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Oral defense power point

  1. 1. An In-Depth Exploration of the Transformation of Students on the Autism Spectrum Participating in a Public/HS Transition Program Courteny Moore-Gumora Ed.D. California State University East Bay Educational Leadership and Social Justice courtenygumora@gmail.com
  2. 2. Appreciation and Admiration Dr. Pamela Wolfberg San Francisco State University Autism Spectrum Graduate Certificate and Related Studies www.sfsu.edu/~autism Institute on Peer Socialization and Play www.autisminstitute.com Dr. Katie Brown California State University Eastbay Director of Accessibility Services Department / College Link katie.brown@csueastbay.edu Dr. Jack Davis California State University Eastbay Educational Psychology Department Chair jack.davis@csueastbay.edu
  3. 3. Researcher Role and Experience Ed.D. Educational Leadership and Social Justice MA Special Education /Autism Emphasis MA Anthropology Course Work Quirky Kid
  4. 4. Dissertation Theoretical and empirical constructs of Informative Education, Transformative Education and Education Reform:  Disabled Learning vs Constructivist Learning  Elucidate Socio-Complexity of Learning Community / Impact on Student Performance
  5. 5. Problem Statement  Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has reached epidemic proportions 1 in 50 school aged in US (Blumberg et al., 2013).  Students w/ ASD face significant challenges: socialization, communication and flexible behavior and thinking that impact their school experience (Wolfberg 2008).  Under-served by fed/ state/ local school authorities, particularly disadvantaged socially and economically (Autism Speaks, 2012).
  6. 6. Research Justification  Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Disorders V (DSM-V ) 2013 revised Asperger’s Syndrome, and PDD-NOS now one “Autism Spectrum Disorder.”  National Autism Center NAC (2009) National Standards Project: need for evidence based practice guidelines in education for ASD. Only two (18%) established treatments w/ favorable outcomes for Asperger’s Syndrome (AS).  DSM-IV included AS since 1994, more than a decade for research to have been conducted. Clearly, additional research is necessary in this area (NSR NAC 2009).
  7. 7. Original Guiding Questions 1. What is the students’ interpretation of the world/situation in which they find themselves within AsIP/Ethos transition program? 2. How do students identify and see themselves and others who share their own experiences and situations? 3. How does constructivists learning and transformative education, affect the integration of students on the spectrum, particularly those who are mildly affected? 4. How do constructivist learning practices change student performance outcomes that demonstrate the idea of the socially constructed “disabled learning?”
  8. 8. Questions that Arose from Analysis 1. How has transformed student identity and learning experience impacted engagement/ outcomes in school and life? 2. Where in the realm of education does the student with ASD (specifically with Asperger Syndrome) exist and can be included within a structure of constructivist learning?
  9. 9. Chapter 1 Introduction
  10. 10. Chapter 1  Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (PL 89-10). President Lyndon B. Johnson’s "War on Poverty" (Malloy 2004). Pg11  Specialists, school leaders, and policy makers discussion concerning educating children on Autism Spectrum. Pg12  Curt Dudley-Marling (2004) “The Social Construction of Learning Disabilities” Pg14  Knuth & Cunningham’s (1993) Constructivists Learning Principles. Pg16  Ryan (2007) Constructivist Learning Practice Constructs of the Individual Learner. Pg15
  11. 11. Special Ed Law  Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965) (PL 89- 10) (Bush)-No Child Left Behind, (Obama)–Raise to the Top  Education of All Handicapped Children Act (1975)  Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 1990; 2004)  IDEA entitles the right to a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) within the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE).  As the rate of autism steadily increased, a decision was made to list Autism as a separate category of disability starting in 1991 (Apling & Jones, 2002)
  12. 12. Educational Law Cont’  Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) mandated that public schools cannot be segregated based on race.  Daniel R.R. vs State Board of Education (1989) began basic inclusion movement; can receive a satisfactory education in mainstream, must be educated there.
