The reality is more complex than this …• Existence of work permits• Citizenship legislation (ius solis/ius sanguinis)• Different legal systems• Irregular immigration
Which sources can we use?• Administrative sources, register of contracts, work permits, …• Surveys such as EU Labour Force Survey• Indirect sources, particularly those related to irregular immigration and other health records.
Steps to studying migration and the labour market.• Define the variables.• Identify the available data sources (national and international) with their pros and cons. “There is no perfect information, only the data available ”• Have at least a basic grasp of the legal system on immigration, visas, permits, issues... etc.
Characteristics of the Spanish Labour Market regarding non-nationals.• Two regimes: EU citizens and non EU citizens.• EU citizens do not need a work permit.• Duality in the market: undocumented workers. 7
Ways to gain a work permit in Spain:• Quota based on demand, by sector and province.• Direct applications for a work and residence visa.• Special agreements (Chile and Peru).• Administrative authorisations to work (students, residents, ...).• Admissibility of the application for asylum. 8
Migration flow control mechanisms in Spain:• Quota based on demand : – Annual – Forecast – Negotiated by Ministry of Employment with employers and unions• Catalogue of difficult to fill positions: – Quarterly – A posteriori – Public Employment Service 9