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  1. 1. COPENHAGEN CLEANTECH Issue #2 JOURNAL 2012The most promising smart Buildingcity project in Europe? tomorrow’s city:industrial symbiosis Strong visions andwith intelligent smart alliancesenergy solutions Page 4Page 14The crucialquestion:What’sstoppingcities fromgettingsmarter?Page 34Smart cities:The only intelligentanswer for anurbanised world
  2. 2. editorial contents Towards a green future together! t is becoming more and more evident The city can only play its role in the green The obstacle race towards smart cities I that smart cities are the key to com- transformation if all of its stakeholders The world’s cities are growing and the potential to make them smarter isbining a sustainable future with continued across organisational and industrial bound- enormous. But even the smartest cities in the world don’t exploit the pos-economic growth and job creation. This is aries focus on cooperation. We need new sibilities to the fullest, according to leading experts. Page 4the conclusion that many leading experts, solutions, new ways of combining existingcompanies, researchers and city managers solutions and new types of partnerships to The world’s smartest metropolises? Five global snapshots Page 10express in this edition of the Copenhagen get there, and ultimately we need to involve Marianna LubanskiCleantech Journal. every citizen in co-creation processes in or- der to reach the full potential of a liveable Executive director, Copenhagen Cleantech The path to a smart city Cluster The Danish Municipality of Kalundborg is highlighted as one of the mostBut what exactly is a smart city? What does and smart city of the future. promising smart city projects in Europe. The main ingredients are intelligentit take to create a smart city? And what ex- energy solutions and industrial symbiosis. Page 14pectations can we have to the city as a key In Copenhagen we have embarked on thisto solving climate issues and creating jobs? journey with the set target of becoming CO2 Bridging world-leading cleantech clusters neutral by 2025. We invite you to join us for The International Cleantech Network Page 18The Copenhagen Cleantech Journal is an cross-city inspiration and innovation.initiative of key players in the Copenhagen A system of systemsCleantech Cluster and, as such, is an exam- In the meantime we hope that this edition How smart is the smart city? Page 20ple of how companies, knowledge institu- of the Copenhagen Cleantech Journal willtions and public-sector organisations can join give you inspiration and food for thought. Make climate adaptation smart and socialforces to address a specific issue. The same An open invitation to smart urban development Page 22type of cooperation which is the foundation Enjoy!for a smart city. Green consensus strengthens long-term investments A perfect framework for smarter cities Page 25 Heine Pedersen An ambitious cleantech region Five Copenhagen-based innovators Page 28 New business model for complex cleantech solutions Danish foundation supports pioneering project Page 32Copenhagen Cleantech JournalPublisher editorial team Translation The fledgling years of the smart cityCopenhagen Cleantech Cluster Ola Jørgensen CLS Communication We need a sharper focus on vision and value creation as well as better busi- Søren Schultz JørgensenAddress Rune Rasmussen Print ness, finance and management models. But first and foremost, we need toCopenhagen Cleantech Cluster Hans Peder Wagner 5000 copies Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster (CCC) engage politicians and citizens at a human level. Accenture’s Simon Giles onNørregade 7 B is at the core of the cleantech eco the potentials and obstacles on the path to smarter cities. Page 34DK – 1165 Copenhagen K Contributors Printing house system in Denmark with a missionDenmark Sune Aagaard Clausen Grafisk to foster cooperation between Signe Tonsberg Clausen Grafisk holds the Nordic cleantech companies, research Additional reading+45 3322 0222 Christian Mohr Boisen Ecolabel institutions and public Jesper Andersen worldwide. Join us for a green future Smart city websites and publications Page 38 Nina Vinther Andersen Paper – together!Executive Director CCJ is printed on 100% recycled 170gMarianna Lubanski Special thanks to Cyclus Offset paper. The cover is printed Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster Simon Giles, Accenture on Chromolux 700. RD IC ECOL A B Mission, methods and partners Page 40 NO ELConcept and editingKontrabande and Klartekst Graphic design ISSN Mattias Wohlert 2245-120X Issue #2 · 2012 | 3
  3. 3. Focus big cities growing Number of cities with more than 1 mio citizens The obstacle +500 race towards to take action if we want to do something about being taken seriously enough – even though it is smart cities many of the key global challenges. Economic, the only option that consistently addresses the living conditions, health, resource, environmen- problems we are facing,” says Mark Watts. tal and climate issues – they are all inextricably linked to the ever-increasing urbanisation pro- Smart investment during a crisis cess. But this should not only be viewed as some- Mark Watts is Director of Climate Change and thing negative. Energy at Arup, a UK consultancy firm. He is The high population density in cities is actu- in charge of Arup’s partnership with the C40, a In order for the cities of the future to handle the monumental ally an important prerequisite for the ability to group of 40 of the world’s largest cities. He has social, environmental and economic pressures they are facing, it is develop many of the intelligent sustainable so- also served as advisor to former-Mayor of Lon- imperative to make them smart. The potential for smart cities is lutions that sort under the concept of smart cit- don Ken Livingstone on climate change and sus- enormous, but without a strong political vision and close cooperation ies. For example, the dense populations in cities tainable transport. So he knows what he is talk- among the business community, researchers and decision-makers, make mass transit possible, and multi-storey