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  1. 1. <ul><li>More on forgetting </li></ul><ul><li>We've talked about decay and interference. . . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. . . The Baker (someone’s last name) /baker (an actual baker) paradox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Baker/baker paradox: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>View a person's face, then hear a word that you are told is either a name or a profession. (Of course “baker” or “potter” can be both) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When you are told to remember what you were told later, people more often fail to recall names than occupations (even though it’s the same word) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When you are told to remember what you were told later, </li></ul></ul></ul>April 13, 2009
  2. 2. <ul><li>Forgetting (cont.)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The idea to explain this paradox lies in neural network kinds of models. </li></ul></ul>Lot by Library because links to “lot by gym” ect are strong, thats what you remember-but if they’re equal, you won’t remember, Car Where did i park my car? Monday at 4pm Lot by Gym Tuesday at 8
  3. 3. <ul><li>Forgetting (cont.)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes, though, we won’t have reinforced some links though </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So, try to remember more stuff: paying attention to other relevant cues can help your memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: where you parked your car? >>>>gym smelled funny </li></ul></ul></ul>Gym smelled funny Lot by Library because links to “lot by gym” ect are strong, thats what you remember-but if they’re equal, you won’t remember, Car Where did i park my car? Monday at 4pm Lot by Gym Tuesday at 8
  4. 4. <ul><li>Forgetting (cont.)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the Baker/baker paradox, a name is just an unrelated label, an occupation tells you something about what they DO, giving more cues to elaborate on: </li></ul></ul>because the guy with the nose bump what is this person’s name? baker potter shoemaker
  5. 5. <ul><li>Forgetting (cont.)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the Baker/baker paradox, an occupation gives you a lot to think about -and associate </li></ul></ul>shoemaker because you have more to think about, you have more retrival cues what occup. does this person have? baker potter the guy with a nose bump Picture the guy working in a shoe store (encourage elaboration)
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>You can repeat something silently in your head (maintenance rehearsal) as long as you need to – that's not STM. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peterson & Peterson (1959) experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A) hear a 3-letter consonant group, then count backwards by 4 from some number (to prevent maintenance rehearsal). After some time (3-18 secs), repeat the consonant group. </li></ul></ul></ul>How do we know there's such a thing as short-term memory?
  7. 7. How do we know there's such a thing as short-term memory? <ul><li>Results of Peterson & Peterson experiment: </li></ul><ul><li>-After 3 seconds of counting-backwards task, performance was pretty good. After 30 seconds, performance was pretty bad. </li></ul><ul><li>So, STM lasts from about 3-30 seconds </li></ul>Digit span: (nothing more than short term memory) Just remember a line:>>>> then do the counting backwards thing and then see how much you remember then go on to the next line, ect ... know what digit span is. might be on the test
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>The coding question: how do you store things in memory? </li></ul></ul>I say “cat” (memory test... ) CAT visually ? (one way to store something in your memory) /K/ /A/ /T/ Acoustically ? A small furry mammal that likes fish and mice. Semantically ?
