) • derived expertise – end applications(衍生應用) • segmentation & targeting(區隔與標定重要) • problem-solving oriented(解決問題導向)
  12. 12. More B2B Attributes B2B 產業特色 • Cross-function communication and negotiation(fight, passing buck). Guess who’s taking the final blame? 跨部門溝通協調,誰收爛攤子? • More sophisticated products and rapid-changing technology. Rely on team work. (團隊協同運作) • Complicated buying process and customer relationships. Sales squeezed on 24-7-365 basis. (複雜造成壓力) • Longer buying cycle. Sales standing by all time to provide service. (採購週期拉長)
  13. 13. And More … B2B 產業特色 1. Strategic alliance and vertical integration 策略結盟與垂直整合 2. Collaborating and competing at the same time 既合作又競爭 These lead to more customer interactions and business negotiations 更多客戶關係與協商
  14. 14. Strategic Alliance + Vertical Integration S.A. case - 14nm process : Samsung + GlobalFoundries, 2014 • To compete with TSMC(台積電) for Apple’s new processor A9 business, Samsung collaborated with GlobalFoundries(格羅方德) on 14nm FinFET process. • Samsung badly needs capacity to secure 100% of Apple’s new iPhone in 2015 as Samsung is plagued by the yield(良率). • GF was a bit slow in 14nm FinFET. By collaborating with Samsung at this node, GF was expecting to catch up with the process quicker while Samsung gets sufficient capacity. Imagine the sophisticated business relationships involved
  15. 15. Strategic Alliance + Vertical Integration VI case:TSMC steps into adv. wafer packaging TSMC acquires Qualcomm’s facility for $85m in order to turn it into an advanced packaging and testing plant. Semiconductor wafer process IC design Mask Wafer Test Package Imagine the impact on TSMC’s existing suppliers such as ASE (日月光) and SPIL(矽品)。Again, it’s about customer relationships.
  16. 16. Frequently found in B2B : partners and also competitors. mobile devices court case A7 SoC supplied by Samsung(A8 by TSMC)
  17. 17. Industrial Products & Industrial Customers 工業產品與工業客戶 • Industrial products : those bought in for further processing or assembling such as raw materials, components, semi-finished goods, or as production equipment. 由機關或企業 組織購入,用來生產或組裝為成品或設備 的產品,如零組件與原物料、半成品、及 整廠設備 • Industrial customers : manufacturers, distributors, system firms, VARs, school, hospitals, government… 製造廠、加工廠、 分銷商、學校、醫院、政府機構
  18. 18. All about relationships – along supply chain, e.g. iPhone 5 供應鏈即關係鏈 Relationships between all these vendors with both Foxconn and Apple
  19. 19. All about relationships – along supply chain, e.g. iPhone 6 Relationships between all these vendors with both Foxconn, Pegatron, and Apple
  20. 20. Feel Apple’s Impact Apple supplier list 2015
  21. 21. Industrial Products Supplier 供應商 AmTRAN 瑞軒科技 Manufacturer 製造廠商 VIZIO Inc. US Selling Firm 美國銷售商 LCD HDTV LCD 高畫質電視 Home Theater 家庭劇院 LCD panel LCD back light module mainboard power supply cable inverter… 瑞軒從不同供應商購入之零組件, 如面板, 背光模組等是用來 組裝LCD TV或家庭劇院, 然後以製成品形式賣給國外客戶如Vizio Inc. 如此一來這些零組件, 如面板, 背光模組等就屬於工業產品
  22. 22. All about relationships… Qualified for Supply Chain? 打入供應鏈? Case : Novatek touch controller IC 聯詠觸控 IC  htc & apple • Earlier : Apple – Broadcom(博通) ;htc - Synaptics、Atmel. Other vendors like TI(德儀) and EMC(義隆電). • procedure : 2nd source -> AVL ->Design-in 1. basic business terms(2nd source) -> approved samples(AVL)-> BOM(design-in) 2. design-in : Novatek has been approved by htc and Apple, (incl. engineering design, specs, quality & features, pilot run, and mass production).
