H&S And Project Planning


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A briefing on heath and safety and project planning for students in engineering at Swansea University. Updated October 2009.

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H&S And Project Planning

  1. 1. EG-353 Research Project Health and Safety & Project Planning
  2. 2. Health and Safety <ul><li>Safety regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Things you must k now </li></ul><ul><li>Safety procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Your responsibly </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Safe working </li></ul>
  3. 3. The School Safety Regulations Read Them!
  4. 4. Object of the Safety Regulations <ul><li>To assist you in observing reasonable safety measures and thereby minimise the risk of injury to yourself and also damage to property. </li></ul><ul><li>To educate you in safety and to give you an example in laboratory organization and practice which is safe and manages risk. </li></ul><ul><li>To allow you to follow the University’s safety Policy Statement. </li></ul>See Section 1 of the Safety Regulations
  5. 5. University Safety Organization <ul><li>Vice Chancellor </li></ul><ul><li>Heads of School </li></ul><ul><li>Members of Staff </li></ul><ul><li>School Safety Officer </li></ul><ul><li>You </li></ul>See Section 5 of the Safety Regulations
  6. 6. Things You Must Know <ul><li>Emergency Telephone Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Fire arrangements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in particular your nearest exit and marshalling point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First aid arrangements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational health centre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First-aid boxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First aiders </li></ul></ul>See Sections 2, 3 and 4 of the Safety Regulations
  7. 8. Safety Procedure <ul><li>You are expected to act responsibly </li></ul><ul><li>It is your duty to report anything you consider to be unsafe to the Safety Officer </li></ul><ul><li>All accidents which cause personal injury and absence from work for three or more days will be reported to HSE </li></ul><ul><li>All minor accidents have to reported to school safety advisor </li></ul>See Section 6 of the Safety Regulations
  8. 9. Your Safety and Responsibilities <ul><li>“ In academic activities, you are presumed to be untrained and uninformed in all matters of professional, personal and public safety” </li></ul><ul><li>Practice of the school is to give you more responsibility as you progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly true of Level 3 where practical work is an essential component. </li></ul><ul><li>Your supervisor is essentially responsible for your training and informing you of any risks associated with your project. </li></ul>See Section 7 of the Safety Regulations
  9. 10. The Risk Assessment Form <ul><li>Completed on line by your supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewed and accepted by you </li></ul><ul><li>Paper version in back of the Safety Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>No submitted form = no practical work! </li></ul>See Section 8 of the Safety Regulations
  10. 11. Demo
  11. 13. The Risk Assessment Process <ul><li>Instigated by your supervisor who should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discuss your project’s risks with you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>define the hazards that you may encounter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ensure that you receive necessary training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ensure that you have proper protective clothing, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ensure that you are made aware of specific laboratory regulations that apply to your project/work place. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When submitted you will receive an email with link to engineering intranet </li></ul><ul><li>You need to login to engineering intranet to indicate that you have read and understood your project’s risk assessment and to “sign it off” </li></ul><ul><li>Your login is same as for University intranet. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Safe Practice in Laboratories and Workshops <ul><li>Laboratories are to be kept clean and tidy </li></ul><ul><li>British Standards and Codes of Practice are to be followed </li></ul><ul><li>Services switched off at the end of the day </li></ul><ul><li>Notices must be attached to potential hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Names and contact details of personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive material labelled as such </li></ul><ul><li>No smoking. No Drinking! </li></ul><ul><li>Your supervisor should brief you fully on particular local regulations! </li></ul>See Section 11 of the Safety Regulations
  13. 16. Working in Labs <ul><li>Working hours 8.30 am to 1.00 pm and 2.00 pm to 4.30 pm. </li></ul><ul><li>You are not allowed to carry out experimental work outside working ours unless with explicit, documented permission. </li></ul><ul><li>High risk equipment can only be used if you have been trained in its use and while under supervision of your supervisor, a technician or a demonstrator. </li></ul>See Section 12 of the Safety Regulations
  14. 17. Designated High Risk Equipment <ul><li>Listed in the Safety Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Usable only with permission of a technician who is satisfied that you know how to safely use the equipment and understand the risks. </li></ul><ul><li>No workshop equipment to be used! </li></ul>See Section 14 of the Safety Regulations
  15. 18. IT Labs <ul><li>IT labs available to all students from 8.30 am to 5.00 pm on week days </li></ul><ul><li>Room 43 available until 6.00 pm on week days </li></ul><ul><li>No access to IT labs at week ends. </li></ul>See Section 16 of the Safety Regulations
  16. 19. Other Considerations <ul><li>See the safety regulations for specific information on general safety and specific hazards. </li></ul><ul><li>Your supervisor should advise you on specific hazards that apply in your case. </li></ul>See Sections 18-20 of the Safety Regulations
  17. 20. When in doubt, do nothing without expert guidance
  18. 21. Project Planning <ul><li>Purpose of the plan </li></ul><ul><li>What to plan </li></ul><ul><li>How to plan </li></ul><ul><li>Typical plans </li></ul><ul><li>Gantt charts </li></ul><ul><li>Using the plan </li></ul>
  19. 22. Purpose of the Plan <ul><li>Gets you to define the scope of your project </li></ul><ul><li>Enables you to break your project down into manageable tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Gets you to think about how to best allocate your time </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures that you record and therefore meet all the deadlines </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a means of tracking/control/evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Moves the ownership and responsibility for your project from your supervisor to you! </li></ul>
  20. 23. What Goes into the Plan <ul><li>The aims (outcomes) of the project that you expect to have achieved by the end (you’ll be assessed on these) </li></ul><ul><li>A description of the project – in your own words (ownership) </li></ul><ul><li>A list of the tasks that have to be performed to achieve the aims of your project </li></ul><ul><li>A list of the milestones (deliverables) that will enable you, your supervisor and the School, to monitor and track your progress </li></ul><ul><li>A timetable (Gantt chart) for the project that indicates the time allocated to each task and the delivery (due dates) of the milestones. </li></ul>
  21. 24. How to Plan <ul><li>Discuss your project with the supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Agree on the aims and the description </li></ul><ul><li>Get advice on the activities that will be needed to complete the project (these will depend on the type of project) </li></ul><ul><li>Put the tasks into a sequence that starts from nothing and ends with a delivered thesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate time to each task (seek advice, but be prepared to guess) and put the tasks on to a timeline. (Project started on September 29th.) </li></ul>
  22. 26. Typical Plans <ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Main tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Milestones </li></ul><ul><li>Gantt chart </li></ul>