ing about when he emphasises the logic of the it will be nothing but empty words, according to a number of leading housing consumes less energy per occupant than political system as perhaps the biggest obstacle a single-family dwelling does. to accelerating the development of smart cities. experts and players in the field. But even the world’s smartest cities are far “Superficially, it seems logical during a reces- from smart enough. sion for politicians to resist the investments that Illustration by There are still a number of obstacles to tap- can make smart cities a reality. They feel pres- Stuart Campbell ping into the enormous potential in developing sured to prioritise welfare in a traditional sense. really smart cities. One reason for this is that But by investing in smart cities, they would be the players who could and should be driving the able to achieve much greater savings and even transformation to smart cities are in practice in- boost efficiency. In fact, it’s in times of crisis, like clined to prioritise more traditional initiatives. what we’re experiencing today, that smart cities “On the surface, there is keen interest among make most sense,” explains Mark Watts. the world’s leading cities in smart cities, and when asked directly, most would probably claim The quicksand of pilot projects Simon Giles heads the consultancy firm Accen- that they have a strategy for this kind of devel- The compounding effects of climate change, ture’s global Intelligent Cities Strategy team, opment. But when I look at the seniority of the lack of sustainability, inefficient and obsolete which specialises in the development of smart people working in the area and at the funding infrastructure and continued population growth cities. He is one of the experts who points to levels, I have to conclude that this agenda is not represent the complex of challenges cities all the lack of political com- 83 over the world are facing, and to which many see mitment as one of the only one effective response: smart cities. main reasons why smart The cities are the indisputable epicentres of city thinking has still not globalisation: more than 5 billion people will live “Smart city has become a buzz­ ord w evolved from pilot pro- in cities by 2020. In 1900, only 13 per cent of the that’s thrown about freely. THERE’S jects to the large scale. global population lived in cities, by 2050 that fig- AN AWFUL LOT OF PAPER-PUSHING AS He compares it to invest- 12 ure will be 70 per cent. And as expressed in the CITIES ARE STILL TRYING TO FIGURE ments in cleaner technol- report Information Marketplaces – The New ogy and fears that projects Economics of Cities: “Cities now represent the OUT WHAT THE TERM SMART CITY may stall at pilot stage and 1900 1950 2011 core hubs of the global economy, acting as hives MEANS FOR THEM AND WHAT SPECIFIC never progress to full scale of innovation in technical, financial and other ACTIONS TO TAKE.” implementation – despite services.” all the good intentions. Source: UN: World Ur- banization Prospects, the Cities are therefore also the essential place Kurt Othendal Nielsen, Siemens “If the words are not 2009 revision.4 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 5
  4. 4. The obstacle race towards smart cities third world urbanization Urban population in developing countries 2009-2050 backed up by investments, both the people and several fronts. He uses parking as an example expect that pressure on the cities to become so the political stakeholders will be disappointed: to illustrate the essential role data plays in the heavy, that change will be inevitable: Every week 5.2 bio. Were smart cities just a fad? It’s imperative that development of smart cities, pointing out the 1.3 million people move to cities, and while there they articulate a strong and coherent vision and environmental strain and inefficiency of drivers were only 83 cities with over a million inhabit- demonstrate the value proposition in terms the circling around the city in search of an empty ants in 1950, today there are more than 500.Smart cities in brief average citizen can understand,” says Simon parking space. If parking spaces could be distrib- The economic motives will also be decisive, Giles. uted efficiently among the drivers, there would according to Kurt Othendal Nielsen. The needThe basic premise for the development See also Simon Giles’ contribution “The fledg- be less traffic and pollution. for smart solutions within areas such as energy,of smart cities is understanding the ling years of the smart city transformation” on “Basically, parking is just another form of in- tranportation, waste and healthcare will becomecity as “a system of systems”: data, page 34. ventory control. We know from cities like San so overwhelming, that they cannot be ignored. Inenergy supply, waste management, Francisco that by placing sensors in parking the old economies in the West, the pressure oninfrastructure, transport etc. The Data is the new oil… spaces and inserting certain logarithms in the welfare will also be a driving force for change. Inindividual systems can be more or less Despite the obstacles to the spread of smart city parking ticket machines, it’s possible to distrib- the healthcare sector, for instance, the possibil-smart or intelligent – and more or less solutions, the players and experts whom Copen- ute the spaces more efficiently and reap more ity of cutting costs by working smarter is a veryintelligently integrated. hagen Cleantech Journal has spoken to are unan- benefits. But who should pay for the establish- strong incentive. But as things now stand, he imously optimistic about the future of smart cit- ment of this kind of infrastructure? Should the shares Mark Watt’s view: too many words, and ies – at least in the somewhat longer term. city own, collect and manage the data or should limited action.Smart city thinking is currently top- One of the biggest sources of optimism is the they flow freely? Some car parks are privatelyping agendas for several reasons: rapid technological development that opens up owned, so what is their motivation to share data? Evolution like that of the Internet a continuous flow of new possibilities for intel- What is the business model?” asks Kurt Othen- “Smart City has become a buzzword that’s• Our cities are growing, and all these ligent solutions. And there can be no question- dal Nielsen. thrown about freely. There’s an awful lot of pa- 2.5 bio. people are straining the existing infra- ing the fact that the smart city of the future is per-pushing, but not very many genuine changes structure. technologically founded on data as the new, es- Climate targets and economic incentives along the way,” says Kurt Othendal Nielsen.