  23. 23. Design-in = Order ? Sorry, no. We have to “win” it ! • Need more sales efforts(更多業務功夫) : After design-in, new priority and allocation are decided according to the result of new negotiation, mostly initiated by the sourcer or purchaser. (爭取優先順序與配額) • Possible actions to enhance the relationships(強化關係作法) : 1. Factory audit(稽核) : facilities, process, R&D, engineering, QA, etc. Meet management team and social(different form of negotiation). 2. Capitalize on(掌握可用機會) any opportunity to win business. If successful, it becomes design-win(orders). The sales work continues to increase the allocation and strengthen the position on AVL.
  24. 24. B2B 企業對企業 – working through human relations 透過「人際關係」 Sourcing 物料搜尋 FAE 應用 工程 CS 客服 R&D 研發 OPN 運籌 QA/QC 品保/ 品管 Mfg 製造 Eng 工程 Mktg 行銷 Fin/Acc 財會 Purchasing 採購下單 R&D 研發 PM QA/QC 品保/ 品管 Buying Business Selling Business 採購企業 銷售企業 Sales 業務
  25. 25. Most common way of B2B communications(part 1 of 2) Sales Calls 業務拜訪 • Most effective B2B promotion(最有效) • CRM + Mktg Automation to facilitate sales operation.(CRM + 行銷自動化) • Apply 80/20 principle for account management.(80/20原理) • New market/new product developing(開發) • Existing market/product maintaining(維持)
  26. 26. Most common way of B2B communications 2/2 Exhibition專業展覽會 • CeBit 漢諾威電腦展、Hannover Messe 漢諾威工業展、 CES 國際消費電子展… • Expensive – traveling, rent, booth decoration, samples, power, etc 成本高 • Forums, seminars, panel discussions – more efficient and more effective 論壇、研討會 • Must be cost effective. 錢花在刀口上 • Perfect opportunity to do sales training(product knowledge, application know-how, and user experience ) 練兵好時機
  27. 27. Frontline Sales Reps 第一線業務
  28. 28. Boundary Role of B2B Sales B2B 業務是“邊界人” • Representing both company and customer creates conflict 角色衝突 • Conflicting expectations 期待也衝突 • Helping customers causes internal complaints. Similarly, protecting company’s interest invites customers’ complaints. Very often, sales pleases neither and that hurts mutual trust. 內外不是人 Consequently, endless anxiety and pressure. 無止 盡焦慮與壓力
  29. 29. B2B sales – destined to be like this… B2B 業務人員的宿命 • Your own choice – eat it ! 願者上鉤,認命吧 ! • Stay flexible and low-key 身段柔軟,低調 • Never stop communicating. EQ more important 持續溝通協調,這需要絕佳EQ Nicole • Do not over-commit 避免過度承諾 • No response is a no-no 逃避不回覆最糟糕 • Separate work from personal life, if possible 盡可 能公私分明 - 社交、家庭、運動、宗教、 etc
  30. 30. So a B2B sales is … B2B 業務人員是… • Part of the product 廣義產品的一部分 : 1. interface 介面 2. interpreter of buyer’s problems and help solve them 詮釋 採購所面臨的問題並協助解決 3. technical consultant 技術諮詢 4. representing the customer 代表客戶(向公司表達客戶需求) • Part of the communication mix 溝通組合的一部分 1. personal interaction 人際互動 2. empathic sensor 高精度感應器
