Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Learning and the brain
Dysgu, a'r ymennydd
Christine Davies
Objectives of this session
Nod y Wers
• To have a basic understanding of role of brain
in learning
• To form ideas about h...
What did the Ancient
Egyptians think about
brains???
During mummification,
brains were removed
using a hook poked up
the right nostril!
But the heart was left in
situ because ...
What is the brain
made of??
The nervous system
is composed of large
numbers of nerve
cells (neurons) which
are inter-connected
via tiny gaps called
sy...
TRUE OR FALSE???
• Learning involves
gaining more neurons:
TRUE or FALSE?
• Learning involves
gaining more synapses:
TRUE ...
‘Basic’ functions such as
control of balance,
breathing, heart rate are
functions of the mid and
hind brain regions.
Activ...
TRUE OR FALSE?
• Your brain, and the way it
functions depends only
on your genes
• Certain parts of the brain
control cert...
Based on ‘stage theory’ of Atkinson and Shriffin (1968);
see: http://etec.ctlt.ubc.ca/510wiki/File:Cognitive-learning-proc...
Since the 1990s,
scanning technology,
particularly functional
Magnetic Resonance
Imaging (fMRI), has
helped to show brain
...
Working memory & training
From:
Teaching and Learning Research Programme (2007). Neuroscience and Education: Issues and Op...
Value of Sleep
From:
Teaching and Learning Research Programme (2007). Neuroscience and Education: Issues and Opportunities...
TRUE OR FALSE??
• Drinking large volumes
of water aids brain
function
• Coffee helps you think
• FALSE
• Though dehydratio...
Dyslexia
From:
Goswami, U (2006) ‘Neuroscience and education: from research to practice?’ Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7, ...
Dyscalculia
Side view of left
hemisphere :
Blue: brain regions
believed to be involved
in precise calculations
Yellow: bra...
Autism
From:
Goswami, U (2006) ‘Neuroscience and education: from research to practice?’ Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7, 40...
From:
Hanson, JL et al (2013) ‘Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth’, PLoS ONE 8(12).
Available at...
Key points
• Repetition helps information/skills to move from ‘working
memory’ to ‘long term’ memory
• Brains shows ‘plast...
Further reading
• Teaching and Learning Research Programme (2007). Neuroscience
and Education: Issues and Opportunities. A...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The role of the Brain in learning

894 views

Published on

An outline of the essential role of the brain in learning focussing on recent MRI evidence. Should be helpful for teachers and educators

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

The role of the Brain in learning

  1. 1. Learning and the brain Dysgu, a'r ymennydd Christine Davies
  2. 2. Objectives of this session Nod y Wers • To have a basic understanding of role of brain in learning • To form ideas about how certain conditions and circumstances may affect the brain and learning processes • To pick up pointers to strategies that may aid learning
  3. 3. What did the Ancient Egyptians think about brains???
  4. 4. During mummification, brains were removed using a hook poked up the right nostril! But the heart was left in situ because this was believed to be the seat of intelligence
  5. 5. What is the brain made of??
  6. 6. The nervous system is composed of large numbers of nerve cells (neurons) which are inter-connected via tiny gaps called synapses.
  7. 7. TRUE OR FALSE??? • Learning involves gaining more neurons: TRUE or FALSE? • Learning involves gaining more synapses: TRUE or FALSE? • FALSE! • TRUE (probably!) This is believed to be the basis of the brain’s ‘plasticity’
  8. 8. ‘Basic’ functions such as control of balance, breathing, heart rate are functions of the mid and hind brain regions. Activities associated with learning occur predominantly in the forebrain, especially the cortex (outer part) of the brain of the frontal lobes
  9. 9. TRUE OR FALSE? • Your brain, and the way it functions depends only on your genes • Certain parts of the brain control certain aspects of learning • FALSE • Though genes play a part • NOT SURE! • We can link form and function for some parts and activities, but this is difficult with complex activities such as learning
  10. 10. Based on ‘stage theory’ of Atkinson and Shriffin (1968); see: http://etec.ctlt.ubc.ca/510wiki/File:Cognitive-learning-process2.gif
  11. 11. Since the 1990s, scanning technology, particularly functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), has helped to show brain function (blood flow) associated with specific tasks/ activities
  12. 12. Working memory & training From: Teaching and Learning Research Programme (2007). Neuroscience and Education: Issues and Opportunities. Available at: http://www.tlrp.org/pub/documents/Neuroscience%20Commentary%20FINAL.pdf (Accessed: 17 June 2014)
  13. 13. Value of Sleep From: Teaching and Learning Research Programme (2007). Neuroscience and Education: Issues and Opportunities. Available at: http://www.tlrp.org/pub/documents/Neuroscience%20Commentary%20FINAL.pdf (Accessed: 17 June 2014)
  14. 14. TRUE OR FALSE?? • Drinking large volumes of water aids brain function • Coffee helps you think • FALSE • Though dehydration causes problems • FALSE • Though there will be caffeine withdrawal symptoms for regular coffee drinkers
  15. 15. Dyslexia From: Goswami, U (2006) ‘Neuroscience and education: from research to practice?’ Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7, 406- 413. Available at : http://www.nature.com/nrn/journal/v7/n5/full/nrn1907.html (Accessed 17 June 2014)
  16. 16. Dyscalculia Side view of left hemisphere : Blue: brain regions believed to be involved in precise calculations Yellow: brain regions believed to be involved in ‘estimation’ activity From: Teaching and Learning Research Programme (2007). Neuroscience and Education: Issues and Opportunities. Available at: http://www.tlrp.org/pub/documents/Neuroscience%20Commentary%20FINAL.pdf (Accessed: 17 June 2014)
  17. 17. Autism From: Goswami, U (2006) ‘Neuroscience and education: from research to practice?’ Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7, 406- 413. Available at : http://www.nature.com/nrn/journal/v7/n5/full/nrn1907.html (Accessed 17 June 2014)
  18. 18. From: Hanson, JL et al (2013) ‘Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth’, PLoS ONE 8(12). Available at: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0080954 (Accessed 17 June 2014) The graph shows results of a fMRI study of infants in the US (2013). Age in months is shown on the horizontal axis, spanning from 5 to 37 months. Frontal lobe grey matter volume is shown on the vertical axis. SES= socio-economic status What does this graph indicate?
  19. 19. Key points • Repetition helps information/skills to move from ‘working memory’ to ‘long term’ memory • Brains shows ‘plasticity’ : this allows learning at all ages • In conditions such as dyslexia and dyscalculia, some aspects of brain function are atypical, but may be ‘normalised’ with appropriate training • Brains need sufficient water, glucose and sleep to function effectively. Recent commercial programmes such as ‘Brain Gym’ may not help much. Some things, such as poverty, may harm • Neuroscience provides us with increasing amounts of information, but there are few certainties
  20. 20. Further reading • Teaching and Learning Research Programme (2007). Neuroscience and Education: Issues and Opportunities. Available at: http://www.tlrp.org/pub/documents/Neuroscience%20Commentary %20FINAL.pdf (Accessed: 17 June 2014) • Paul Howard-Jones (2014). A Review of Educational Interventions and Approaches Informed by Neuroscience. Available at: http://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/uploads/pdf/NSED_Li tReview_Final.pdf (Accessed: 17 June 2014) • Dan Willingham (2014) ‘When educational neuroscience works! The case of reading disability’, Science and Education blog, 01/27/2014. Available at: http://www.danielwillingham.com/1/post/2014/01/when- educational-neuroscience-works-the-case-of-reading-disability.html (Accessed: 17 June 2014)

×