• Larger cities result in larger problems, sential raw material. A number of cities have set ambitious climate While the 40 largest cities in the organisation for instance, with waste management, As Mark Watts puts it: “Either the city of the targets for the next few decades. Consequently, do represent 18 per cent of the world’s GNP, they consequently increasing the need for future will run on information or it won’t run at they will have a strong incentive to drive the are only responsible for 10 per cent of global car- sustainable solutions on a larger scale. all.” transformation process. Kurt Othendal Nielsen bon emissions. Still, as the 2011 report Informa-• The high population density of our It is first and foremost the spread of technol- tion Marketplaces – The New cities also opens up for new opportu- ogy that will play the most crucial role. In a few Economics of Cities concludes: nities for more efficient solutions and years, even the poorest people in the world will “The connected, technology- synergies within, among other areas, have mobile phones, and today more than 2 bil- enabled ‘smart city’ is today transport and energy. lion phones are already “smart”, that is, linked more vision than reality”.• The combination of climate change to the Internet. At the same time we are seeing “We can’t get out of and economic crisis has called the “Superficially, it seems logical enormous growth in the number of sensors that adressing the challenges. I re- world’s attention to how we create can send data to other systems via what is known during a recession for politi- alise that at the moment, it’s more growth and prosperity while re- as the Internet of Things (IoT). Digital real-time cians to resist the investments extremely difficult to progress ducing our impact on the climate and data on how the city’s inhabitants act is a vital beyond the project level, but environment. that can make smart cities a prerequisite for many of the solutions people re- reality. but In fact, it’s in times I predict an evolution similar fer to when they talk about smart cities. to that of the Internet. Twenty of crisis, like what we’re experi- years ago, it hardly existed, but ... but where is the business model? encing today, that smart cities one advance led to the next 2009 2050 Data can’t do it alone, however. Kurt Othen- make most sense.” and now it’s infinite. If we take dal Nielsen who is City Account Manager at all the small steps we can, I be- Source: WHO: Urban Siemens, is involved in smart city thinking on Mark Watts, Arup lieve that in 20 years we will population growth.6 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 7
  5. 5. The obstacle race towards smart cities have leapt to a smart city,” concludes Kurt Oth- cause they have come to realise that the eco- ence a month on smart cities – often organised A century of cities endal Nielsen. nomic benefits of succeeding as a smart city are by a major technology supplier. But of the 40 cit- Like many others, David Overton Chabre Holm enormous. Perhaps the complex of problems the ies in the C40, only four have installed smart me- emphasises that the urbanisation which triggers The vanguard of new urbanism cities are facing represents a threat so serious ters in their own buildings,” says Mark Watts. the pressing need for smart, sustainable cities is There are, of course, frontrunners among the that smart city thinking is in fact the only possi- actually a good thing, partly because the cities world’s big cities. Some cities have taken huge ble path to future economic growth. The eye of the world on Copenhagen can lift a lot of people out of poverty. steps towards realising the concept of the smart “Certain cities already are, or soon will be, the The cities that are farthest along generally have And there is every indication that cities will city, either out of bitter necessity or driven by vanguard of new urbanism. They will develop the an efficient cooperation among the many play- play an even bigger role in addressing many glob- visionary leaders, or both. Cities like San Fran- methods that inspire others to develop differ- ers who are able to see beyond their own vested al challenges. Or as the former mayor of Denver, cisco, Singapore, Barcelona and Copenhagen are ently. The message of fiscal austerity has limited interests. In the energy sector, Greater Copen- Wellington Webb, puts it: spotlighted by experts. See selected examples in political longevity, at some point the discourse hagen including more than 20 local authorities “The 19th century was a century of empires, Global Snapshots on page 10. has to change to sustainable growth. There is is a pioneering metropol thanks to a unique co- the 20th century was a century of nation states The cities that are leading the way do so be- a need to tell a compelling story about growth, operation among authorities at all levels, sectors and the 21st century will be a century of cities.” but in many cities the demands placed on the lo- and across the political spectrum in parliament. A great deal depends on whether it is also a cal ecosystem is so onerous that the only growth The integration of power, gas, district heating century of smart cities. possible is resource efficient, green growth. The and waste management is unique. This is why smart city will enable the 21st century’s new sus- Copenhagen regularly receives visits from all tainable urban growth paradigm,” concludes Si- over the world, explains Anders Dyrelund, chief mon Giles from Accenture. advisor at the engineering and consultancy firm Ramboll.the end of