Reducing poverty and promoting women empowerment through market development in the southern Andean highlands of Peru A pos...
Why did CARE Peru work with rural communities in Puno? <ul><li>Poverty levels: sample of 200 households in 2006 reported: ...
Why did CARE Peru engage with the cattle Value Chain? <ul><li>Outreach: Cattle raising is the main economic activity in th...
Lima and Arequipa / other Slaughter Houses Cattle raisers’ associations producing fully fattened bulls  Private Technical ...
Main VC strengths Bottlenecks <ul><li>Strength: smallholders represent the vast majority of the cattle value chain </li></...
Project objectives <ul><li>Increase the income (by 25%) and employment opportunities (143,627 new daily positions) for 2,5...
Project components (Fondoempleo 2005 – 2008) <ul><li>Improving productive and Business Management capacities </li></ul><ul...
Project methodology / gender <ul><li>The semi-intensive bull fattening methodology permitted the involvement of women (clo...
The external impact evaluation <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To generate the necessary evidence to validate this s...
<ul><li>Household composition </li></ul><ul><li>Total annual cost composition (average) </li></ul><ul><li>Unsatisfied Basi...
What kind of evidence were we looking for? (Qualitative) <ul><li>Qualitative evidence around individuals (men and women) <...
Methodology (key elements) <ul><li>Multidimensional approach to poverty measurement (OPHI methodology, IDB methodology) </...
Main Results of the impact assessment <ul><li>The analysis shows a statistically significant increase of net incomes of al...
<ul><li>64% decrease in poverty incidence from 81% to 29% during the past 5 years (51% difference). </li></ul><ul><li>The ...
Most important tool and most relevant impact
Men and Women most important changes Women Important changes <ul><li>New skills, education for the children </li></ul><ul>...
What is power? <ul><li>How do you define having power? (examples of answers and perceptions obtained during the evaluation...
Women and men empowerment – differences in perceptions <ul><li>Empowerment for men: more power inside the community </li><...
Other benefits linked to the project <ul><li>Better use of technology in agriculture improving productivity and quality </...
Elements of happiness for women <ul><li>More autonomy in the cattle activity </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in commercial...
Elements of happiness for men <ul><li>Improvement in the economic results from cattle raising </li></ul><ul><li>Improvemen...
Suggestions from CARE Peru for future impact evaluations <ul><li>Clearly define the objectives: what we want to measure </...
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Reducing poverty and promoting women empowerment through market development in the southern Andean highlands of Peru

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  • taking from 8-12 months to fatten a cow for market. Average family income from beef production in 2005 was around 1,600 new soles per year (around 350 GB£/year or 29.3 GB£/month
  • Interest groups, federated at higher level, learning exchanges,
  • Interest groups, federated at higher level, learning exchanges,
  • Measured on expenditures, according to the national methodology
  • Reducing poverty and promoting women empowerment through market development in the southern Andean highlands of Peru