  31. 31. Therefore, a B2B sales has to be : 因此,B2B Sales 必需… • an excellent communicator and negotiator 全方位溝通協調高手 • a capable and effective doer 八面玲瓏的實踐家 • a quick learner and seller 現學現賣的萬事通 It takes talent + learning + professionalism + thicker skin 天分 + 學習 + 專業 + 厚皮
  32. 32. Purchaser’s Perspective … 採購心目中的業務 Things affecting purchaser’s expectation : 採購對業務的期待受以下因素影響 : 1. prejudice or stereotype : 刻版印象或成見 – talkative? easy going? enthusiastic? workaholic? aggressive? or pushy? 2. image of selling company: 賣方企業形象 – directly affects buyer’s reaction to presentation request
  33. 33. Buzzword : meet demand 滿足需求 - 就是這麼一回事 Meet double demands 滿足雙重需求 : 1. Personal 個人需求:bonus, promotion … 2. Social 社會需求:satisfaction of user department It’s an “And” instead of an “Or” question. Opportunity and trust depend on it. 講白了,業務是否約得到採 購,以及採購對業務的信任程度,就看業務如何能 滿足以上需求
  34. 34. Vice versa, sales wants… 反之亦然,業務也想… Satisfy duo needs 滿足雙重需求 : 1. Personal : commissions, bonus, promotion, etc. 個人 2. Social : customer satisfaction, praise from the boss and co-workers, etc. 社會 Self-confidence counts, which comes from professionalism and experience. You learn and earn it. The more confident you are, the better you perform. 自信是關鍵,來自於專業與經驗
  35. 35. Be Empathic : born or learned? 同理心去體會:天份或學習? Empathic ability is the key. 所以,同裡心 觀察、感受的能力成為關鍵 • Empathic to sense – buyers’ reaction to your inputs. Quickly and precisely. • Is it inherent? 是天生業務材料? • Or you learned to be good? 或是靠後 天努力學習累積經驗? Me : 20/80. Mostly 50/50.
  36. 36. Complicated Purchasing Responsibility 複雜的採購責任 Increasing number of decision makers or decision making functions. Each bears different weight of responsibility. 參與決策人數(功能)變 多,各自所承擔的責任輕重有別 • R&D engineers + sourcer(material engineers) + buyer • PM + sourcer + buyer • Headquarters + overseas plants
  37. 37. Purchasing Tasks 採購之必達使命 • Stable and reliable source of supply 穩定 配合之供應商 • High quality products 高品質產品 • Reasonable prices 好價錢 • Good service, technical and application 好 服務含技術與應用 • Long-term relationships 長期供應商關係 • New source of supply 新供貨來源
  38. 38. How to be aggressive ? 積極的業務多點進擊 • Purchasing isn’t a stand-alone operation. It involves a series of decision making across different functions. 採購並非單一事件,而 是代表企業內許多部門一連串的商業決策 Example : Femtocell’s TCXO is most crucial. R&D engineer or PM decide specs and then transfer to purchaser for sourcing and buying. 微型基地台開發 • Sensitive and aggressive sales steps in earlier to work with potential customers including providing technical or application support. 會 在先期就介入潛在客戶的開發過程,建立 關係,甚至主動提供技術或應用資訊以利 事後與採購的交涉 TCXO 溫補石英震盪器微型基地台 too late
  39. 39. Don’t forget the boss… 另一方面, 對於老闆… Be smarter to know what the boss expects from you. 別白目,得清楚了解老闆期待什麼 : • Empathic to sense – boss’ reaction to your inputs. Quickly and precisely. 還是同理心 • Boss often confused sales. 常來亂 ST as example • Who’s to listen to? 聽誰的? Welcome aboard ! 恭喜,上賊船囉!
