Life table

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Life table

  1. 1. LIFE TABLE<br />Dr. Priyadarshini. C<br />I M.D.<br />ICM, MMC<br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION<br /> Described as the ‘Biometer’ of the population by William Farr.<br /> Means of describing mortality, survival and other vital events in the population.<br />
  3. 3. HISTORY OF THE LIFE TABLE<br />
  4. 4. HISTORY OF THE LIFE TABLE<br /> John Graunt(1620-1674) - Natural and Political Observations Made upon the Bills of Mortality (1662)<br />
  5. 5. Graunt’s Life Table<br />
  6. 6. HISTORY OF THE LIFE TABLE<br />
  7. 7. HISTORY OF THE LIFE TABLE<br /> Edmund Halley (1656 – 1742) - ‘An estimate of the Degree of the Mortality of Mankind drawn from the curious Table of the Births and Funerals at the city of Breslaw’<br />
  8. 8. Halley’s Life Table<br />
  9. 9. IMPORTANCE OF LIFE TABLE<br />- No. of survivors<br /> At 5 years, the no, of children likely to enter primary school<br /> At 15 years, no. of women entering fertile period<br /> At 21 years. no. eligible for voting<br />- No. likely to die after life insurance or after joining service to budget for payment towards risk or pension<br />
  10. 10. IMPORTANCE OF LIFE TABLE<br /><ul><li>Calculation of expectation of life and comparison of mortality among communities
  11. 11. Population studies
  12. 12. Survival rate after treatment</li></ul>- Analysis by causes of death <br />
  13. 13. CONSTRUCTION OF A LIFE TABLE<br />Prerequisites<br />1. Population living at all individual ages in a selected period<br />2. No. of deaths that occurred in these ages during the selected period<br />
  14. 14. Standard Notations<br />
  15. 15. Construction of Life Table<br />1.<br />2.<br />3.<br />
  16. 16. Construction of Life Table<br />4.<br />5.<br />6.<br />7.<br />
  17. 17. DECREMENT TABLE<br /> The column of deaths or living can be split and analysed for new characteristics.<br />
  18. 18. LIFE TABLE IN CLINICAL MEDICINEKAPLAN-MEIER METHOD<br />Most commonly used approach to survival analysis in medicine. Also called as the Kaplan-Meier life table method or the product-limit method.<br /> Actuarial method used if there are large numbers of subjects but the Kaplan-Meier method more advantageous if the numbers of subjects are small.<br />
  19. 19. KAPLAN-MEIER METHOD<br />The actuarial method calculates survival rates based on fixed intervals whereas in the Kaplan-Meier method the intervals are uneven. <br /> Here, the deaths are not conceived of as occurring during an interval. Rather, they are seen as instantaneously terminating one interval and beginning a new interval.<br />
  20. 20. KAPLAN-MEIER METHOD<br />Data<br />Timing of Deaths in 4 subjects: 0.8, 3.1, 5.4, 9.2 months<br />Timing of loss to follow-up or censorship in four subjects: 1.0, 2.7, 7.0, 12.1 months<br />
  21. 21. KAPLAN-MEIER METHODTabular Representation of Data<br />
  22. 22. KAPLAN-MEIER METHODGraphic Representation of the Data<br />
  23. 23. KAPLAN-MEIER METHOD Graphic Representation of comparison of two groups<br />
  24. 24. TESTS OF SIGNIFICANCE<br /> Differences between actuarial survival curve – t-test and z-test<br /> Differences between Kaplan-Meier curves – Logrank test<br />
  25. 25. LOGRANK TEST<br />
  26. 26. COX REGRESSION (POPULATION HAZARDS MODEL)<br /> Adjustment for potential confounding variables.<br />
  27. 27. THANK YOU<br />

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