  13. 13. IEP cycle process as initiated by a school official or parent. Concern to Study Team/ Request Assessment Assessment Plan/Informed Consent 15 Days Assessment/ IEP 60 Days PLOP, Goals, Indv. Inst. Svs., Placement, Implementation Annual IEP
  14. 14.  Constructivism: knowledge is constructed when information comes into contact with existing knowledge developed by experiences; cognitive psychology and biology; education: knowledge must be constructed by a person, not just transmitted, to adapt to the world (Cooper & Ryan 2007).
  15. 15. Constructivist Learning (Knuth & Cunningham 1993) • Learner tasks contexts relevant in real world. • Social context / dialogue and negotiation of meaning for developing, testing and refining ideas. • Learners voice and ownership in learning process. • Learners experience knowledge construction process. • Learners reflect on their own thinking and decision making process.
  16. 16. Constructivist Learning Cont’ Environment (Knuth & Cunningham 1993)  Multiple Perspectives.  Multiple Modes of Representation (video, computer, photographs, sound etc.).
  17. 17. Individual Learner Constructs Ryan (2007) Pedagogy for Productive Change in Educational Practices • Critical Thinking Skills • In-depth Social Insight • Familiarity: Emerging brain research supports bringing the community into the learning picture.
  18. 18. Social Construct of Learning Disability Curt Dudley-Marling (2004)  Learning disabilities theory and practice assumption learning disabilities as pathology resides in heads of individual students, rather than in realm of academic institutional constructs (Gergen 1990).
  19. 19. Chapter 2 Literature Review
  20. 20. Literature Review/ Theory of Change  School reforms necessary and sustainable: Elementary and Secondary Education Act/ Public Broadcasting System (PBS).  School reforms inform research pedagogical practice, policy and implementation.  Reforms informed by cognitive process, guide systems for social- cognitive advances.  Educational system constructivist practices redefine/ minimize/ eliminate learning disability social construct.  Cognitive variance guide special education services AND general education institution for restorative social justice / equitable society.
  21. 21. CSR Student Level Research  Cooper and Jordan (2003) - Afr Amer male teachers with CSR necessary unique needs of students.  Hamann, Zuliani, and Hudak (2001) CSR failed specific accommodations for ELL students.  Koh and Robertson (2003) teacher perspectives three CSR fast-paced /lack modifications presented more challenges SPED students.
  22. 22. Knowledge Construction Banks (1988)  Personal/Cultural - Experiences  Popular - Media  Mainstream/Academic – Western-centric Theories  School – Text/Teacher Facts  Transformative Academic – Challenges/Paradigm Shift
  23. 23. Chapter 3 Research Design and Methodology
  24. 24. Research Design  Multiple case-study research design: qualitative methods grounded in ethnographic tradition of anthropology (Patton, 2002).  Design and methods appropriate for exploring questions pertaining to people and phenomena situated within AsIP/Ethos program.
  25. 25. Student Participants DSM-IV diagnostic criteria (American Psychological Association, 2000) diagnosed mild form ASD corresponding to HFA or AS qualify participation in AsIP.  8 male students/ age range of 18-22 years 2 Afr Amer, 2 Caucasian, 2 Mex Amer, 1 Mex Amer/Cuacasian, 1 Asian, 1 Asian/Caucasian  2 female students/ age range of 19-21 years 1 Afr Amer, 1 Native Afr
  26. 26. Data Collection Procedure  Interviews: 30 minutes/ possible future interviews for continued data collection.  Naturalistic observation: field notes/ reflection logs/ teacher comments/ parent perspectives.  Artifacts: student records, academic work, and artwork.
  27. 27. Data Analysis  Inductive analytic approach examine qualitative data. Data were examined for meaningful and symbolic content through inquiry driven/ exploratory process using constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967).  Constant comparison method involves iterative process of reviewing/ sorting/ assembling/ coding multiple sources of data to generate detailed narratives/ emergent themes/ hypotheses/ theory “grounded” in data.