  40. 40. B2B Sales Formula B2B 業務 業績方程式 P = f (character 性向 + role cognition 角色認知 + achievement motivation 成就動機) • L-T relationship building(customers + boss)長期 關係的建立 • Besides sales volume and profit, the L-T relationships with Tier 1 accounts make difference. 除了看銷售金額和利潤,業務與A 咖客戶長期關係的建立,也是一項重要業績指 標
  41. 41. First Thing First : Presentation 過頭關 - 作簡報 Getting more and more important as time is more expensive than money. • Quality prevails. More on strengths and hide weakness. 簡報品質決定大半命運,凸顯強項, 藏拙絕對必要 • FAB – Features (特性) , Advantages (優點) , Benefits (利益)。Example: hermetic sealing (IP68)  moisture-resistant  longer life  save costs • Watch out for real professionals 小心碰上高手! • Don’t get too emotional 別太過激情
  42. 42. What to consider by the buyer? B2B 採購考量點 • Selling price, payment term, and anything concerning pricing. 付款條件、及後續降價保 證 • Product quality and QA 品質與品保 • Approval/design-in 認證 / 設計承認 • Capacity/lead-time 產能 / 交期 • Service and support 服務與支援 • Smooth operation such as VMI 配合條件,如 VMI 倉儲 • Supply contract, if any 供貨合約
  43. 43. Purchasing Objectives 採購目標 1. On/In time delivery 供貨即時性 2. Product quality 產品品質 3. Price價格 4. Service 服務 5. Long-term relationship 長期關係 6. New source 新供貨來源
  44. 44. Extending to SCM 延伸至物料管理與SCM 1. Covering purchasing, inventory, logistics, and planning 包含採購、庫存、運輸、與生管 2. Objective : minimizing aggregate material cost 目標 – 整體物料成本最低化 3. Smooth internal collaboration 注重內部相關 單位合作協調 True, a lot to take care. 沒錯,B2B 業務管很多, 處處是關係
  45. 45. Interaction Process 互動過程 • More complicated : one-way presentation won’t work 日趨複雜 – 單方(單向)努力作虛工 • Not only a convincing process 絕非 只是一個說服過程 • The other side of the coin : opposing situation 銅板的兩面,立場相反 • Negotiation works 其間過程大多為 協商而非說服 • Relying on each other, benefiting from each other 相互依賴、得利
  46. 46. Interaction Mechanism 互動機制 Selling Behavior 銷售行為 • adapting to customers • establishing influence bases • controlling sales interaction 1. Sales Resources ‧product knowledge ‧application know- ledge ‧customer knowledge ‧interpersonal skill ‧ alternatives 3.Characteristics of sales-buyer relationships ‧ level of conflict and bargaining ‧ relative power ‧ Quality of relationship ‧ Anticipation of future interaction 2. Characteristics of customer’s buying tasks • needs and beliefs • knowledge of alternatives • own responsibility Effectiveness 效果
  47. 47. New Development 最新發展趨勢 • Cut the number of suppliers 客戶縮減供應商 家數,或只與1、2 家供應商配合 • Suppliers engaged in customer’s product development 供應商參與客戶之設計開發 • Supplier’s continuous innovation 持續更新或 創新 • Frequent smaller orders 少量多單 • Blanket orders with flexible process 長單與彈 性訂貨出貨程序 • Zero defect, on-time delivery, EDI 零不良率、 準時交貨、電子資料交換系統
  48. 48. Modes of Relationships 買賣關係形式 - 單純到複雜 Friend 朋友關係 Acquaintance 點頭交 Alliance 盟友夥伴 Rival 對手關係 Lo Lo Hi Hivalue of relationship 關係價值 mutual benefits e.g. biz terms e.g. switching cost or economic value 如轉換成本或經濟利益 如 交 易 條 件 配 合 度 共 同 利 益