the Waiting for the first to move “Since 1985 Copenhagen has been the place to rural era In many ways, however, the cities are pushing go if you wanted to learn how to heat cities. BackPercentage of world and vying at the starting line as they wait for then, they came from Beijing, and now they havepopulation: Urban vs. someone to make the first move. This is a well- developed a heat supply based on the Copenha- rural known mechanism – as seen in the efforts to gen model. Most recently, Milan, Seoul and Lon- Five obstacles reduce traffic in city centres. Mark Watts from don have come to visit, and last week we started The experts whom Copenhagen 80% Arup has closely observed this development. new activities in Moscow where they also need Cleantech Journal has spoken to all “Ten years ago, doing something about traffic help,” says Anders Dyrelund. paint the same picture of the ob- 70% in major cities topped the agenda at every con- David Overton Chabre Holm, business de- stacles to accelerating the develop- 60% ference, but no one did anything. Then London veloper at the Technical University of Denmark ment of smarter cities: Rural Urban took the first step, and it turned out that was all (DTU), confirms that silo thinking is poison to 50% that was needed. Then came Stockholm and af- smart city ambitions. Smart thinking is about • Political short-sightedness: Politicians are much too focused on ter that the other cities followed suit in a kind of thinking across slios – a prime example, in his the immediate future. 40% knock-on effect,” he explains. view, is the public tender system. In his view ten- • Silo thinking: Each sector, administration and industry knows 30% For Mark Watts there is, however, one factor ders are generally written so restrictively that too little about what the others are doing, making it difficult to that is decisive for whether a city will be a front- they preclude any possibility of thinking smart. realise the necessary cross-sectoral cooperation. 20% • Lack of management: The development process is primarily driven runner or will throw on the brakes. “If the tender requirements defined the func- by commercial players – without a coherent and guiding political 10% “It might sound a bit boring, but what really tions to be performed, however, it would be possi- vision. matters is whether they are tackling it at a stra- ble to overcome the problem that each building or • High complexity: Especially in established cities, the number of 0% tegic level. Those cities that have formulated each project is planned separately. If the tender is stakeholders is overwhelming, and the existing infrastructure 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 binding strategies and appointed someone to be for a super hospital and a childcare centre is to be often represents an effective defence against change. strategically responsible are streets ahead of the located next door, a number of smart gains could • Organisational inertia: Complex, interdisciplinary solutions requireSource: UN: World Urbanization Prospects, the 2007 revision. others. But unfortunately, it’s also easy to stand be realised by planning the two projects together, organisational versatility – including more flexible partnership out. At the moment there is typically a confer- but this is very often not the case,” he says. models between the public and private sectors.8 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 9
  6. 6. global snapshots other awards. This new “eco-precinct” The greenest housing comprises seven blocks of flats with blocks in Singapore 712 units and is designed to promote energy conservation, reduce mainte- nance costs and ensure efficient re- source consumption. Singapore has made a virtue of ne- The buildings make use of passive cessity. With no traditional energy strategies. For instance, the housingThe world’s resources to draw on, the country has blocks are strategically placed so the always had to import all of the energy glass facades face the prevailing windsmartest it consumes from other countries. direction: northwest. This ensures themetropolises? Add to this Singapore’s limited size and constantly rising urbanisation, flats maximum benefit from natural light and ventilation. and you have a country that is forced to look for alternative solutions and To cool down the surrounding air tem-All over the world, the new directions. Consequently, it is no perature in the humid heat, each hous-concept of the smart city coincidence that Singapore is one of ing block has a green roof and verticalis gaining ground. And the top global leaders in the cleantech greening three stories up along theit is not only big, newly area. facade. This reduces the need for pow- Richard Davies er-guzzling air conditioning systems.established cities that are A perfect example of Singapore’s focus The buildings also have low-energythinking in terms of large- on cleantech is Treelodge@Punggol – lighting fixtures in common areas, so-scale intelligent solutions. the first public housing complex in the lar panels over the car park, improvedJourney with us to five Holistic changes in Bilbao The stations along the city’s metro world to earn the Green Mark Plati- heat insulation, outdoor clothes lines Surbanaclassic metropolises that system, Metro de Bilbao, are famed num Award – as well as a number of and energy-optimised lifts. for being designed by the architect Sirare now using innovative Norman Foster. Like the rest of thecleantech solutions on city centre, the entire approach hastheir path to a sustainable been holistic in nature: the architec- ing pillar for sustainability. It consists Amsterdam – A spot infuture. ture, engineering and even construc- of a table surrounded by little bench- tion are all integrated in a holistic vi- the sun es, and above them rises a five-metre- sion. What the locals call Fosteritos high metal pole mounted with solar – the dramatically shaped, futuristic panels on large plates. These “roof street-level entrances to the metro – Amsterdam’s position as a global plates” also provide shelter from the Bilbao has undergone a dramatic are made from glass and have