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Digital transformation just means creating better software


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Overview of how organizations are improving their software creation capabilities with several cases and suggestions.

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Digital transformation just means creating better software

  1. 1. 1 Digital transformation just means creating better software March 20th, 2018 @cote
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  3. 3. 3 What’s in the box? Digital transformation.
  4. 4. [T]here’s going to be more change in the next five to ten years than there’s been in the last 50.” Mary Barra, CEO, GM Source: Nov. 2015 interview with Matthew DeBord, Business Insider. 4 “
  5. 5. “In order to grow Citi, we first have to grow our own perspective, skills and capabilities… Our curiosity, our openness to learning and trying new things, our ability to adjust and adapt quickly and our willingness to fail fast and fail small are the essence of a culture that innovates and exposes new value to our clients in real time.” Stephen Bird, CEO Citi Global Consumer Group Source: “A Transformation Journey,” Brad Miller, 2016. 5
  6. 6. Why change? Better software makes for better business, but we think about software wrong 6
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  9. 9. User-centric Moving from unknown chaos to the useful software 9
  10. 10. Deliver value, reliably with small batches 10 Sources: “Good Software is a Series of Little Failures,” Coté, April 2016; The Lean Startup, Eric Ries, 2011. The Lean Enterprise, Barry O'Reilly, Jez Humble, and Joanne Molesky. See also overview of this approach at the IRS from Dec 2015. "Application Modernization, Service By Microservice," Kurt Bittner and Randy Heffner, Forrester, Dec 2015; "Best Practices For Agile-Plus- Architecture," Randy Heffner, Forrester February, 2015.
  11. 11. From 37% availability to $440m in back-taxes • Only 37% of calls answered, shrinking budgets • From 2 year to 9 week releases • 2m+ users paid $440m in taxes 11 Sources: “‘Your IRS Wait Time is 3 Hours’ - Is Lean Possible in Government?”, Emily Price, Pivotal, April 2017; “Agile Transformation is Product Management,” podcast, Oct 2017; “Minimum Viable Taxes: Lessons learned building an MVP inside the IRS,” slides , Andrea Schneider & Lauren Gilchrist, 2015. Before After
  12. 12. From white-board to ~20 features a week & ~$1m/day in savings • Avg. 4 years for idea to delivery • First version in 120 days • Break-even in 7 days • Saving ~$1m/day in fuel, reduced staff by 80% • Now adding ~20 features a week • Created intellectual assets that have seeded 8 more projects 12 Sources: “The Pentagon has tried to get Silicon Valley on its side for years. Now it’s part of the air war against ISIS," Dan Lamothe, The Washington Post, July, 2017; “DoD and USAF moving at startup speeds,” Lt Col Enrique Oti, Defense Innovation Board, July 2017. Before After 6 people, 4-6 hours 2 people, minutes
  13. 13. 13 Source: “Large-Scale Enterprise Platform Transformation with Microservices, DevOps, and PaaS,” Vipul SavJani, Christopher Tretina, August 2016.
  14. 14. More functionality & resiliency for mission-critical, customer facing services means the business is • 3 year journey • Executive buy-in to improve resiliency, scaling, and time- to-market • Targeting high-value apps, e.g., tech roll, inbound customer service, xfinity screens • Small batch, agile approach • Includes business from the start • Delivers value quickly to build trust & momentum 14Source: “Comcast Cloud Foundry Journey,” Greg Otto, Comcast, June 2013.
