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Cardiff Case Studies - Morning Presentation


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Cardiff Case Studies - Morning Presentation

  1. 1. Welcome and introduction to Cardiff Case Studies Dr Peter Mackie
  2. 4. The case studies initiative: What are they & how might they be used? <ul><li>Teaching aims </li></ul><ul><li>A free resource for teachers to use as examples </li></ul><ul><li>A free resource for students to use as examples in their coursework and exams </li></ul><ul><li>Improve student awareness of basic university-level skills </li></ul>
  3. 5. The case studies initiative: What are they & how might they be used? <ul><li>Broader aims </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage links between Cardiff university and FE institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Raise awareness of issues covered at university. This may: i] increase interest amongst widening access students; ii] support the transition of other students </li></ul><ul><li>Promote undergraduate courses at Cardiff University </li></ul>
  4. 6. Innovation and application of Geographical research methods Please contact Dr Jon Anderson for copies of this presentation [email_address]
  5. 7. The Planning and Regeneration of Cardiff Dr Neil Harris [email_address]
  6. 8. Cardiff’s spatial structure <ul><li>Compact historic centre </li></ul><ul><li>Coal metropolis </li></ul><ul><li>Rail and road infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Central pivot point of road and rail </li></ul><ul><li>River corridors </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Hand and fingers’; ‘fan-like’ </li></ul><ul><li>A compact and intimate city </li></ul><ul><li>Constrained by physical geography and coalescence </li></ul>
  7. 9. Strategic options for growth (1966) <ul><li>City of 500,000 by the year 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>City centre redevelopment </li></ul><ul><li>Different models of growth </li></ul><ul><li>Close peripheral expansion – a single, unified and growing city </li></ul><ul><li>An ‘all car’ solution to transport </li></ul>
  8. 10. Re-shaping the city – 1977 <ul><li>Declining population </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Hollowing out’ of the city </li></ul><ul><li>New roads infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>M4 motorway </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral distributor road </li></ul><ul><li>Special employment use </li></ul><ul><li>Housing in the north and east of the city </li></ul>
  9. 11. Capitalising on strategic sites - - 1983 <ul><li>Technology parks and business parks </li></ul><ul><li>Countryside belt to constrain development </li></ul><ul><li>Inner city decline </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral suburban growth </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritising investment in the ‘waterfront strip’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Losing control’ of the city’s development strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Over-allocation of land </li></ul>
  10. 12. The ‘greening’ of growth - 1995 <ul><li>The sustainability agenda </li></ul><ul><li>A European capital </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape designations </li></ul><ul><li>Retail concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation of Cardiff Bay </li></ul><ul><li>The city approaching its ‘limits’ </li></ul>
  11. 13. Projects – 1990s-present <ul><li>Increasingly dated planning framework </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunism and project-led schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing pressure on greenfield sites </li></ul><ul><li>Major residential allocations </li></ul>
  12. 14. Where next for Cardiff? <ul><li>City centre and Cardiff Bay has been focus for development </li></ul><ul><li>Significant population growth estimated </li></ul><ul><li>Residential allocations in north and or west of Cardiff </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable communities </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge to Cardiff’s character and existing communities </li></ul>
  13. 15. Using the case study <ul><li>Principles of urban growth </li></ul><ul><li>Historical impacts on city’s form </li></ul><ul><li>Urban models </li></ul><ul><li>Population figures and forecasts </li></ul><ul><li>Place-marketing </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Live’ projects in Local Development Plan and community engagement </li></ul>
  14. 16. Thank you for listening
  15. 17. The environmental impacts of a major sport event: a case study of the FA Cup Final Dr Andrea Collins [email_address]
  16. 18. Background to case study <ul><li>Event organisers and policy makers are increasingly interested in the environmental impacts of major events. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased action amongst organisers of major sport events to reduce their environmental impacts. </li></ul><ul><li>How might we begin to identify and measure the environmental impacts associated with staging major sport events? </li></ul><ul><li>One approach is the ‘ Ecological Footprint’. </li></ul>