  9. 9. <ul><li>Conrad (1964): how do we store things in STM? </li></ul><ul><li>Task: 6 letters presented visually, followed by a brief maintenance-rehearsal-prevention task. P’s had to write all 6 letters down after they finished. </li></ul><ul><li>Conrad was interested in the in the errors . </li></ul><ul><li>Results: Although letters presented visually, and written down at the end, errors were acoustic; people tended to confuse letters that sounded alike, rather than letters that looked alike. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Wickens(1972): does STM have semantic component? </li></ul><ul><li>Task: remember 3 words, all from the same category; memory tested, perform task again </li></ul><ul><li>If all words come from the same category (e.g., all birds), proactive interference occurs </li></ul>april 15, 2009
  11. 11. <ul><li>Wickens(1972): Does STM have a semantic component? </li></ul><ul><li>Task: After proactive interference has set in, you can be released from proactive interference by learning about a new category; </li></ul><ul><li>This seems to imply something about the meaning of the word is also encoded - not just the look or sound of the word. </li></ul>april 15, 2009 (came in late)
  12. 12. <ul><li>Miller ( 1956 : before there was even a division called cognitive psychology. Miller was a pioneer in cog. psych) How big is STM? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Miller wrote a book called: “The magic number 7+/- 2” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7+/-2 what? (between 5 and 9) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chunks! (a unit Miller left purposefully vague - because he didn’t know what exactly one was) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why can’t we say exactly what a chunk is? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remember these lists: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SMT VCB LPE NFT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CBS MTV NFL PET >>>easier to remember because we are all familiar with reality they are changing the question, instead of having you remember 12 random pieces of information they are asking you to remember 4 things that are already stored in your long-term memory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>A “chunk” - instead of a bit (which has a real meaning in computer science and information theory) – because, if you’re good at relating letters I ask you to remember to information in LTM </li></ul><ul><li>If I have you doing a digit span task and give you the following sequence: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2(then maintenance prevention) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>24(then maintenance prevention) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>246(.....) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2468(....) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You really only need to remember one “chunk” of information: even numbers- which is in long-term memory already </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>STM as working memory </li></ul><ul><li>Baddeley (1990): Your STM not only stores, but also manipulates and works with, information. Another name for STM might be working memory. </li></ul><ul><li>ANALOGY: </li></ul><ul><li>picture it with your visuospatial sketch pad, then move into your phonological loop </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>STM as working memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central executive: directs flow of info; limited resources, limited capacity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonological loop: Rehearsal to maintain verbal material: controls maintenance rehearsal- impt for language learning, acquiring vocabulary, learning to read. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visuo-spatial sketchpad: maintain visual material. impt for creation and use of mental images. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Episodic buffer: able to bind auditory and visual experience into a single episode. </li></ul>April 17, 2009
  16. 16. <ul><li>Teasdale et. al.: Stimulus-independent thoughts (SITs- daydreams, elaboration, worrying about a problem, ect..) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulus-independent because there is nothing in the world telling you to think about it, you are independently thinking about about it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 experiments: In both, experimenter will say “stop” during a task, and ask for a report of SIT’s. </li></ul><ul><li>1. auditory and visual tasks both interfered with SITs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hurts your production of ITs, in the case of auditory task you are using the phonological loop, in the visual task you are using your visuosketch pad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. develop automaticity in a task; SITs return </li></ul><ul><ul><li>once you can do it automatically the central executive is not occupied so your able to think about other things. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>conclusion: SITs involve the central executive (practical implication: if you want to stop worrying about something, do something demanding. eg: play word games that require production.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>would prevent maintance-rehearsal, .. just as maintance-rehearsal task. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Phonological loop has two parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phonological store: holds acoustic info for around 2 seconds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>another kind of memory that is even shorter than your STM. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>just long enough so you can repeat it to yourself once more. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>acoustic info: what something sounded like. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>articulatory control process: Allows maintenance rehearsal; the process that produces the inner speech we all hear. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Test of phonological store idea: </li></ul><ul><li>Baddeley, Thomson, & Buchanan (1975): </li></ul><ul><li>gp1: learn lists of quickly pronounceable words (e.g. bishop) </li></ul><ul><li>gp2: learn lists of words that take longer time to pronounce (e.g. Harpoon) </li></ul><ul><li>result: gp 1 remembered more words- and the phonological loop idea predicts this, since if you can pronounce a word quickly, you can rehearse more words. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Procedural memory: memory for how to do something <ul><li>Ride a bike; drive a car; make breakfast </li></ul><ul><li>Clive: can still conduct a choral group (that was his job before ) </li></ul><ul><li>H.M.: can learn mirror-tracing <which is a hard task to do>, but not how to solve a (particular) maze </li></ul><ul><li>Most people with amnesia have intact procedural memories. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>>hippocampus is not that important in procedural memories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>information usually takes longer to enter procedural memory than declarative memory </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><ul><li>More on schemata: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One way to activate a schema is to just mention it (like a landlord in above example <which he did not show>). Schemata, however, can be activated in other ways depending on key words and your frame of mind: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ rocky slowly got up from the mat, planning his escape. He hesitated a moment and though. Things were not going well. What bothered him most was being held, especially since the charge against him has been weak. He considered his present situation. The lock that held him was strong, but he though he could break it. He knew... </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>you would think of either wrestling or prisoners, it all depends on your frame of mind. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><ul><ul><li>Scripts: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bower et al. (1979) </li></ul></ul></ul>