  15. 15. "DevOps is not about what you do, [it's about] outcomes" 40%+ productivity/cost, rebooted member facing app 3+ week to 3 days, 50% reduction in incidents A white-board to ~20 features a week, in 120 days Sources: Gene Kim quoted in Start and Scaling DevOps in the Enterprise; Crafting your cloud-native strategy, 2017, Coté; FedEx #SpringOne 2017 talk, Dec, 2017; Air Force story, Washington Post, July 2019; “Agile Transformation is Product Management,” Oct 2017; Mojgan Lefebvre, Liberty Mutual, June, 2017. Delivered 3x features year/year 40% policy strike rate, vs. 20% industry average From 37% availability to $440m in back-taxes
  16. 16. 16Source:
  17. 17. Cover w/ Image One tire at a time • Development – actually do agile • Management – the start & end of problems • Organization & teams – user-centric, balanced • Platforms – automation, day 2, & automation • Compliance & security – removing chaos • Scaling tactics – spreading to 100’s of teams 17
  18. 18. Agile & DevOps Better software makes for better business, but we think about software wrong 18
  19. 19. 19 25+ years later, agile practices are still not standard
  20. 20. Agile Adoption Still Leaves One Remaining BarrierAgile Adoption Still Leaves One Remaining Barrier OPERATIONS Releas e Test Burndown Chart Sprint backlog Product backlog BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT Sprint Release One Day Less than a 30 day sprint Daily Scrum meeting backlog weeks Sprint Review
  21. 21. DevOps: Culture, Automation, Lean, Measurement, Sharing Source: “2017 DevOps Report,” Puppet, DORA,, July, 2017. Be careful to look beyond just automation. Keep the bigger focus on the entire software lifecycle. Transformational Leadership Personal Recognition Supportive Leadership Intellectual Stimulation Inspirational Communication Vision Test and Deployment Automation Continuous Integration Trunk-based Development Shifting Left on Security Loosely Coupled Architecture Empowered Teams Lean Product Management Team Experimentation Working in small batches Gathering and Implementing Customer Feedback Continuous Delivery IT Performance Deployment Plan Organizational Performance Non-commercial Performance ( – ) 2016
  22. 22. Eliminate big, upfront analysis by using frequent feedback 22 Sources: "How the US Air Force Made Its ISR Network Cheaper to Run and Easier to Upgrade," M. Wes Haga, Oct, 2017; “Air Force Intelligence Unit Goes Agile,” Charles Babcock, Information Week, June, 2017; “Limit upfront analysis by including frequent, real-world feedback from users,” Coté, Nov 2017. With a more agile approach, we pick a place to start and get to a point where you can have an intelligent conversation… a point where the requirements are 80% done and the application is good enough. A [waterfall] mistake could cost $100 million, likely ending the career of anyone associated with that decision. A smaller mistake is less often a career-ender and thus encourages smart and informed risk-taking.” ““ - M. Wes Haga, US Air Force
  23. 23. Management Key to success…or the kick-off to frozen failure 23
  24. 24. Cover w/ Image Management’s own changes• Driving strategy from the top • Creating & championing teams • Facilities changes, policy changes • Policing/partnering new technologies • Applying small batch to the org. itself • Fighting the corporate change Eeyores 24 “In order to get people to scale, they have to understand how to connect the dots. They have to see it themselves in what they do - whether it’s developing software, or protecting and securing the network, or provisioning infrastructure - they have to see how the work they do every day connects back to enabling the business to either be productive, or generate revenue.” - Niki Allen, Boeing
  25. 25. A strategy for change at Boeing 25Source: “Leading the Digital Transformation,” Niki Allen, Boeing, Dec 2017.
  26. 26. Agile organizations Transforming from a functional, project-centric organization to product-centric teams 26
  27. 27. Functional organizations are a poor fit • Optimized for cost & repeatability • Requires coordination overhead • Locally optimized • Elusive responsibly for final outcome 27 ENTERPRISE ARCH CSO INFRA MIDDLEWARE & APPDEV DATA Ent Arch Proj Mgmt Biz An Info Sec Srv Build Cap Plan Network Ops Mid. Eng. Client SW Dev Svc Govern SW Arch SW Dev Data Arch DBA Change Control Source: “DevOps Who Does What,” Cornelia Davis, June 2017.