  49. 49. Interacting Modes 如何互動? 1. Convincing(S-T effect) 說服(短期效果) – Mostly initiated by sales for immediate order. Short-term effect as everybody can do it. 你會,別 家業務也會。零合(zero-sum)情境無法持久 2. Compromising(S-T effect) 妥協(短期效果) – Means both somewhat give in. Shaky relationships. 雙方都讓步表示雙方其實都不滿意退 而求其次。長期穩定性差 3. Bargaining(specific strategic effect) 磋商(議價/討價還價,特定策略 效果) – Mostly on case-by-case basis aiming at a better mutual benefit. 尤其在價格上,專案議價為典型,雙方手中一把牌,自行 決定攻防戰術,目的在求得最終較佳之整體利益 4. Negotiating(L-T effect) 協商(最佳長期效果) – Focusing on long-term Win-Win relationships. More of cooperating and less of rivaling with each other. More of mutual dependence and mutual trust. Interpersonal chemistry involved. 著重在達成買賣雙方長期互動整 體價值的最理想狀(win-win 雙贏) 。在此買賣雙方之互信與互賴明 顯呈現(俗稱的關係與默契)
  50. 50. Behind Win-Win… 雙贏協商的背後 1. Respect paid to the efforts made by the buyer in building the relationships. A clear indication of “Customers Are Number One” being materialized. 採購(買方)對於買賣關係價值的貢獻受到重 視與尊重, “以客為尊” 的理念具體實現 2. The formation of mutual trust and mutual dependence. 買賣 雙方之間的互信與互賴氛圍形成 3. The “consultant role” of a sales 業務扮演採購買方顧問角色 4. Intelligence exchange helps provide better solution 買賣雙方 間之資訊交換更能提供買方較佳解決方案 5. Interpersonal chemistry 必定有某程度的私人情誼默契形成 6. Win-Win makes L-T relationships possible and natural. 很自然 的形成買賣雙方長期配合關係的基礎
  51. 51. B2B – Solution Oriented 解決問題 Case : Gudeng Precision 家登精密 1. Customer TSMC’s Max faced a “bundling” problem with the “Stocker” project. He preferred Gudeng to take the crucial part of the “stocker” business. 台積Max的「配套」問題 2. Supplier Guudeng’s Larry and Andy failed to come up with a positive solution in the beginning. Max was not happy about it as it might cause serious trouble if the other firm SE Tech was to be chosen. 家登業務無法配合更低價,Max失望 3. Max also threatened to cut all future business with Gudeng if they refused to help Max with the project. Max直接找老闆 Ku,表示若無法配合這個案子,未來訂單堪慮。 Question : What will you do under such circumstances ?
  52. 52. Customer’s Problem?
  53. 53. Max’s Problem? 1. “Bundling” problem : to avoid possible future dispute. Max的 「配套」問題,避免未來紛爭 2. Limited budget and time, obviously. 預算問題 3. Max’s preference. 個人喜好、意願
  54. 54. Analysis of Gudeng’s Solution 1. Tough bargain but always 2nd chance for Gudeng. 價格難搞定不過客戶都給機會再議 2. Too much for Gudeng’s mid-level management 授權有限,難做虧錢決定 3. “The Boss” has to decide 大老闆如何想 4. “Bargaining” mode + negotiation(external & Internal) + mutual trust & dependence 議價模式 + 協商 + 互信 5. Empathy works 同理心
  55. 55. Summing Up – A marathon i/o a 100m dash 馬拉松持久戰 1. Positive thinking toward the buyer : empathy and respect 理解、尊 重、並肯定買方的貢獻 – 絕對正向思考 2. Sales aiming for long term relationships, not just focus on immediate business. Purchaser also has to perform for a reliable vendor. 業務眼 光放遠,而非只顧搶眼前訂單。採購也得為培養好供應商做出努 力 3. L/T investment – carefully select target accounts to avoid possible loss 屬長期投資,因此業務必須慎選目標客戶,以免造成公司損 失 Hello sales ,always remind yourself : “What do they want? How can we continuously satisfy them?” and “What can we do for them?” instead of trying to win their next order. 隨時提醒自己思考 : “他們到底需要什麼? 而我們公司要如 何有效長時間滿足他們的需要?” 以及 “我們公司到底能為他們 做什麼?” 而不僅僅在想如何拿到下張訂單
