Marian College Leading Change

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  • Marian College Leading Change

    1. 1. Leading Change Lawrie Drysdale
    2. 3. Change <ul><li>It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent: it is the one that is most adaptable to change . </li></ul><ul><li>- Charles Darwin </li></ul>
    3. 4. Goals for session <ul><ul><ul><li>What we already know about change in the school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establish a model for change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify key change strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop strategies for overcoming resistance to change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examine the research findings into change management </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 5. Lessons about Change <ul><li>Think of a change that you have been associated that worked. </li></ul><ul><li>Why did it work? </li></ul><ul><li>What strategies worked? </li></ul><ul><li>What did you learn about change? </li></ul>
    5. 6. Lessons about change <ul><li>Think of a change that failed. </li></ul><ul><li>Why did it fail? </li></ul><ul><li>What did you learn about change? </li></ul>
    6. 7. Research Findings Why change programs fail? <ul><li>lack of senior management commitment </li></ul><ul><li>lack of clarity of vision and specific objectives </li></ul><ul><li>introducing too many changes </li></ul>
    7. 8. Why change programs fail? <ul><li>when used in isolation as a kind of 'magic bullet' to spread change rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>training and performance expectations not related to real organisational problems and needs </li></ul>
    8. 9. FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING CHANGE
    9. 10. People School - Context Change Proposal Framework for Change Purpose Scope Skills Resources Support Level of Concern Teacher growth states Responses to change Context Structure Culture Curriculum Processes Plan Purpose & vision Skills Career stages Generational differences
    10. 11. Context School - Context Processes Structure Culture Curriculum Processes Purpose & Vision Environment Organisational context
    11. 12. Describe your change context <ul><li>What is the school context – demographics etc </li></ul><ul><li>What is the school culture? </li></ul><ul><li>Size and Structure of the school? </li></ul><ul><li>Vision and direction? </li></ul><ul><li>Past history? </li></ul><ul><li>Staff (experience, age, experience, attitude)? </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder and community expectations? </li></ul><ul><li>Forces for change - external and internal ? </li></ul>
    12. 13. Establishing a need for change <ul><li>What are the pressures for change in your school? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the sources of tension regarding change? </li></ul>Change Proposal
    13. 14. Types of Change <ul><li>Identify the changes recently implemented in the school: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>............. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>............. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>............. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>............. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Types of change introduced into the school <ul><li>How were they introduced and implemented? </li></ul><ul><li>How successful was the implementation? </li></ul>
    15. 16. Change Proposal Change Proposal Purpose Scope Skills Resources Support Plan Change Proposal
    16. 17. Creating the vision <ul><li>Do you have a clearly stated vision? </li></ul><ul><li>If you continue on your current path, where will you be in 10 years? </li></ul><ul><li>Do your key people understand where you are headed? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the structures, processes, people, incentives, & information systems support the intended direction? </li></ul>Change Proposal
    17. 18. What i s the scope of the proposed change <ul><li>Estimating the magnitude of the change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New behaviour/practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New beliefs/understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New perspective/philosophy </li></ul></ul>Change Proposal
    18. 19. Change Models <ul><li>Simple Model for Smaller Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Top Down </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Up </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Program </li></ul><ul><li>Lighthouse </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Approach </li></ul>
    19. 20. Change Strategies <ul><li>Vision and Values </li></ul><ul><li>Change Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Change Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Change Management Style </li></ul><ul><li>Change Human Relations Approach </li></ul>Change strategies
    20. 21. First or second order change? <ul><li>An extension of past? </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent with prevailing organisational culture? </li></ul><ul><li>Congruent with personal values </li></ul><ul><li>Easily learning using exiting knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>A break with the past? </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent with prevailing organisational culture? </li></ul><ul><li>Incongruent with personal values </li></ul><ul><li>Requiring new knowledge and skills </li></ul>First order change Second order change Change Proposal
    21. 22. Change is about the individual People Level of Concern Teacher growth states Responses to change Skills & attributes Career stages Generational differences Individuals
    22. 23. <ul><li>The type of change depends on perceptions of individuals </li></ul>The Nature of the Change Rate Rapid Slow Scale Degree Continuity Direction Planning Major Minor Fundamental Superficial Transformational Linear Cyclical High Low Incremental Type of Change
    23. 24. Resist to change <ul><li>Reason for change is unclear </li></ul><ul><li>People are uncertain or unclear what to do </li></ul><ul><li>Poor communication </li></ul><ul><li>People don ’ t believe change is worthwhile </li></ul><ul><li>People are afraid they will fail – can ’ t do it </li></ul><ul><li>Change is not aligned with the corporate culture </li></ul><ul><li>Staff are not involved </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of trust </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Lack resources </li></ul><ul><li>Lack knowledge, skill </li></ul><ul><li>Lack confidence </li></ul>
    24. 25. Stages of Adoption of Innovation Individuals
    25. 26. Innovators <ul><li>Change Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like change, most change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small % of people (~5-8%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside the mainstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide energy for change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change Strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve them early </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share your vision of change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include them in activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use their energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk to them </li></ul></ul>2008 Dr. Philip Hallinger
    26. 27. Leaders <ul><li>Change Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open to change, but they consider the effects first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small % of people (~10%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not always managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide direction for change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change Strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk to them early </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek input/opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give them responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep talking to them </li></ul></ul>2008 Dr. Philip Hallinger
