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Formative Assessment

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Lecture for second-year Master of Teaching students, March 2015

Published in: Education

Formative Assessment

  1. 1. Assessment as and for learning - Formative Assessment How may assessment guide teaching and learning? Cameron Paterson
  2. 2. “After 30 years of doing such work, I have concluded that classroom teaching…is perhaps the most complex, most challenging, and most demanding subtle, nuanced, and frightening activity that our species has ever invented…The only time a physician could possibly encounter a situation of comparable complexity would be in the emergency room of a hospital during or after a natural disaster.”
  3. 3. Image: http://www.volunteerswmi.org/ 3 volunteers
  4. 4. John Hattie & Helen Timperley, The Power of Feedback: http://education.qld.gov.au/staff/development/performa nce/resources/readings/power-feedback.pdf
  5. 5. STOP MARKING!
  6. 6. “The most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback.” (John Hattie) Image: Kenny Bengsston
  7. 7. “Much of the feedback that students get has little or no effect on their learning.” (Dylan Wiliam)
  8. 8. “Teachers who spend time crafting helpful comments are wasting their time if they also give a mark.” (Dylan Wiliam) Image: http://www.solution-tree.com/authors/dylan-wiliam.html
  9. 9. 13/20
  10. 10. What is a grade? “…an inadequate report of an inaccurate judgement by a biased and variable judge of the extent to which a student has attained an undefined level of mastery of an unknown proportion of an indefinite material.” (Paul Dressel, Facts and fancy in assigning grades, 1957. p.6)
  11. 11. Interest in learning is diminished and thinking is more superficial
  12. 12. “Students need some feedback about how they are doing in terms of marks, grades or levels, but I suggest this should be no more than once every two or three years in primary schools, maybe once a year in lower secondary , and perhaps once a term when before school-leaving or university- entrance exams.” (Dylan Wiliam) Image: iStockphoto
  13. 13. “If I had to reduce all of the research on feedback into one simple overarching idea it would be this: feedback should cause thinking.” (Dylan Wiliam)
  14. 14. Students must be required to respond to feedback
  15. 15. Ladder of Feedback Suggest Concerns Value Clarify Image: iStockphoto
  16. 16. “Experience success and failure not as a reward and punishment, but as information.” (Jerome Bruner)
  17. 17. Student-Teacher Feedback • Question Formulation Technique • Critical Incident Plan • Exit Cards, eg. One-Minute Essay • End of Unit Reflections • I learned…I liked…I wish…I wonder… • I used to think…Now I think… • Pedagogy discussions at the end of term • Student Surveys • Reflective essay using examples from your own work during the year to show how you have grown as a learner
  18. 18. Austin’s butterfly: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hqh1MRWZjms
  19. 19. KiSH Critique 1. Be Kind Presenting your work for critique puts you in an incredibly vulnerable position. For the critic, on the other hand, it’s easy to get carried away when you’re critiquing work, especially when you feel like you know exactly what a piece of work would benefit from, and inadvertently say very hurtful things. Thus, this ground rule cannot be stressed enough. 2. Be Specific Even if you are being kind, you are not doing anybody any favours if you are vague. ‘I think Melanie’s writing is really good’ does not cut it in a critique. ‘I like the way Melanie uses lots of different verbs in her writing so that you feel like you’re a part of the action’ is much better. 3. Be Helpful Critique is not just about naming what is strong and weak in a piece of work, it is also about working out how to go about improving that work.
  20. 20. Kind  I really like the way you………………..  Excellent ……………….. throughout  The most successful thing about this was ………………..  I enjoyed reading this because ………………..  It was especially good when you ……………….. Specific  In the first/second/third paragraph ………………..  I think ……………….. is quite difficult to understand/could be explained better/could include more detail etc.  Your sentence/paragraph about ……………….. was ……………….. because……………….. Helpful  Think about adding ………………..  Think about taking away………………..  Have you thought about………………..?  To improve your………………..try………………..  Perhaps you could………………..
  21. 21. KiSH Critique
  22. 22. Throwing Your Money Away Step 1: The Activity (10 Minutes) Divide into small groups of four to five. Introduce yourselves to each other. Instructions for learners: You will have ten minutes to come up with two different designs for paper airplanes that can fly at least three metres carrying at least five 5 cent coins. Instructions for documenters: Please observe with the following question in mind: What do you notice about the individuals’ and group’s process of building knowledge and what can you point to that makes you say that? Watch for interesting and important moments or shifts in the ways ideas are being developed. Document your observations individually. You can document in any way you wish – jot down bits of conversation, take pictures with your mobile phone, write short descriptive notes, or draw pictures or diagrams – but you must document in some way! Image: iStockphoto
