Taxonomy notes pdf


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Taxonomy notes pdf

  1. 1. December 07, 2011Taxonomy
  2. 2. December 07, 2011Taxonomy:The classifying and organizing of all livingthings.All discovered organisms, including those thatare extinct have a classification.At least 1.7 million species of livingorganisms have been discovered andidentified, and the list grows longer everyyear (especially of insects in the tropical rainforest).
  3. 3. December 07, 2011Carl von Linnaeus: "The Father of Modern Taxonomy" Our system of classification is based on his idea. He was the first to classify organisms into groups. He called his groups "taxa." Loved nature. He had a fascination with plants and their names Trained in botany as part of his medical school training Started by organizing plants based on characteristics. His students collected specimans for him from all over the world 1735: he published Systema Naturae, The Classification of Living Things, the very first book of its kind
  4. 4. December 07, 2011 Hierarchical Ordering System A system that goes from large general grouping to small specific groupings Glencoe Schools South West CentralK 1 2 3 5/6 7/8 4
  5. 5. December 07, 20115 Characteristics of Living Things Respond Organized Metabolize Reproduce Evolve `
  6. 6. December 07, 2011Organized:All living things are made of at least one cell
  7. 7. December 07, 2011Reproduce:All living things can make more living things of the samekind.
  8. 8. December 07, 2011Respond:All living things can react to changes in theirenvironment
  9. 9. December 07, 2011Metabolize:All living things take in chemicals from theirenvironment, use those chemicals for energy andfor growth
  10. 10. December 07, 2011Evolve:All living things can change over time in order to adapt to changes in theenvironment and increase chances of survival.
  11. 11. December 07, 2011What scientists look for when classifying:Physical Characteristics * Structure of its anatomy * Development as an embryoGenetics * DNA * Specific protiens
  12. 12. December 07, 2011Binomial Nomenclature: The system of writing a scientific name as the genus and species of an organism. Every discovered organism is given a specific "BI NOM" No two species EVER have the same Genus and species
  13. 13. December 07, 2011Rules for writing BI NOMS The Genus is always capitalized The species is always lower case If it is hand-written, it is underlined, if it is typed it is in italics Both names need to be latin words, or "latinized" The names are based on Characteristics of the organism Where it was discovered Who discovered it.
  14. 14. December 07, 2011 Classification Levels: Kingdom Phylum Phylum Phylum Class Class Class Class Class ClassOrder Order Order Order Order Family Family Genus Genus species
  15. 15. December 07, 2011Taxonomy of Humans Kingdom: Animalia
  16. 16. December 07, 2011Phylum: Chordata
  17. 17. December 07, 2011Class: Mammalia
  18. 18. December 07, 2011Order: Primata
  19. 19. December 07, 2011Family: Homonidae
  20. 20. December 07, 2011 Hey! Im all alone! Im the only member of my Genus left!Genus: Homo There were others, but they all died outspecies: sapien
  21. 21. December 07, 2011Everything Starts with the Cell There are two "super kingdoms" based on the type of cellProkaryote EukaryoteDoes not have genetic material Does have genetic materialbound in a nucleus bound in a nucleus More complex cell with many partsSimpler, more "primative" type of cell
  22. 22. December 07, 2011The Six Kingdoms
  23. 23. December 07, 2011 ArchaebacteriaAKA “archaens”Means “ancient bacteria”ProkaryoticUnicellularLive in extreme environments: water with high saltconcentration, high and low tempsChemosynthesis: convert chemicals into energyA few species can move (flagella- a long whip like tail)Reproduce asexuallyFound in hot springs and volcanic ventsOnly 206 known species
  24. 24. December 07, 2011 EubacteriaProkaryoticUnicellularSome are capable of photosynthesis but mostare decomposersSome are capable of moving independently (flagella)Reproduce asexuallyExamples: bacteria, and blue-green algae
  25. 25. December 07, 2011 ProtistaEukaryotic (have a nucleus)Most unicellular, some colonialSome are capable of photosynthesis, some are consumers,some decomposersCertain groups capable of movementusing small hairs (cilia), flagella or "pseudopods"Reproduce asexuallyThese organisms need a moist environmentExamples: amoebas and paramecium
  26. 26. December 07, 2011 FungiEukaryoticCells have cell walls made of chitin (pronounced "kite en")(same substance that makes up the exoskeleton of insects)Mostly multicellular (a few are unicellular)Not capable of photosynthesis (all decomposers)Reproduce asexually (binary fission, budding, spores)Not capable of independent movementDigest food outside organism from dead, decaying matterEX: mold, yeast, mushrooms
  27. 27. December 07, 2011 PlantaeEukaryoticCells have cell walls made of celluloseMulticellularHave tissues and organsCapable of photosynthesisDepending on species, can produce asexually orsexually, or bothNot capable of independent movementEX: mosses, flowering plants
  28. 28. December 07, 2011 AnimaliaEukaryotic and No cell wallsMulticellularMany have tissues, organs and systemsAll are consumersDepending on species, can reproduce asexually orsexuallyMost are capable of independent movement with a fewexceptionsExamples: sponges, birds, mammals, insects
  29. 29. December 07, 2011Kingdom: Animalia (animals)Phylum: Chordata (spinal cord)Class: Mammalia (mammals)Order:Family:
  30. 30. December 07, 2011