    27. 28. Majority <ul><li>Change Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cautious about change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large % of people (~80%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look to their leaders & managers first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will move with the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned about ability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change Strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the rationale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand why they resist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get leaders’ & managers’ support first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve in group activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support efforts to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use pressure as needed </li></ul></ul>2008 Dr. Philip Hallinger
    28. 29. Resistors <ul><li>Change Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resist almost any change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small % of people (~5 - 8%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are not leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others do not follow them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change Strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance is natural; theirs is too much </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk to them; assess response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t let them waste energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve selectively in groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t confuse with other types </li></ul></ul>2008 Dr. Philip Hallinger
    29. 30. Teacher Growth States <ul><li>Omnivores </li></ul><ul><li>Active consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Passive consumers (pragmatic skeptics) </li></ul><ul><li>Entrenched (stone-age obstructionists) </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawn </li></ul>Individuals
    30. 31. Generational Differences <ul><li>Digital natives </li></ul><ul><li>Digital immigrates </li></ul><ul><li>Generations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Builders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silent generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baby Boomers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gen X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gen Y </li></ul></ul>Individuals
    31. 32. CATEGORIES OF CONCERNS <ul><li>SELF CONCERNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will this change affect me? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TASK CONCERNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can I do this? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IMPACT CONCERNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How am I impacting on the students? </li></ul></ul>Individuals
    32. 33. Concerns based model Concerns about the SELF Length of change program High Concern Low concern Individuals
    33. 34. Concerns based model Concerns about the TASK of teaching Length of change program High Concern Low concern Individuals
    34. 35. Concerns based model Concerns about the IMPACT on student learning Length of change program High Concern Low concern Individuals
    35. 36. Concerns based model Length of change program Self Task Impact Individuals
    36. 37. Stages of Concern <ul><li>0. Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>1. Informational </li></ul><ul><li>2. Personal </li></ul><ul><li>3. Management </li></ul><ul><li>4. Consequence </li></ul><ul><li>5. Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>6. Refocussing </li></ul>SELF TASK IMPACT Individuals
    37. 38. Anticipating the forces for and against change
    38. 39. VISION VISION VISION VISION VISION SKILLS SKILLS SKILLS SKILLS SKILLS INCENTIVES INCENTIVES INCENTIVES INCENTIVES INCENTIVES RESOURCES RESOURCES RESOURCES RESOURCES RESOURCES ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN CHANGE CONFUSION ANXIETY RESISTANCE FRUSTRATION TREADMILL MANAGING COMPLEX CHANGE = = = = = =
    39. 40. Research shows that effective change occurs in six steps (1-2) <ul><li>1. Gain commitment to change through joint diagnosis of school problems and goals </li></ul><ul><li>2. Develop a shared vision of how to organise and to manage in order to solve the problems and to achieve goals </li></ul>
    40. 41. Research shows that effective change occurs in six steps (2-3) <ul><li>3 . Foster consensus for the new vision, competence to enact it and cohesion to move it along </li></ul><ul><li>4. Spread change to all departments without pushing it from the top </li></ul>
    41. 42. Effective change (5-6) <ul><li>5. Institutionalise change through formal policies, systems and structures </li></ul><ul><li>6. Monitor and adjust strategies in response to problems in the revitalization process </li></ul><ul><li>Robbins S.P., Waters-Marsh, T., Cacioppe, R. & Millett, B. (1994). Organisational Behaviour: Australia and New Zealand . Prentice Hall: New York , pages 789-791 </li></ul>
    42. 43. Steps to leading change <ul><li>Create a context for change </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify the school's intentions and ground rules (change proposal) </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse the school context (people, structures, culture and processes) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a vision </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnose forces for and against change </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a model for change </li></ul><ul><li>Identify strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Identify your leadership strengths and actions </li></ul>
    43. 44. Rate your context factors from 1 (weak) to 5 (strength) <ul><li>Staff Readiness: Attitude ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Staff Expertise: Skills ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Top Management Support ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Other Stakeholder support ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity of the change ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Size of Business Unit ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Resources ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Corp Culture Supports Change ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Policy support for the change ____ </li></ul><ul><li> Total: ____ </li></ul>With permission of Dr. Phil Hallinger
    44. 45. Overall Score: ____ <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacles </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul><ul><li>________________ </li></ul>With permission of Dr. Phil Hallinger
    45. 46. Leaders Find Right Speed for Change <ul><li>Leaders adjust the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty of goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time frame for implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed of Change </li></ul></ul>With permission of Dr. Phil Hallinger Too Fast-Increased resistance, change is short-term, limited or not at all Too Slow-No resistance, but no change About Right-Excitement and some resistance
    46. 47. Too Fast-Increased resistance, change is short-term, limited or not at all
    47. 48. Too Slow-No resistance, but no change
    48. 49. About Right-Excitement and some resistance
    49. 50. Adjust the Speed of Change <ul><li>35-50 points = faster speed, prepare people but push harder to implement </li></ul><ul><li>25-35 points = moderate speed, push people but will take some time to prepare people </li></ul><ul><li>< 25 points = change will be slower, take more time to prepare people for change </li></ul>With permission of Dr. Phil Hallinger
    50. 51. John Kotter (Change Strategies) <ul><li>Create urgency </li></ul><ul><li>Create a guiding team </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a vision </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate the vision </li></ul><ul><li>Enable people to act </li></ul><ul><li>Create quick wins </li></ul><ul><li>Make change stick </li></ul>

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