become leader within cleantech and smart city elements to the people sitting on the change in recent decades. The worn- just as much an icon for Bilbao as the thinking is well established. The city’s benches. In this way, residents are in- down Basque metropolis has been famous art nouveau metro entrances brand is often associated with the vited and encouraged to move out into reborn as a city with the Guggenheim are for Paris. green future. But the value of the city’s the daylight and fresh air to relax – or museum at its heart and innovation sustainable projects is not necessarily work, as it is also possible to link up to as a driving force and brand. By virtue The holistic approach embodies more apparent to all residents of the city be- the Zonspot’s wireless Internet con- of comprehensive urban renewal and than architecture and aesthetics, cause many of the projects are not yet nection for free. brand new buildings, the area has be- however. As an example of Bilbao’s visible in street life. come the hub of the Spanish cleantech comprehensive cleantech-thinking, The aim is for this bright idea to spread ZonSpot industry and green growth movement. the Metro de Bilbao only uses sustain- Amsterdam’s Zonspots, however, are to other cities in the Netherlands, and Bilbao’s positive image as a place able energy supplied by a local com- a big exception. The word means sun- over time to the rest of Europe. And where new and comprehensive urban pany. This saves the atmosphere from spot, and these very striking, flower- even though the Zonspot project seeks aim is to increase people’s awareness thinking has reinforced the trend, and 46,000 cubic tonnes of CO2 emissions like sculptures are popping up all over to provide residents of the city with of energy consumption and alterna- the area has done a good job attracting every year. The Metro de Bilbao is also the Dutch capital. Zonspots is a pub- good opportunities to log onto the In- tive energy sources. Zonspot is one of international top names within archi- equipped with efficient braking sys- lic-sector project that focuses on sus- ternet out of doors, its primary objec- many green initiatives that have been tecture and design, further contribut- tems that use one-third less energy. tainable solutions and green thinking. tive is to call attention to sustainabil- realised with the support of the Ams- ing to the positive development. A Zonspot in itself is a giant advertis- ity and green solutions in general. The marterdam City Project.10 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 11
  7. 7. global snapshots Photos courtesy of Ryan Burke, City of Fort CollinsColorado’s zero energy on energy sources like wind or FortZED uses a variety of renewable energy technologies, including solar photovoltaics, rechargeable hybrid vehicles and micro-wind turbines. Active participation by everyone in- volved is key to the success of theDowntown Fort Collins, Colorado, project. This especially applies to José Fuste RagaUSA, will be the largest area in the the residents who will be consum-world to run solely on the energy it ing and co-producing the energy. Theis able to produce itself – known as a FortZED team has therefore joinedzero energy zone. FortZED, as the vi- forces with local media to call atten-sion has been dubbed, is the result of tion to the relatively radical changes Vancouver’s sustainable One of Vancouver’s most notable buildings of the highest quality anda collaboration between researchers, in energy consumption habits which green projects is Southeast False easy access to public transport. AlongColorado State University, local busi- the new initiatives will entail. For super-community Creek, a new community under de- the waterfront there are wide cyclingnesses and authorities, as well as the example, a TV campaign was carried velopment on the waterfront close to and pedestrian paths, and the “vil-local government. To achieve its goal, out to encourage the 6,200 residents the city centre. Southeast False Creek, lage” also has its own island and urbanFortZED is counting on smart grid, re- within the zone to reduce their energy once the site of the Olympic Village sanctuary with a rich native marinenewable energy technology, as well as consumption and increase the num- during the 2010 Winter Olympics, is habitat.on the active involvement of the resi- ber of renewable energy installations. now being transformed into a residen-dents of the city. tial area to house up to 16,000 people. By collecting and recycling rainwa- The project is financed by local pri- Over the years, Vancouver has been The flats are affordable and the neigh- ter, Southeast False Creek has halvedThe development of smart grid tech- vate and public-sector grants in the an extremely active and growing base bourhood will feature child care cen- water consumption compared tonology is a vital part of the FortZED order of USD 5 million in addition to for the cleantech industry – thanks to tres, a park, a public plaza and much traditional neighbourhoods. And anproject. With traditional power grids, a grant of USD 6.3 million from the US a great extent to the region’s targeted more. environmentally friendly energy sys-electricity always moves in the same Department of Energy. In exchange, investment in sustainability and green tem running through every flat pro-direction, for example from a coal- the Department of Energy’s nation- growth. Vancouver is currently home Southeast False Creek has become a vides heating and hot water to thefired power plant to businesses and wide programme, Renewable and to a quarter of all cleantech companies role model for sustainable urban plan- entire area. The neighbourhood evenhomes. Smart grids, on the other hand, Distributed Systems Integration, ben- in Canada, and the cleantech sector is ning for all of North America. The dis- features an area devoted to urban ag-allow power to flow in more than one efits from FortZED’s experience and a vital economic driver for the entire trict is designed with a visionary in- riculture and, of course, the housingdirection, making it possible to draw research findings. province of British Columbia. frastructure, strategic energy savings, blocks have grassy rooftop gardens.12 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 13