  28. 28. The organization supports the agile teams 28 Ent Arch Portfolio Mgmt Info Sec Service Engineering Capacity PlanningNetwork management Ops/SREMiddleware Engineering SW Arch SW Dev Client SW Dev Service Governance Ops Cap Plan SW Arch SW Dev Client SW Dev CUSTOMER FACING APP TEAM Ops Cap Plan Biz An Prod MgmtData Arch DBA Biz An Prod MgmtData Arch SW Arch SW Dev Client SW Dev LEGACY SERVICE TEAM Ops Cap Plan Biz An Prod MgmtData Arch ENABLEMENT Change Control CUSTOMER FACING APP TEAM PLATFORM TEAM Source: “DevOps Who Does What,” Cornelia Davis, June 2017.
  29. 29. Agile teams Transforming from a functional, project-centric organization to product-centric teams 29
  30. 30. From coding 20% of the time coding to coding 90% of the time An agile methodology, proven over 25+ years: • Balanced teams w/all roles needed, dedicated to the product • Paired programming, & beyond • Test-driven Development • Short iterations • Continuous Integration & Continuous Delivery 30Source: “Don’t Forget People and Process in Your Digital Transformation,” Allstate case study, March, 2017.
  31. 31. Rotating pairing across roles 31
  32. 32. Rule 1: Don’t go to meetings. Rule 2: See rule 1 32
  33. 33. “But what about my job?” •Enterprise architects •PMO •QA •Operations •Design •Business analysts 33 • How do they deliver value to production? • Slim matrixing to enable teams • Maybe you’re not helping • …perhaps join the team!
  34. 34. 34 “If I’m doing 8 or 15 releases a week, how am I going to get through all those CABs?” Mark Ardito, HCSC
  35. 35. The EA asset embodies the history of the company and all of its learnings to date. It is how the company competes and how it manages its daily operations.” A Seat at the Table, Mark Schwartz Source: “A Transformation Journey,” Brad Miller, 2016. 35 “
  36. 36. A real cloud platform Release management in the bottleneck 36 Source: “The Need For Speed: Drive Velocity And Quality With DevOps,” Robert Stroud & Eveline Oehrlich, Forrester, Geb 2017.
  37. 37. A fully automated build pipeline & cloud platform 37Sources: “Speed Thrills: How to Harness the Power of CI/CD for Your Development Team,” Ben Kamysz &Jared Ruckle, Pivotal, Aug 2017. (<= 5 days)
  38. 38. Standardize on a platform 38 Source: “The Upside-Down Economics of Building Your Own Platform,” Jared Ruckle and Matt Walburn, 2017. Also, “DevOps Who Does What,” Cornelia Davis, June, 2017; “How Platforms Work,” Casey West, August, 2016.
  39. 39. Unclogging a 15 month case backlog with a new platform 39 Before Pivotal Cloud Foundry With Pivotal Cloud Foundry Step Task Time Step Task Time 1 Application Intake Form Submitted 10 minutes 1 Application Intake Form Submitted 10 minutes 2 Setup GitHub Repository <1 minute 2 Setup GitHub Repository <1 minute 3 Register FQDN's ~1 day 3 Register FQDN's <1 minute 4 Request SSL Cert ~1 week Request SSL Cert <1 minute 5 Request ICAM Cert ~1 week Request ICAM Cert ~1 week 6 Provisioning Production Servers ~3 weeks Provisioning Production Servers <1 minute 7 Install certs on test & stage load balancers ~3 days Install certs on test & stage load balancers <1 minute 8 Secrets vault for Test/Stage/Prod ~3 days Secrets valut for Test/Stage/Prod <1 minute 9 DB password vault for Test & Stage ~ 3 days DB password vault for Test & Stage <1 minute 10 Create encrypted data bags ~3 days Create encrypted data bags <1 minute 11 Write Jenkins Job ~2 days 4 Write Jenkins Job ~2 days 12 Write Chef deployment script ~2 days 5 Test CI & deployment 2 days 13 Test CI & deployment ~2 days Total ~60 days Total ~4 days Source: Pivotal government customer.
  40. 40. Cover w/ Image Platforms: “A lot of effort went into making this effortless.” •Canary deployment •A/B testing •Container orchestration •Health checks & remediation •Scale out/scale in •Across multiple IaaS •Day 2 operations •Integrated middleware 40Image from Dan Pope, 2009.