  28. 28. Triangulation of Data  Two independent reviewers asked read interview data no knowledge of others findings. Specific and intentional measures taken prevent cross contamination of research findings.  Next, first two reviewers shown findings of second two reviewers and asked identify common themes.  Second two reviewers then asked confirm common themes identified by first two reviewers. Conclusion of each successive stage produced matrix evidence for occurrence of common themes by researcher and each reviewer.
  29. 29. Chapter 4 Staff and Student Narratives
  30. 30. Staff/Student Synergy  Hanushek and Rifkin (2006) researched relationship between teacher characteristics and student achievement, supply of teachers different characteristics, role of aggregate salaries, and direct estimates of value-added of teachers.  Dissertation asserts Hanuseck and Rifkin (2006) researched relationship between teacher (or program) and student achievement IS correlate.
  31. 31. Advocate Awareness of Isolation Communication Confidence Diffrence Awareness Past Anger Personalized Plans Self Awareness Socio-Emotional Support Support Trust INTERVENTION SPECIALISTS INTERVIEW DATA THEMES
  32. 32. Self-Awareness/Introspection Anger/ Depression Transformation Isolation Connectedness/Lack Of Support/Family Concerns Communication STUDENT INTERVIEW DATA THEMES
  33. 33. Chapter 5 Emergent Themes
  34. 34. Conceptual Domains Three Themes Emerged in Two Overarching Domains: Social Constructs of Learning and Language  Self-Perception (how students constructed identities).  Connectedness (with members of AsIP and others). Radical Individualism as Community Kaleidoscope  Transformative Shifts in Awareness (regarding how students view of themselves and learning experience altered engagement in school and life).
  35. 35. Conceptual Domain 1: Social Constructs of Learning and Language  One cannot be learning disabled on one’s own. It takes a complex system of interactions performed in just the right way, at the right time; on the stage we call school to make a learning disability (Dudley-Marling 2004).
  36. 36. Emergent Theme 1: Self Perception  Student perspective (learning disabled setting) and interactions, construct identity and impact learning.  Early school experience agent for depression and anger, impeded early outcomes; resulting socially constructed learning disability.  Study revealed constructed identity as learning disabled hindered participants’ early performance outcomes.  Study revealed paradigm shift in self-perception in understanding social constructs of learning and language as transformative.
  37. 37. Self-Perception Cont’  Interview data revealed students’ self-perception as influenced by isolation and atypical experiences and social variances.  Through participation in the AsIP program their self- perception transformed as a reflection of inner growth and development and intrapersonal empowerment.
  38. 38. Self-Perception / SE: Isolation, Atypical Social Variance Naomi: Slowly distancing myself from the world. Roland: I felt alone. I felt angry at everyone around me. I felt sad. I felt like I didn’t belong anywhere, that no matter where I went, I didn’t belong. Q1: How do students identify and see themselves and others who share their experiences in the social learning environment?
  39. 39. Emergent Theme 2: Connectedness  Interpretations drawn from linguistics as a causal variable of world view (“Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy”) gave students access to connectedness in community, academics and life-long learning.  Introspective communication, social/personal identity development and transformative introspection were critical for students to access connectedness in community, academics and life-long learning
  40. 40. Self-Perception / SE: Inner-Growth and Development Dante: 2012 was a very transformative year talking a lot about myself…Completely changed how I look at the world it wasn’t so much in anger…now I still have determination but not a lot of anger. A combination of what the program gave me and my own thinking in general. Q2: What is the student’s interpretation of the world as they find themselves in AsIP/Ethos?
  41. 41. Domain 2: Radical Individualism as Community Kaleidoscopes  Autism autonomous experience in world, yet report strong intention for connectedness. One of our most powerful cultural myths is the self-sufficient, “rugged individual,” (Dudley-Marling 2004).  In-depth understanding of social constructs/ self- perception and connectedness allowed students to look outside low performance context, to re-construct their identity.