  23. 27. The Aims <ul><li>A list of two to five objectives that you expect to have achieved by the end of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Presented in the form of one sentence bullet points. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These appear on page one of the Planning Statement (and will form basis of assessment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be realistic and conservative (examiners will be impressed if you exceed the aims, but may mark you down if you fail to meet all that you said that you would) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note : the project aims are not the same as the learning outcomes for the research project module </li></ul>
  24. 28. Description <ul><li>You chose (or were allocated) a project based on the supervisor’s description. </li></ul><ul><li>The description is your version of the project brief. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be in your own words and may have different emphasis and scope from that of the original suggestion. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important that you have discussed this with your supervisor and that you have both agreed a description. </li></ul><ul><li>To help the examiners, you should clearly indicate in your description the type of project: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research, experimental study, software development, product design, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It’s your project: You have to own the description! </li></ul>
  25. 29. Main Tasks <ul><li>To complete any large project, it needs to broken down into small well defined sub projects. </li></ul><ul><li>These can be tackled independently and completion is often marked by a milestone </li></ul><ul><li>Some tasks will be completed in parallel, but the key ones will form a sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Some tasks will be common to all projects, others will be project specific. </li></ul>
  26. 30. Common Tasks + milestones <ul><li>Project planning/progress monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>project planning statement, progress report </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Library research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Literature review” chapter in thesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Write up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thesis/extended abstract/presentation for viva </li></ul></ul>
  27. 31. A Traditional Research Project <ul><li>Typical Aim : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to determine known knowledge about a topic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tasks : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform a library search (search results) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather materials (copies of relevant sources) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extract and précis important information (abstracts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare views across sources (comparison of sources) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform a critical review (literature review) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present the known knowledge (thesis) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 32. An Experimental Study <ul><li>Typical Aim : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to discover/verify a new theory or investigate a new technique/material/approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tasks : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the problem (theory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design experiment (method) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform experiment(s) (results) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the results (discussion) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form Conclusions (thesis) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 33. A Design Project <ul><li>Typical Aim : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to determine known knowledge about a topic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tasks : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather requirements (requirements) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High level design (conceptual design) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed design (mechanical drawing/software design) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation (product/prototype) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test (test results) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate (thesis) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 34. Milestones <ul><li>External indicators of progress </li></ul><ul><li>Standard milestones (dates specified in first briefing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project planning statement (PPS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress report (PR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissertation and Extended Abstract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation and Defense (viva) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other milestones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depend on the project type </li></ul></ul>
  31. 35. How much detail?
  32. 36. KISS Keep it simple stupid it
  33. 37. A matter of time <ul><li>300 hours </li></ul><ul><li>11 weeks before Christmas </li></ul><ul><li>But wait … 2 weeks have already gone! </li></ul><ul><li>So 9 week s before Christmas </li></ul><ul><li>8 weeks a fter exams </li></ul><ul><li>5 weeks to write up </li></ul><ul><li>300 / (9 + 8 + 5) = 14 hours per week </li></ul><ul><li>Tick Tock! </li></ul>
  34. 38. Gantt Chart Shows You (and your supervisor) <ul><li>When you have time </li></ul><ul><li>How much time you have </li></ul><ul><li>What tasks you have </li></ul><ul><li>When are milestones due </li></ul><ul><li>When you will be working </li></ul><ul><li>When you won’t be working </li></ul><ul><li>All tasks/milestones identified in plan must appear on chart </li></ul><ul><li>My advice : KISS and go for a simple “waterfall model” </li></ul>
  35. 39. Typical Gantt Chart
  36. 40. Using the plan <ul><li>Most projects will have a critical path which has to be carefully controlled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a task on the critical path over-runs the project will be late. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You may have to re-plan if progress is better/worse than expected. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan helps you to assign time to your project and your supervisor to monitor your progress and effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to follow plan is not necessarily a failure of the project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>providing you learn from the experience and can justify need to re-plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failure to follow the plan because it was never realistic will result in lost marks! </li></ul>
  37. 41. The Progress Report <ul><li>Your first chance to publicly compare your progress against the plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Lists achievements against plans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks completed versus tasks to be completed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milestones delivered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts for slow or faster progress then expected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discusses any changes that were needed as project aims became clearer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents a modified Gantt chart if appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should be brief! </li></ul>
  38. 42. Summary <ul><li>Health and safety and risk assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Project Planning </li></ul>
  39. 43. What now? <ul><li>Discuss your project with you supervisor and determine aims, description and main tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>S/He will instigate your risk assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>You should draft a project plan – use the template provided on Blackboard – for discussion with your supervisor a week before the deadline. </li></ul><ul><li>Both must be complete by 5.00 pm, Friday 24 th October. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk assessment completed on School Intranet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email project plan (in Word .doc format) to designated research group coordinator with CC to supervisor – one document please! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name document eg-353-pps-student-number.doc . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember late submission = 0 marks! </li></ul>
  40. 44. Coming Next Research Techniques and Tools