  17. 19. The Case Event: 2004 FA Cup Final <ul><li>Tourism is an important part of Cardiff’s development strategy as an ‘events city’ (11 million tourists per year). </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiff hosted the FA Cup Final at the Millennium Stadium (2001-2006) while Wembley was being rebuilt. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic impact 2001 Final - estimated £16.3 million additional expenditure (£11.7m in local economy). </li></ul><ul><li>But, what might be the environmental impacts associated with hosting such a major sporting event? </li></ul>
  18. 20. Measuring Tool: The Ecological Footprint <ul><li>The Ecological Footprint is a spatial indicator. </li></ul><ul><li>Measures the environmental impact by estimating the land area required to provide the goods and services consumed by a defined population. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Do we fit onto our planet or are we consuming too much too fast?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Footprint’s unit of analysis in the ‘global hectare’ (gha). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2007, the available biocapacity of the planet was 1.8 global hectares (WWF, 2010). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, the average person had a Footprint of 2.87 global hectares - 50% greater. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Putting Sport Events in the Picture <ul><li>Good awareness raising tool. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and compare the environmental impacts of different types of visitor activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Could be used to plan and manage events in a more sustainable way and reduce their environmental impacts. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Footprinting the 2004 FA Cup Final (Manchester Utd v Millwall FC) <ul><li>Event: 2004 FA Cup Final </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Location: Cardiff </li></ul><ul><li>Venue : Millennium Stadium, </li></ul><ul><li>Event Duration: 1 day </li></ul><ul><li>Visitor Numbers: 73,000 (98% ticket holders) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary data collected for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>visitor travel to the event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>visitor food and drink consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>infrastructure of the event venue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>event related waste </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Calculating the Ecological Footprint: Key Data Sources Source of Information Data obtained The FA Ticket sales Millennium Stadium Food and drink sales (Hospitality & Public) Litter and Waste Cardiff Council Litter collected from street sweepings and waste bins Park and Ride (no. of vehicles) Food and Drink Business survey in City centre & Bay area (Permanent & Mobile) No. of customers Amount of food and drink purchased Amount of waste and composition Supporters Survey (1% sample) Visitor travel to the event, food and drink consumption, and length of stay
  22. 24. Final Score: Ecological Footprint Results Additional Footprint = Total Footprint minus (-) Home Footprint Consumption Category Total Visitor Ecological Footprint [gha] Visitors Ecological Footprint at home [gha] Visitor Additional Ecological Footprint [gha] Transport 1670 120 1550 Food and drink 1381 268 1113 Stadium Infrastructure 0.10 - - Total 3051 ( 0.04 gha/visitor) 388 ( 0.036 gha/visitor) 2663 ( 0.005gha/visitor)
  23. 25. Visitor Travel <ul><li>Travel footprint 1,670 global hectares </li></ul><ul><ul><li>55% total event Footprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 times greater visitors Footprint at home </li></ul></ul><ul><li>43 million passenger kilometres: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>car (47%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rail (34%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coaches (17%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mini-bus (2%) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Visitor Food & drink <ul><li>1,381 global hectares </li></ul><ul><li>45% total event Footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Almost 5 times greater than visitors footprint at home over the same period (i.e. 1 days) </li></ul><ul><li>Relates to the scale, type and pattern of visitors food and drink consumption </li></ul><ul><li>99% from ‘eating out’ establishments (e.g. restaurants and fast food outlets) </li></ul>
  25. 27. Food Facts – Match Day (10 supporters) <ul><li>Alcoholic drinks </li></ul><ul><li>41 pints lager </li></ul><ul><li>12 measures spirits </li></ul><ul><li>9 pints beer </li></ul><ul><li>9 bottles alcohol pops </li></ul><ul><li>5 pints cider </li></ul><ul><li>2 bottles wine </li></ul><ul><li>Non-alcoholic drinks </li></ul><ul><li>30 cans soft drink </li></ul><ul><li>4 bottles mineral water </li></ul><ul><li>4 cups tea/coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>7 meat dishes </li></ul><ul><li>1 vegetarian dish </li></ul><ul><li>5 pasties/pies/sausage rolls </li></ul><ul><li>4 sandwiches </li></ul><ul><li>3 portions chips </li></ul><ul><li>3 cakes </li></ul><ul><li>3 ice-creams </li></ul><ul><li>2 beef burgers </li></ul><ul><li>2 hotdogs </li></ul><ul><li>2 packets crisps </li></ul><ul><li>0 pieces fruit </li></ul>