  23. 23. Throwing Your Money Away Step 2: Debriefing (10 Minutes) Documenters: Share with the learners selected observations and documentation about the individuals’ and group’s process of building knowledge. Try to identify interesting or important moments or shifts in the ways ideas were being developed and offer an interpretation of how they advanced the learning process. Learners: Share your responses to the documenters’ observations and interpretations as well as your own reflections regarding interesting or important moments or shifts in the learning process and what you learned about aerodynamics. As a small group: Choose one thing you learned about the principles of aerodynamics and one thing you learned about individual and group learning or the process of documentation to share with the whole group. Feel free to walk around and look at the designs of other groups. As a large group: Share-out one thing your group learned about aerodynamics and one thing you learned about individual and group learning or the process of documentation. (From Mara Krechevsky, Ben Mardell, Melissa Rivard, Daniel Wilson. (2013). Visible Learners: Promoting Reggio- inspired approaches in all schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass) Image: iStockphoto
  24. 24. Documentation: https://vimeo.com/36323323
  25. 25. Reggio educators refer to documentation as “visible listening” Image – Wamda: http://www.wamda.com/2012/05/4-ways-to-create-a-culture-of-observation-at-your-startup
  26. 26. Commence a routine of sharing a short video clip of documentation at the start of class
  27. 27. Take a photo of an especially powerful learning moment to revisit with students
  28. 28. “Jot down a provocative or insightful quote from a student and share it with the class or write it directly onto a speech bubble.”
  29. 29. Ask students to do the same. Students develop greater attentiveness to the value of remembering pivotal experiences when recording them is part of the classroom culture Image: http://kyfifer.com/?page_id=153
  30. 30. The practice of documentation has several distinct features: • It is guided by a specific question about the learning process and this question determines how, what, and when to document. • It engages teachers and students in collectively analysing, interpreting, and evaluating learning. • It uses multiple media to create tangible artifacts, which provide new vantage points on learning. • It is selectively shared with audiences to provoke new understandings. • It shapes the design of future contexts for learning. Image – The Integration Engineer: http://theintegrationengineer.com/10-tips-on-making-effective-documentation/
  31. 31. Qualitative forms of sharing evidence like student work, photos, and video are powerful ways to provide a more complete picture of student learning Image: http://feministing.com/2014/12/08/7-things-you-should-know-about-evidence-in-campus-rape-proceedings/
  32. 32. “Assessment is an intrinsic part of documentation” (Carla Rinaldi in Documentation and Assessment: What is the Relationship? )
  33. 33. Image – All Things Learn: https://allthingslearning.wordpress.com/2012/09/11/learner-engagement-in-a- culure-of-learnacy-part-01/john-hattie-quote/
  34. 34. Assessment is a conversation, not a number
  35. 35. Learning or Performance?
  36. 36. “The Board of Studies does not require a number to be used (in relation to assessment) until Year 12.” “Grading is an end of course judgement.” “School protocols squash the reality of what the Board requires out of sight.” • Too much testing • Focus more on learning objectives and less on covering content
  37. 37. I BLEW IT! I tried something new and innovative and it didn’t work as well as I wanted This coupon entitles me to be free of criticism for my efforts I’ll continue to pursue ways to help my students be successful
  38. 38. I used to think… Now I think… A routine for reflecting on how and why our thinking has changed
  39. 39. Image: iStockphoto
  40. 40. A B C D/F Volume So loud I can’t hear myself think Loud enough that I can’t hear myself speak Loud-ish in some parts of the room but quiet in others So quiet I can hear the toilets flush Tempo Rapid: Hands are hurriedly smacked together Fast: Hands are quickly brought together Leisurely: Hands are hit together at an unhurried pace Slow: Fingers are slowly tapped together Dynamics Erupts suddenly, builds to a deafening crescendo that is sustained for a second or more, then fades slowly and reluctantly Builds up for a second, peaks, then fades No change in dynamics: Half-hearted throughout Begins with a silent pause, pitter-pats for a second, then fizzles Applause Rubric
  41. 41. Cameron Paterson E: cpaterson@shore.nsw.edu.au T: cpaterso

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