  8. 8. solutions The Danish Municipality of Kalundborg is highlighted as one of the most promising smart city projects in Europe. The main ingredient in smart city Kalundborg is the three-way commit- ment to intelligent energy solutions from the local authority, residents and the private sector. The path to a smart city goes via intelligent energy Meet Kalundborg – a large Danish are planned efficiently with renew- provincial municipality situated 100 able, fossil-free energy solutions and kilometres from Copenhagen. Its the end user in focus. For the same population of around 50,000 lives in funding, we could choose to invest in close proximity to the blue sea, green the future rather than renovate the woods and Denmark’s second-largest past,” explains Martin Andersen, the industrial estate with a sustainable driving force behind the smart city Heine Pedersen environmental and energy profile. To Kalundborg concept and head of the all these excellent qualities, they are Municipality of Kalundborg’s EU of- now adding the ambitious vision of fice in Brussels. becoming Denmark’s – and perhaps Kalundborg has developed its Europe’s – smartest city. unique interpretation of the Europe- creating intelligent electricity grids. Industrial symbiosis over 40 years In a few years, what seems at the an Commission’s overall aspiration to The idea is to create a sustainable moment like a wild idea from a futur- concentrate on cities and focus on the district where the residents are flex- Kalundborg Symbiosis is a unique cooperation between public and istic urban vision should be a reality in intelligent end consumer. ible “prosumers”. This means they private-sector enterprises in Kalundborg. The stakeholders buy and Kalundborg. The ingredients include: “Living in a smart city should be fun act both as consumers who can “ad- sell each others’ waste products from industrial production – in- and enriching. Partly because you’re just their electricity consumption” cluding steam, dust, gases, heat and slurry. One company’s waste 1. Intelligent buildings that care for part of a green solution and partly be- and as suppliers of electricity back to products represent a (cheaper) raw material for production for their occupants. cause you find that your good energy the grid. For example, it is possible another. For instance, a plasterboard manufacturer uses a residual 2. Intelligent, remote-controlled behaviour is rewarded with a bonus to intelligently control the charging plaster product from the desulphurisation system at the local power energy solutions, e.g. heatpumps check at the end of the year,” says of electrical appliances such as heat plant. Another example is agriculture, which can replace costly adjusting room temperatures to Martin K. Andersen. pumps and electric cars with surplus fertiliser with a waste product from the sewage treatment plant at grid peak loads or electric cars act- electricity from wind farms, usually Novozymes, a biotech company. ing as energy storage and peak load The intelligent consumer at night when pressure on the grid is A total of 30 different residual product flows are exchanged in this buffers. The Municipality of Kalundborg has lowest – and electricity is therefore way between the companies in the symbiosis and the results speak for themselves. The environment is spared hundreds of thousands 3. Intelligent planning of energy formed an ambitious alliance with cheaper. of tonnes of carbon emissions and the companies’ industrial water systems that help the end users to three players for development of the Another scenario will allow the and a wide range of other materials are reused, thus reducing total be “intelligent consumers”. smart city Kalundborg concept. The utility companies to pay the end-users consumption significantly. partners are the commercial and pro- in order to apply intelligent manage- The symbiosis has existed as a business model since 1972 and “Smart city Kalundborg is not a pro- fessional organisation Dansk Energi, ment and turn down the ventilation or can thus celebrate its 40th anniversary this year. ject. It’s a long-term concept designed the energy company SEAS-NVE and heating system, e.g. in a sports centre to ensure that our cities and society Spirae, which supplies solutions for or a house. This eases pressure on the Source: www.symbiosis.dk14 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 15
  9. 9. solutionspower grid without being a problem power from wind, sun and biomass, “We want to show that smart grid is It doesn’t have to cost the earth in order to find the smartest and mostfor the end users because the suppli- possible in practice. not just about energy and electricity, but Everyone should have the incentive sustainable solutions. For many years,ers guarantee that the temperature Spirae has developed a technology about creating entire ecosystems and to invest in these solutions, and in the city has been renowned for havingwill remain within a specified range. that can easily be hooked up to the dif- sustainable business models around Kalundborg smart city, “commercial” the world’s first industrial symbiosisThis can reduce the need to invest in ferent services on the electricity grid. sustainable energy – also for the con- is not a bad word. where the municipality and a numberincreased grid capacity, which the end For instance, a service provider can sumer. We want to inspire people to do “If we think as a municipality in of industrial companies have joinedusers would ultimately have to pay for help consumers control their elec- this on a variety of fronts. For smart city new and unconventional ways, we forces on reusing industrial wasteout of their own pockets. tricity consumption. An electric car Kalundborg, it’s not just about meet- don’t have to go cap in hand asking for products. Basically one industry’s “The municipality is a catalyst for company can use electricity prices to ing an energy need but about creating money,” explains Martin K. Andersen, waste becomes another