  26. 28. Visitor Waste <ul><li>Estimated 59 tonnes of waste: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>food & drink businesses (79%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Millennium Stadium (10%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coach and car parks (6%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>litter bins & sweepings (5%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Majority sent to landfill: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glass (66%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>food waste (18%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>paper & card packaging (10%) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Stadium Infrastructure <ul><li>Seating capacity 74,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities including restaurants, bars, merchandise outlets </li></ul><ul><li>60,000 tonnes building materials (majority concrete & steel) </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated 100 million visitors over 100 yr lifespan </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure Footprint 0.10 global hectares per event </li></ul>
  28. 30. Conclusions <ul><li>Within a relatively short period of time a major sport event can generate a large ecological impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Number of supporters, they way they travel, their food and drink consumption, and litter and waste produced all have significant environmental impacts. </li></ul><ul><li>The Footprint can identify those consumption activities that have the greatest impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Assist event organisers and decision makers in managing the environmental impacts of events and assess the effectiveness different policies and strategies. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Retail Change in Cardiff Professor Cliff Guy [email_address]
  30. 32. Retail Change in Cardiff <ul><li>Focus is on explaining patterns of decentralised retail development </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Naïve ’ explanation would emphasise consumer access and requirements of retailers </li></ul><ul><li>More realistic explanation examines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>town planning policy and its application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>developers’ requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>influence of wider economic and political agendas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cardiff is a good case-study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City of 320,000 pop., plenty of potential for out-of-centre development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits from detailed long-term research into retail development and planning policy </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Decentralised Retailing <ul><li>Large Food Store (Hypermarket, Superstore) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually free-standing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>typically Tesco, Asda, Sainsbury, Morrison </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retail Warehouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually in clusters (Retail Parks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mainly ‘bulky goods’ (typically B and Q, MFI, Comet, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more recently, ‘high street goods’ (Toys R Us, Boots, Argos, Next, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Cardiff – Out of Centre Retailing Total out-of-centre floor area: 115,000 sq.m. convenience 241,000 sq.m. comparison (City centre 321,000 sq.m.) Three main clusters, all close to major road intersections
  33. 35. Cardiff - Food Superstores Asda Asda Morrison Tesco Tesco Asda Tesco Tesco Sainsbury Sainsbury Tesco City Centre Morrison Asda Waitrose
  34. 36. Cardiff - Retail Parks Culverhouse Cross Cardiff Bay Newport Road Cardiff Gate City Centre Capital Lifestyle
  35. 37. Cardiff County Council: Retail Planning Policy <ul><li>In principle, follows central Government guidance to severely limit out-of-centre development </li></ul><ul><li>But unable in 1980s/90s to withstand development pressure in key locations </li></ul><ul><li>Some retailing encouraged by Council in order to finance other development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiff Gate (residential, new road) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leckwith (new football stadium) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Sports Village </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Has managed to restrict nature of goods sold out-of-centre, to protect city centre </li></ul>
  36. 38. Example of Retail-Led Regeneration: Leckwith Development <ul><li>On the site of previous athletics stadium </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiff City stadium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>athletics stadium on new site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>retail park (42,000 sq.m.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Costco, Asda, and smaller units </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hotel & health club </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retail park and hotel required to help finance the new stadia </li></ul>
  37. 39. Conclusions <ul><li>Case-studies such as Cardiff can throw light on processes of retail growth and change </li></ul><ul><li>Over 100 out-of-centre stores, which together exceed the city centre retail area </li></ul><ul><li>Clear that Cardiff Council’s policy of restricting off-centre development hasn’t worked properly </li></ul><ul><li>Shows that planning policy can be subordinated to other objectives (more important politically) </li></ul>
  38. 40. Cardiff Case Studies: Geographical Research for FE teachers