  41. 41. Embedded OS (Windows & Linux) NSX-T CPI (15 methods) v1 v2 v3 ... CVEs Product Updates Java | .NET | NodeJS Pivotal Application Service (PAS) Application Code & Frameworks Buildpacks | Spring Boot | Spring Cloud | Steeltoe Elastic | Packaged Software | Spark Pivotal Container Service (PKS) >cf push >kubectl run YOU build the containerWE build the container vSphere Azure & Azure StackGoogle CloudAWSOpenstack Pivotal Network “3Rs” Github Concours e Concours e Pivotal Services Marketplace Pivotal and Partner Products Continuous delivery Public Cloud Services Customer Managed Services Repair — CVEs Repave Rotate — Credhub
  42. 42. Compliance, controls, security Platforms remove chaos 43 Sources: "Building a Brand Around a Technology and Cultural Transformation," Matt Curry, Sep. 2016; Pivotal Labs NYC experience reports
  43. 43. “You can type anything you want in a Word document!” Mark Ardito, HCSC 44
  44. 44. Cover w/ Image Small Batches Reduce Risk & Increase Controls Five risks that small batches reduce 1. Bug swarms – less software leads to faster fixing. 2. Useless software – don’t wait 6+ months to find out, find out every 24 hours. 3. Stymied Innovation – daily opportunities to learn and innovate. 4. Budget overruns – check in daily on ROI, projections. Shut it down early and re-try if needed. 5. Schedule elongation – if you ship every day, guaranteed, how can you ever be late? 45 Source: "Dear Developers, Small Batch Releases Are Your Friend," Coté, Feb 2016, also in The Register. For more details, see John Field’s “Pivotal Cloud Foundry: the Auditor’s Guide,” Dec, 2017. "There have obviously been culture shocks. What is more interesting though is that the teams that tend to have the worst culture shock are not those typical teams that you might think of, audit or compliance. In fact, if you’re able to successfully communicate to them what you’re doing, DevOps and all of the associated practices seem like common sense. [Auditors] say, 'Why weren’t we doing this before?’” "DevOps Enterprise Adoption at E*TRADE,” InfoQ/DOES, Jan 2016.
  45. 45. Security – reduce risk by going faster & automating, & acting •Repair •Repave •Rotate •Authentication/UAA •RBAC •BOSH enforcement •Encryption, data, network •Isolation segments •Zero-trust model •Trusted auditing a-plenty •Distributed tracing & microservices ops 46 Source: “Security & Compliance with Pivotal Cloud Foundry,” Ben Bertka, Sujit Mohanty, and Jared Ruckle, Oct, 2017. “The Three Rs of Enterprise Security: Rotate, Repave, and Repair,” Justin Smith, April 2016; “Understanding Cloud Foundry Security,” Pivotal docs;
  46. 46. Scaling tactics Scaling the change to your organization – small batch it! 47
  47. 47. Starting: “pilot low-risk apps, and ramp-up.” 48 Sources: Home Depot meetup, Oct 2015; Humana at CF Summit 2015; EU payday loan company; Pivotal Labs on large auto company; “Getting started,” Coté, Oct 2016; Comcast’s Christopher Tretina at SP1 2016; “Cloud-Native at Home Depot, With Tony McCulley,” Number of AI’s equates to ~130 apps composed on ~900 services.
  48. 48. Managing the change: pace yourself • Liberty Mutual 10 (simple) apps in 10 weeks • Allstate 16 apps in a year • THD ~130 apps in a year • Auto manufacture ~115 after two years • BUT! If you don’t start, you’ll suffer analysis paralysis 49 Sources: “Cloud-Native at Home Depot, With Tony McCulley’; “Don’t Forget People and Process in Your Digital Transformation,” The New Stack, March, 2017; Pivotal customer analysis, cases, and conferences.
  49. 49. Internal marketing: Everything, frequently 50
  50. 50. 51 - also in Chinese!
  51. 51. September 24–27, 2018 Washington DC Gaylord, National Harbor Discount Code S1P200_MCot
  52. 52. 53 “We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it.” - The Agile Manifesto, 2001 Thanks!@cote |