  56. 56. Negotiation Focus 協商焦點 • EMS/ODM/OEM(unbalanced) : capacity, price incl. rebates, VMI 產能、價格 含回扣、VMI倉 • System firms : quality, performance, capacity, price, service. 品質、特性、 產能、價格、服務 • Channel partners : price/discount, product assortment, service, mktg support. 價格/折扣、產品組合、 服務、行銷支援
  57. 57. Culture Shock 文化差異 • Taiwan traditional : personal relationships, price , service, quality • Taiwan hi-tech : capacity, price, service, company image • Japan : quality, service and support, price • Korea : personal relationships, price, quality, service • S.E. Asia : personal relationships, price, service • U.S.A. : quality, price, service and support • China : personal relationships, political influence, price • Israel : quality, service support, and price
  58. 58. Different Negotiation Styles 協商風格差異 • Taiwan traditional : slowly but surely • Taiwan hi-tech : straight to the point, no non-sense • Japan : extremely slow and tedious, need patience • Korea : extremely tough to break in without incentives • S.E. Asia : Friendly but very detailed, favor-oriented • U.S.A. : friendly but inefficient, mostly shopping around • China : demanding without commitment, inefficient • Israel : straightforward, win by being more capable
  59. 59. Sales 2015 : Connected & Responsive 2015的行動業務 8 key plays for sales success : 1. Sell as a team 團隊運作 2. Go mobile 付諸「行動」 3. Make smarter decisions with data 數據說話 4. Find key influencers fast 快速鎖定關鍵對象 5. Social selling 社群銷售 6. Well-organized data sets in the clouds 整理雲端數據 7. Make good use of sales automation 業務自動化 8. Tailor CRM to fit your business 讓CRM制度融入
  60. 60. Inbound Marketing 大趨勢:內向式數位行銷 1. Getting found : content + channels 透過數位 內容讓客戶找到你 2. Nurture : screening, scoring, interacting, and developing 過濾、評分、互動、培養 3. Convert : 轉換 You
  61. 61. Outbound Marketing Inbound Marketing 外向式行銷 內向式行銷 ★ 廣告、買email名單、寄DM ★ 企業部落格、社群媒體頁面 ★ 參展、產品發表會 、公關 ★ 網站最佳化、最適化 ★ 電話行銷、人員拜訪 ★ 關鍵字搜尋、PPC Inbound or Outbound ? 數位或傳統?
  62. 62. Inbound Marketing Infrastructure 內向式行銷運作 • CRM as core 客戶關係管理為核心 • Marketing Automation as processor to manage sales funnel 以行銷自動化機制管理銷售漏斗 • Integration of MA, CRM, and ERP 整合協同作業
  63. 63. 取得管道 網站流量 藉由landing page將 流量轉換成詢問 詢問評分將詢問轉換為 行銷合格線索 再轉換成初期銷售 線索 再轉換成銷售合格 線索 成交,轉換成客戶 Automated Sales Funnel 銷售漏斗自動流程 • Acquisition channels(mktg) • Site traffic(mktg) • Convert into inquiries thru landing page(mktg) • Convert into MQL thru lead scoring (mktg) • Convert into SAL leads thru lead nurturing(mktg +sales) • Convert SAL into SQL(sales) • Convert into customers(sales) • Feedback(sales)
  64. 64. CRM : An Indispensable Link 整合性行銷中的重要環節 • Accuracy : 講求精確度 – 藉由網際網路, 操控個別客戶資訊 • Comprehensiveness : taking good care of all the details, dynamic and static 講求全方位, 面面俱到 – 如業務拜訪討論內容與進度、CS之報 價形式與時效, 業務送樣之時效與送達方式, VMI帳單製作形式與提 示時機, 出貨通知的方式與時效等細節的精確掌握 • Real-time solutions : e.g. real-time customer service –講求即時性,針 對個別客戶, 提供客製化解決方案 • The core of profitability : aggregated customer value 企業之獲利來自 其客戶群之整體價值