  42. 42. Pattern in Shifts in Awareness influenced by above: • Transformation through communication • Transformative thinking • Discourse with others • Re-constructing healthy identity • Internal triumphs • Personal development for social community/ school success
  43. 43. Emergent Theme 3: Transformative Shifts in Awareness  Transformational learning developed concepts of “meaning perspectives” (Mezirow, 1981). Meaning perspectives acquired passively during childhood and youth.  Operate as perceptual filters that determine how individual organizes and interpret meaning of life's experiences (“Mezirow and Transformative Learning”).
  44. 44. INFORMATIVE LEARNING TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING 4.5 2.5 99.9 Knowledge Know Don’t Know Meaning-Perspective Mezirow (1981) developed the concepts of meaning perspectives, as filters that determine how an individual will organize and interpret experiences, more far-reaching change in the learner than other kinds of learning.
  45. 45. Dante: I didn’t know it was depression but now I know …my junior year in the program helped me get it through introspection… The program I have mixed feelings... It’s good but it’s also like you have really bad tasting medicine but it really helps you in the long run… I don’t think I would be able to come to an understanding of myself without the program really… Without this understanding I might have been a completely different person…and I might not even be here… I mean physically speaking.
  46. 46. Val: The teachers of ASIP, I mean instead of '' this is how you should think and feel'' it was more like '' how do you honestly feel right now? Who are you at your very core?'' Meaning Perspectives: organize and interpret experiences, more far- reaching change in learner than other kinds of learning.
  47. 47. “Transformative Research Design” Considers individuals who experience discrimination and oppression, including but not limited to race/ethnicity, disability, immigrant status, political conflicts, sexual orientation, poverty, gender and age (Mertens, 2010).  Underlying assumptions that rely on ethical stances of inclusion and challenge oppressive social structures.  An entry process into the community that is designed to build trust and make goals and strategies transparent.  Dissemination of findings in ways that encourage use of the results to enhance social justice and human rights.
  48. 48. Chapter 6 Conclusions
  49. 49. Recommendations and Policy Implications  Self-Perception  Connectedness  Transformation
  50. 50. Self-Perception: Progressive Community Influences  Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) and NoVo Foundation – SEL Standards Institute.  District was one five districts across US selected Collaborating Districts Initiative (“Thriving Students: Home”).  Initiative large districts high-quality, evidence-based programming social/ emotional learning Pre-K - 12th grade – dissertation contribution as SPED/ASD.
  51. 51. Connectedness: Limitations of Study  Emphasis on importance of teacher role model demonstrate willingness to learn and change (Cranton 1994).  Transformational learning environment characterized by trust and care, to facilitate sensitive relationships among participants. Teacher role students connect rational and affective aspects of experience in process of critical reflection (Taylor, 1998).
  52. 52. Transformation: Reform Sustainability Corporation for Public Broadcasting enacted as the bill (S. 1160) in Public Law 90 129 (81 Stat 365) “War on Poverty". “So I think we must consider new ways to build a great network for knowledge, not just a broadcast system… but one that employs every means of sending and storing information that the individual can use… So today we rededicate a part of the airwaves which belong to all the people… and we dedicate them for the enlightenment of all the people…” President Lyndon B. Johnson (1967)
  53. 53. 1967 1993 1994 19991954 2003 KQED Educational TV KQED School Services Dept Learning Link network educators interact online. CELL changes to KQED Education Network (Ednet). US Congress declares Public Broadcasting Act CELL’S (Center for Education / Lifelong Learning) Web KQED third media platform. Cont’ Recommendations and Policy Implications
  54. 54. Counter Story Telling Jules: Well my idea of the world is hummm, well its always the popular people that run the world, but slowly the more intellectuals, more computer literate people are taking over. Well my world per sey would be where computers have more influence … years and years of being forced to look up to people cause they were the popular ones until I got into the computer world where the little people, the rejects run everything.
  55. 55. "There is no such thing as a neutral education process. Education either functions as an instrument which is used to facilitate the integration of generations into the logic of the present system and bring about conformity to it, or it becomes the ‘practice of freedom’, the means by which men and women deal critically with reality and discover how to participate in the transformation of their world.” —Richard Shaull, drawing on Paulo Freire