    1. 1. Reducing poverty and promoting women empowerment through market development in the southern Andean highlands of Peru A post – project impact assessment CARE UK October 2011
    2. 2. Why did CARE Peru work with rural communities in Puno? <ul><li>Poverty levels: sample of 200 households in 2006 reported: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>87% living below the poverty line and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60% below the extreme poverty line. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% of children under 5 in region suffer chronic malnutrition </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Why did CARE Peru engage with the cattle Value Chain? <ul><li>Outreach: Cattle raising is the main economic activity in the area for smallholders (60% of total income in 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Potential: Puno produced 19% of the cattle sold in Lima and 53% of the cattle commercialized in Arequipa </li></ul><ul><li>Market opportunity: unsatisfied national market demand of 8.3% (or 61,700 cattle heads per year), which could be targeted by Puno producers </li></ul>
    4. 4. Lima and Arequipa / other Slaughter Houses Cattle raisers’ associations producing fully fattened bulls Private Technical Assistance providers Private Input providers Transportation services Financial Institutions Puno Beef Cattle Value Chain Enabling environment: policies, labour gender division, legislation, physical conditions, climate change adaptation Private vet. services Smallholdersc Middle men Farmers in southern Peru who terminate to fatten the animals Smallholders selling semi-fattened bulls Commercial, relationship Women project beneficiaries Smallholders Smallholders Smallholders Interest groups Interest groups Merchants and cold houses District Markets and Supermarkets Import market Association Organic market Conventional market
    5. 5. Main VC strengths Bottlenecks <ul><li>Strength: smallholders represent the vast majority of the cattle value chain </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low productivity / poor economic results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to higher value markets: cattle not fully fattened sold to middlemen making most of the profit </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Project objectives <ul><li>Increase the income (by 25%) and employment opportunities (143,627 new daily positions) for 2,550 poor families through fattening and commercialization of beef cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Develop technical and productive capacities for 2,550 families within the beef cattle value chain. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Project components (Fondoempleo 2005 – 2008) <ul><li>Improving productive and Business Management capacities </li></ul><ul><li>Improving organizational capacity of the producers </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of a local market for technical assistance providers (PATs) </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion and facilitation of partnerships with the public sector and private sector </li></ul>
    8. 8. Project methodology / gender <ul><li>The semi-intensive bull fattening methodology permitted the involvement of women (close to home) </li></ul><ul><li>Active promotion of the role of women in economic activities including commercialization, producers associations / public life </li></ul><ul><li>Work on masculinities </li></ul>
    9. 9. The external impact evaluation <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To generate the necessary evidence to validate this specific initiative and its strategy as an effective rural development model for the Peruvian highlands. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the results of this study as an evidence based advocacy tool with the Peruvian Government </li></ul><ul><li>General project information: </li></ul><ul><li>9 months project, worth approximately US$ 31,500, funded by PPA3, in partnership with the IEP (Institute for Peruvian Studies), coordinated in CARE Peru by Claudia Sanchez, M&E Director. </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Household composition </li></ul><ul><li>Total annual cost composition (average) </li></ul><ul><li>Unsatisfied Basic Needs in the families </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita annual cost in households </li></ul><ul><li>Annual Income and expenditures individual and by house holds, by quintiles and deciles </li></ul><ul><li>Incidence of poverty and extreme poverty, poverty gap, poverty severity (squared poverty gap) </li></ul><ul><li>Income distribution by quintiles </li></ul><ul><li>Gini Coefficient </li></ul><ul><li>% of people with caloric deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture and cattle sales </li></ul><ul><li>Gross Value of Production </li></ul><ul><li>Total income per household </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of production (agriculture, cattle, forestry) </li></ul>What kind of evidence were we looking for? (Quantitative)
    11. 11. What kind of evidence were we looking for? (Qualitative) <ul><li>Qualitative evidence around individuals (men and women) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowerment level, happiness, dignity, self confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The main successful strategy adopted by the project, leading to these impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Application of CARE’s programmatic principles </li></ul><ul><li>Project sustainability </li></ul>
    12. 12. Methodology (key elements) <ul><li>Multidimensional approach to poverty measurement (OPHI methodology, IDB methodology) </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys based on the ENAHO methodology (National Households Survey) in Peru. </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews with focal groups </li></ul><ul><li>Baseline for the control group built using secondary information, as it was not included in the baseline </li></ul><ul><li>In Partnership with the IEP (Institute for Peruvian Studies) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Main Results of the impact assessment <ul><li>The analysis shows a statistically significant increase of net incomes of almost 100% compared with the baseline </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>64% decrease in poverty incidence from 81% to 29% during the past 5 years (51% difference). </li></ul><ul><li>The percentage of people able to make savings is significantly larger in the treatment group (27.8%) than in the control group (7.5%) </li></ul><ul><li>The % of people reporting that they are living well or very well is significantly higher in the treatment group (32.4% vs. 16.7%) </li></ul>Main Results (continues)
    15. 15. Most important tool and most relevant impact
    16. 16. Men and Women most important changes Women Important changes <ul><li>New skills, education for the children </li></ul><ul><li>Better family relationships </li></ul><ul><li>More participation in public spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Better economic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>New knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Giving value to the cattle raising </li></ul>Source: Focal groups CARE / IEP Place Huayrapata Huancané Men important chenges <ul><li>New learning, education for the children </li></ul><ul><li>More equality within the family </li></ul><ul><li>More leadership in the community </li></ul><ul><li>New incomes generation </li></ul><ul><li>New knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Overcoming poverty </li></ul>
    17. 17. What is power? <ul><li>How do you define having power? (examples of answers and perceptions obtained during the evaluation) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples from women : ”She is somebody very clever, well trained. It is good that she has power in order to care for her community, in order for the other women to be well as well (…) They respect her at home, treated by her husband as an equal” </li></ul><ul><li>Examples from men : in the case of man power is mainly related to having formal power, to be in a power position. A man with power is somebody “who knows how to lead, who is or has been municipal authority or mayor or manager”. Beyond this, somebody who is in a dominant power position at home. Some of them mention that “there is always a chief of the family”, they are the persons who traditionally hold that position and need to do it well. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Women and men empowerment – differences in perceptions <ul><li>Empowerment for men: more power inside the community </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment for women: more autonomy and decision power </li></ul>
    19. 19. Other benefits linked to the project <ul><li>Better use of technology in agriculture improving productivity and quality </li></ul><ul><li>Through the associations, access to tractors and other machines </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit of associations, formalized associations </li></ul>
    20. 20. Elements of happiness for women <ul><li>More autonomy in the cattle activity </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in commercialization, questioning the gender division of Labour </li></ul><ul><li>Refusal of macho attitudes of men who do not value their role in the family </li></ul><ul><li>New knowledge, skills </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity of managing part or the totality of new incomes gives more autonomy </li></ul>
    21. 21. Elements of happiness for men <ul><li>Improvement in the economic results from cattle raising </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement in the results from the direct commercialization </li></ul><ul><li>Interacting with urban markets in Lima and Arequipa </li></ul><ul><li>Exchanges of experiences in other countries (Chile and Guatemala) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Suggestions from CARE Peru for future impact evaluations <ul><li>Clearly define the objectives: what we want to measure </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of the reflexions and learning process generated by the evaluation. It is a tool and not an end in itself </li></ul><ul><li>Use of rigorous processes and recognized methodologies at national and international level, partnership with well respected research institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about the responsibility that we have in scaling up models that work rather than risky or failing models as this involve the lives of many people </li></ul><ul><li>Need to follow up with the institutions responsible for scaling up the successful models in order to be properly implemented. The document is not sufficient in itself </li></ul>

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