Ch. 4, sec. 1


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These notes are from chapter 4, section 1 of the class textbook. This is the first lesson of the material - chapter 4 - that will comprise our next exam: Thursday, September 30th.

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Ch. 4, sec. 1

  1. 1. Elements of Culture Chapter 4, Section 1
  2. 2. <ul><li>Culture – total knowledge, attitudes and behaviors shared and passed on by the members of a specific group </li></ul><ul><li>Society – group that shares a geographic region, and sense of identity and a culture </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic group – specific group that shares a language customs and heritage </li></ul><ul><li>- distinct from other groups in their region </li></ul>
  3. 3. Factors that influence culture <ul><li>Food and shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships to family and others </li></ul><ul><li>language </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Security/ protection </li></ul><ul><li>Political and social organization </li></ul><ul><li>Creative expression </li></ul>
  4. 4. Culture Change and Exchange <ul><li>Innovation = Invention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making something new to fit a need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can happen on purpose or by accident </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Culture Change and Exchange <ul><li>Diffusion = spread of ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture hearth – site of innovation where ideas, materials and technology diffuse to other cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can radically change society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive – vaccinations in poor countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative – conquered country become slaves </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Population Distribution <ul><li>Habitable lands – have suitable climate and vegetation for living </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavily populated along rivers and coast lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arable lands – land good for farming </li></ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Push – Pull factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrifugal (Push) = cause people to leave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centripetal (Pull) = draws people in </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Language <ul><li>Establishes a groups’ identity and sense of unity among those who speak it </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause problems when more than one language is spoken within a small area </li></ul>
  8. 9. Language <ul><li>3000+ languages are spoken around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Similar languages are placed in families </li></ul><ul><li>Dialects are different versions of a language in the same family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Language Family = English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Dialect = Southern v. NY accent </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Religion <ul><li>Greatly influences peoples lifestyles </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheistic – belief in one god </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheistic – belief in many gods </li></ul><ul><li>Animistic – belief in divine forces of nature </li></ul>
  10. 12. Judaism <ul><li>Oldest of SW Asian religions </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrated in Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Established 3200 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic religion – faith and culture tied together </li></ul><ul><li>Torah – religious book </li></ul>
  11. 13. Christianity <ul><li>Started over 2,000 years ago, based on the teachings of Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Based on teachings of Jesus Christ, recorded in the New Testament of the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Largest religion </li></ul><ul><li>3 major groups: Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox </li></ul>
  12. 14. Islam <ul><li>Based on the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Followers known as Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Close ties to Christianity and Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Qu’ran – holy book </li></ul><ul><li>2 divisions: Sunni and Shiite </li></ul>
  13. 15. Hinduism <ul><li>Dates back 5,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic religion concentrated in India </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheistic – gods represent the different aspects of divine spirit, Brahman </li></ul><ul><li>Caste system – levels of fixed social classes with specific rites and duties </li></ul>
  14. 16. Buddhism <ul><li>Offshoot of Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Started in 563 B.C. in northern India </li></ul><ul><li>Siddhartha Gautama, a.k.a. the Buddha, rejected the caste system and promoted the correct way to live in order to reach enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Spread through to Southeast Asia </li></ul>