industry’s re-creating a market directed at the in- advise consumers on when it is least growth and new jobs,” he says. who goes on to emphasise that public- source. See box. The collaboration istelligent and sensible user. At the expensive to charge their vehicles. sector operation, procurement and financed and driven by the stakehold-same time, as a municipality we want And solar energy companies can make Energy can do a lot facilities have a value for many stake- ers themselves without public-sector sure that the consumers are – but not everything holders which could be worked to far subsidies. compensated by the electri- In smart city Kalundborg the initial better advantage. From this day cal company when their so- focus is on the energy solutions of He gives the following example: If a on, residents lar energy systems produce the future. But the results are about grid operator finds that the power grid and companies Spirae – experts in smart gridsDid you know more electricity than they so much more than just electricity in one area of the city is so overloaded in Kalundborg Spirae is a research-based company that supplies use. These are just a few of consumption and electricity bills, em- that new cables need to be laid to in- will gradually infrastructure for the energy solutions of the future.… that Denmark is the European leader in the concept’s many potential phasises Martin K. Andersen from the crease capacity, then the company has feel the change The company was founded in Colorado, USA andintelligent electricity grids? A survey con- applications. Municipality of Kalundborg – time a huge financial interest in reducing towards the has been in Denmark for five years. Spirae has beenducted by the European Commission shows Renewable energy, energy- and again. electricity consumption and avoiding smart city vi- involved in, among other things, the leading Danishthat 22 per cent of all development projects efficient buildings and heat “By creating intelligent buildings, the costly process of digging trenches sion. Among smart grid project in Holsted, near Billund, in associa-within smart grids are located in Denmark. pumps already exist, as we it’s possible to imagine, for instance, and laying cables. If, at the same time, other things, tion with, which owns the transmissionIn second place is Germany with 11 per cent, know, and electric cars are that the municipality’s home care pro- the municipality has plans to, say, Kalundborg will networks in Denmark.followed by the Netherlands with 8.8 per just around the corner. Un- fessionals receive a message if there is make the town’s schools more energy in coming yearscent of projects. fortunately, they are all used an ‘irregularity’ in a client’s electric- efficient, then the grid operator clear- be participating independently of each other ity consumption. For example, if Mrs ly has an interest in making sure this in a large number of commercial pro- and without coordination Smith doesn’t turn on her coffee mak- process begins with the reduction of jects involving sustainable and intel-our industries and private citizens to with power grid operation. Conse- er one morning as usual, this could electricity consumption at the school ligent energy solutions. Much of thesave money with this concept. In the quently, the individual elements are mean she has fallen and the home care located in the overloaded area. focus will be on ensuring that energylong term, it ought to be cheaper for not yet exploited optimally. In smart professional can give her a call or send “The service that we as a munici- and grid-friendly behaviour results inthe intelligent consumer or business city Kalundborg, Spirae’s technical someone right away to check up on pality provide by making strategic lower prices for the “intelligent con-to live or establish operations in smart solutions create the necessary con- her,” explains Martin K. Andersen. energy changes in relation to grid ca- sumer”.cities like Kalundborg rather than in ditions that allow a wide range of One of the watchwords when im- pacity has an exact value for the grid “But this is about much more thanthe next town over,” explains Martin sustainable energy services to work plementing the smart city concept is operator in money terms, because just energy. In other areas as well, it’sAndersen. together and react to the electricity cooperation. It requires cooperation they can avoid having to spend huge important to have a significant driv- grid’s needs and limitations – benefit- across professional boundaries at city sums digging trenches for new cables. ing force for the business community,Common IT platform ting both end users and suppliers. hall, but also between the public and In a smart city context, this kind of the municipality and citizens to findThe specific solutions and ideas are “We have the technical platform private sectors and with the power grid-friendly behaviour is rewarded in smarter ways to solve the municipaldiverse. In order to implement them, that makes these ideas possible,” ex- companies. The synergies will be cash,” he says. operations tasks,” points out MartinKalundborg has joined forces with plains Spirae’s Director of Business readily visible in the form of financial K. Andersen.Spirae, a company that supplies the Development in Denmark Peter Kel- incentives for everyone, according to Inspiration isn’t far awaysoftware and hardware that makes ler-Larsen, who has high expectations Martin K. Andersen. Kalundborg doesn’t have to look far fora smart electricity grid, comprising of the cooperation with Kalundborg. inspiration on alternative approaches16 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 17