  65. 65. CRM in Operation : Valid Database CRM操作面:建立有效客戶資料庫 主要涵蓋以下功能 • 業務工作自動化 (sales force automation) • 行銷活動 (marketing activities) • 客戶服務 (customer service) • 技術支援 (technical support)
  66. 66. CRM Ultimate Goal : Increasing Profitability 終極目標 - 提高獲利能力 • Enhance interaction with customers 強化與客戶之 互動進而得利 • From loyal customers 獲利由客戶忠誠度而來 How ? 需做到 : 1. Monitoring customer life cycle in a systematic way 科學化, 系統化管控每一客戶之生命循環 2. Customized planning for individual customer 針對 個別客戶或潛在客戶設計客製化行銷規劃
  67. 67. Why CRM ? CRM的操作目的 Multi-purpose operations 多重操作 : • 開發 維護 保護現有客戶群 (existing accounts) • 尋找 吸引 贏得新客戶(new accounts) • 成功救回已失去之客戶(lost accounts) • 降低行銷與業務成本(lower costs)
  68. 68. CRM Benefits 可見的利益 • Smoother M&S operations 順暢的業務與行銷流程 • Higher sales productivity 業務生產力提高 • Cross-selling & upselling -> higher profitability 增加交叉銷售與高階 銷售的機會, 提高獲利率 • Better service -> higher loyalty & retention 較佳的服務, 導致較優之客 戶忠誠度與客戶持有率 • More efficient phone service 提供較有效率的電話服務 • Higher closing rate 較高的生意成交率 • Lower sales & marketing expenditure 降低業務與行銷費用 • Better customer database and grouping 較佳之客戶建檔與分級標定 • Better overall profitability 提昇企業整體獲利率
  69. 69. Updated Development CRM 新趨勢 • cloud computing 雲端運算 • SaaS or PaaS 服務性軟體 或服務性平台 • Subscribing 以訂購服務方式操作 • Save expenditure 企業節省軟硬體資本支出
  70. 70. Difficulties … 國內落後 … • Esp. with large companies 尤其大公司, 複雜度高 • Focus more on database management and sales activity management 大多停留在資料庫管理與業務 聯繫管理, 包括監控記錄與日常業務互動 • Problematic system integration 商機追蹤, 區域性管 理與現有管理系統需做整合方能提高效率 • Departmentalism is to blame 使用單位本位主義思 維與作法導致整合困難
  71. 71. Different Perspectives 主要功能探討 • Sales force automation 業務人員自動化 – 例行拜訪 計畫, 接觸情況紀錄(如規格討論, 報價或產能交期 等), 待辦事項(客訴, 送樣等) • Marketing activities 行銷活動管理 • Customer service and support 客戶服務與支援 • Analytics for management 分析
  72. 72. Wrapping Up 總結 1. B2B marketing focuses on “customer relationships” B2B 行銷聚焦於客戶關係 2. Customer relationships are everywhere 客戶關係 無所不在 3. Interacting by negotiation prevails 協商互動主流 4. Empathy leads to both-win 雙贏得靠同理心 5. Technology only helps 網路科技只起強化功能 6. Go back to the basics 回歸人性
  73. 73. 李純白 / Paul Lee Mobile : 0932383387
  74. 74. 隨身功夫 • 英語 能聽敢說勤寫 • 第三國語言 • 上網找資料 現學現賣 • 作簡報 • Microsoft Office + 一種工程或設計繪圖軟體 • 開車騎車 • 適度酒量 歌藝舞藝 • 休閒嗜好 如看畫展 音樂 樂器 運動等 • 天文地理廣泛涉獵
  75. 75. 產業產品專業知識與技能 • 所從事行業的知識,如全球市場歷史背景、現 況、與未來發展走向 • 等於替公司做一份完整行銷規劃(知己) • 替前五大對手作 SWOT 分析(知彼) • 自家產品深入認識,包括應用技術、製程、開 發能力、品管品保、與各項服務 • 相關產業與行業之產業訊息與技術或應用之發 展
  76. 76. 行銷業務專業知識與技能 • 自家的行銷規劃,重點在區隔定位與目標客 戶及個別行銷方案 • 80/20 客戶名單 – 標定 1、2、 & 3 階客戶 • 深入了解第 1 階客戶運作、 行業地位、 營收 獲利、 以及生意細節 • 強化基本動作,善用CRM + ERP 強化規劃與執 行
  77. 77. Day-to-Day Facts • Mktg mix focuses more on product and service(technical, application, and sales) and often prices are being dealt on an order basis. (產品、服務、 與價格) • War of capacity. High sensitivity about on-time delivery:hand-carry is required for urgent case. (產 能戰爭) • Customers ask real time response:key to getting business. (分秒必爭)