  10. 10. networkBridging world-leading ing part of ICN is a valuable asset to the Danish cluster: “The strength of cies from abroad,” Marianna Lubanski explains. Cluster to connect the company with key players in the Danish smart grid The International Clean- tech Network (ICN)cleantech clusters ICN is that all ten partner clusters are so deeply committed to utilising this CCC got in touch with Colorado Clean Energy Cluster based in Fort industry. This valuable information about potential partners and the Dan- … was founded in 2009 by Co- exclusive partnership. To CCC this Collins, USA, and the North American ish market resulted in the company penhagen Cleantech Cluster means that we can provide our mem- cluster was immediately keen on the deciding on choosing Denmark as and Colorado Clean EnergyBeing the first network of its kind, the International bers with contact to over 2,000 clean- idea of a global network of cleantech their European hub. Cluster. As of March 2012,Cleantech Network (ICN) is connecting selected clean- tech stakeholders within all sectors in clusters. As founding partners, Colo- Apart from the concrete activities the network’s partners are:tech clusters around the world and creating a whole ten of the world’s leading cleantech rado Clean Energy Cluster and CCC conducted by the network, ICN is alsonew way for companies and knowledge institutions to clusters. Let’s say, for example, that started mapping cleantech clusters becoming a great branding tool for • Renewable Energy Ham- a Danish company is looking to ex- around the world and welcoming se- the partner clusters. Lee Anne Nance, burg (Germany)go international. • Lombardy Energy Cluster pand to North America. Then we can lected new clusters. The first official Senior Vice President, Strategic Initi- (Italy) instantly put them in touch with the ICN meeting was held in Copenhagen atives at Research Triangle, explains: • Tenerrdis (France) right people in two of the economi- in 2010, and as of March 2012 the net- “The advantages in terms of market- • ACLIMA (Spain) cally strongest regions in the US – and work now comprises ten clusters from ing resulting from being part of ICN • Eco World Styria (Austria) the same goes for companies from the North America, Europe and Asia. were shown recently when we heard • OREEC (Norway) USA, Spain, Singapore or Austria who The aim for ICN is to reach 15 clus- North Carolina’s Senator Hagan men- • Singapore Sustainability want to set up in Denmark. In fact, ters, especially leading clusters from tion the Research Triangle Region Alliance (Singapore) there have already been cases of com- emerging markets – i.e. Brazil, China Cleantech Cluster by name at the ICN • Research Triangle Region panies internationalising between and Russia – where it can be difficult conference in North Carolina. This Cleantech Cluster (North ICN regions. Using ICN as a doorway for foreign companies to gain a foot- means that people are realising that Carolina, US) • Colorado Clean Energywhen hundreds of Danish and inter- first initiative to link cleantech clus- simply makes international collabo- hold, explains Stephan Skare Nielsen the cluster is very important to the Cluster (Colorado, US) andnational companies, researchers and ter organisations around the world ration, investments and export easier explains. And ICN provides the per- region and that we are beginning to • Copenhagen Cleantechpolicymakers meet in mid-March to and is, as such, quite unique,” says and expands our companies’ reach.” fect foundation for this. The network’s attract the attention of governments Cluster (Denmark).discuss smart city solutions at the Stephan Skare Nielsen, head of the services for its member companies and companies.”Open Smart City Conference in Co- International Cleantech Network. He Rethinking global partnerships and knowledge institutions span from To ICN, the next big challenge is More information is availablepenhagen, it will be the result of ten explains that ICN is challenging the The idea for ICN first came about in initial market insights and opportuni- to help even more of the local cluster at www.internationalclean-cleantech clusters’ ongoing commit- assumption that cleantech commer- 2009, when the recently founded Co- ty spotting in each cluster through ed- stakeholders see what a useful tool technetwork.comment to sharing business opportuni- cialisation and internationalisation is penhagen Cleantech Cluster – born to ucation, research, exchange programs the network can be for them. To Runeties among the 2000+ ICN stakehold- a tedious and time-consuming task: strengthen the local cleantech indus- and entrepreneurship and incubation Rasmussen, the advantages are clear:ers. the network works according to the try – saw great potential in creating an collaboration to tailor-made partner- “Even though CCC is one of Europe’s ICN was founded in Copenhagen philosophy that success in the global international platform. “We figured ship building. largest cleantech clusters, it is essen-in 2009 as a collaboration between business environment is “all about that by being a young triple helix or- tial that we internationalise, and weCCC and the Colorado Clean Energy who can grant you access to the right ganisation linking over 500 cleantech A branding tool for clusters believe that ICN really helps us doCluster with the mission to connect people, projects or local expert knowl- players in Denmark, we had an oppor- A recent example of how these ser- this. When our partner clusters arethe world’s leading cleantech clusters edge. We call it face-to-face interna- tunity to rethink the traditional bi- vices have been used by stakehold- strengthened, so are we.”and exchange competencies so as to tionalisation.” lateral export/import campaigns. We ers is the Colorado-based smart grid The next ICN conference takesadd value and knowledge to the com- wanted to find a way to help our stake- company Spirae Inc., which was look- place in November 2012 and will bepanies and research institutions in the A doorway to international holders get entry points to a whole ar- ing to establish activities in Northern hosted by Singapore Sustainability Al-partner clusters. However, as obvious collaboration ray of the strongest cleantech regions Europe. Through ICN, the Colorado this idea might seem, it has never Marianna Lubanski, Copenhagen in the world, and simultaneously at- Clean Energy Cluster was able tobeen attempted before: “ICN is the Cleantech Cluster, explains why be- tract cleantech talent and competen- work with the Copenhagen Cleantech18 | Copenhagen Cleantech Journal Issue #2 · 2012 | 19