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National Consultative Workshop on Strengthening
and Road Mapping of Emerging Technology
Innovation Systems of Sri Lanka
17...
Outline
1. Meeting Sustainable Development Goals
2. New and emerging technologies – policy trends, issues &
challenges
3. ...
1. Meeting Sustainable Development Goals
 17 SDGs and 169 targets
 Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote
susta...
2. New and emerging technologies
 Range of dynamic new disciplines and technologies :
Biotechnology, genomics, nanotechno...
New and emerging technologies (cont.)
Policy trends
 Focus on developing specific technologies
CANADA – Medical isotope p...
New and emerging technologies (cont.)
Issues and challenges
 Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary
 Converging technol...
3. Factors influencing high-tech innovation systems
• Study on Finnish innovation policy’s capabilities to promote
emergin...
4. Paths of emerging technology innovation systems
• Four paths of emerging technology innovation systems
1. The Science a...
Paths of emerging technology innovation systems (cont.)
• Allocation of financial resources
• Setting up of government sup...
Paths of emerging technology innovation systems (cont.)
• Firms and other actors organize themselves in
platforms for shar...
5. Evidence-based policy making
Biotechnology and Nanotechnology
• STI policy making needs to be based on
qualitative/quan...
Evidence-based policy making (cont.)
Key Biotechnology Indicators - OECD
Biotechnology firms
• Number of firms active
• % ...
Evidence-based policy making (cont.)
Key Nanotechnology Indicators - OECD
Nanotechnology firms
• Number of firms active
• ...
6. Indicators at functional/operational level
• Functional/operational level indicators are required for designing
specifi...
Indicators at functional/operational level (cont.)
Activities/ Sub-
functions
Main indicators
Volume of
knowledge creation...
Indicators at functional/operational level (cont.)
(b) Knowledge diffusion and development of positive externalities
Activ...
Indicators at functional/operational level (cont.)
(c) Guidance & direction
Activities/ Sub-
functions
Main indicators
Vis...
Indicators at functional/operational level (cont.)
(d) Entrepreneurial activities
Activities/ Sub-
functions
Main indicato...
Indicators at functional/operational level (cont.)
(e) Market formation
Activities/ Sub-
functions
Main indicators
Market ...
Indicators at functional/operational level (cont.)
(f) Resource mobilization
Activities/ Sub-
functions
Main indicators
De...
Indicators at functional/operational level (cont.)
(g) Institutionalization and legitimation
Activities/ Sub-
functions
Ma...
7. Impact of globalisation on innovation system
performance
• Opening national markets to foreign competitors’ products is...
Impact of globalisation on innovation performance
(cont.)
While openness offers opportunities to tap into global
knowledge...
8. Strategies for SMEs
for international participation - Biotechnology
• Strengthen financing channel building and resolve...
Strategies for SMEs for international participation - Nanotechnology
Major global companies involved in bulk production of...
9. Country experiences
High-Tech Strategy of Germany
The High-Tech Strategy is based on five pillars:
1. Priority task are...
Emerging technologies & industries strategy – UK
• Identified and invested in seven high-potential technologies of strateg...
Innopolis of Rep. of Korea
 R&D-leading innovation clusters wherein science, technology, and knowledge are
efficiently cr...
Hightech industrial zones of China
Major thrust of China’s STI policy in 1985
739 incubators, 50 national university-spo...
10. Concluding remarks
• New and emerging technology policy based on national strengths
and capacities
• Development of ap...
Thank you
For more information, contact
Satyabrata Sahu, Ph.D.
UNESCAP-APCTT
P.O. Box 4575, C-2, Qutab Institutional Area,...
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Emerging technology innovation systems: key considerations for policy making and strategy development Dr Satyabrata Sahu

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Technical Session V - Policy and Institutional Frameworks for Hi-tech Innovation Systems

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Emerging technology innovation systems: key considerations for policy making and strategy development Dr Satyabrata Sahu

  1. 1. National Consultative Workshop on Strengthening and Road Mapping of Emerging Technology Innovation Systems of Sri Lanka 17-19 November 2015 Colombo, Sri Lanka Emerging Technology Innovation Systems: Key considerations for policy making and strategy development Satyabrata Sahu, Ph.D. Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology (APCTT) of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN-ESCAP)
  2. 2. Outline 1. Meeting Sustainable Development Goals 2. New and emerging technologies – policy trends, issues & challenges 3. Factors influencing high-tech innovation systems 4. Paths of emerging technology innovation systems 5. Evidence-based policy making – Biotechnology & Nanotechnology 6. Indicators at functional/operational level 7. Impact of globalisation on innovation system performance 8. Strategies for SMEs for international participation 9. Country experiences (Germany, UK, Rep. of Korea, China) 10.Concluding remarks
  3. 3. 1. Meeting Sustainable Development Goals  17 SDGs and 169 targets  Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation • 08 targets in the areas of: Infrastructure; Inclusive and sustainable industrialization; Access of SMEs to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets; Adoption of clean and ESTs and industrial processes; Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors; Domestic technology development, research and innovation; Access to information and communications technology
  4. 4. 2. New and emerging technologies  Range of dynamic new disciplines and technologies : Biotechnology, genomics, nanotechnology, advanced materials, synthetic biology, ICTs, new and renewable energy  Should be part of national research and industrialization agendas because they are: • Instrumental in meeting global and national challenges • Strong contributors to future economic growth in an increasingly technology-driven world
  5. 5. New and emerging technologies (cont.) Policy trends  Focus on developing specific technologies CANADA – Medical isotope production and supply FINLAND - Fuel cell technologies GREECE - Microelectronics UK – Space technology - small satellites  To exploit specific resources in which the country might have a competitive advantage ARGENTINA - Textile products based on the camelid fibres found in the Andean region CANADA - Forestry value chain  Focus on global challenges in areas such as the environment, energy or health AUSTRALIA - Climate change science ISRAEL - Oil-substitute technologies  Hybrid approach NORWAY - R&D policy emphasis on nanotechnology, biotechnology and ICTs
  6. 6. New and emerging technologies (cont.) Issues and challenges  Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary  Converging technologies  Challenges for integrating distinctly different IP doctrines for different emerging technologies developed over time. Biotechnology may be heavily patent-oriented, while software has taken the path of copyright.  Development of statistics and metrics to measure emerging and converging technologies adequately  Development of new funding models to promote emerging technologies  Challenges to interdisciplinary research and to re-examine the structure of research institutes  Public engagement and acceptance of emerging technologies
  7. 7. 3. Factors influencing high-tech innovation systems • Study on Finnish innovation policy’s capabilities to promote emerging industries - the life sciences and the solar energy sectors Underlying mechanisms which hinder system performances • Limited commercial experience; Scarce venture capital; Weak local and global networks; Poor legitimation Underlying mechanisms which induce system performances • High-level research and education; Good infrastructure; Public R&D support (Source: Matti Pihlajamaa, et al, Eur J Futures Res (2013) 1:8)
  8. 8. 4. Paths of emerging technology innovation systems • Four paths of emerging technology innovation systems 1. The Science and Technology Push (STP) motor 2. The Entrepreneurial Motor 3. The System Building Motor 4. The Market Motor • All four paths are complementary and supplementary to one another (Source: Suurs R.A, Hekkert M.P, (2009), Cumulative causation in the formation of a technological innovation system: The case of biofuels in the Netherlands, Technological Forecasting & Social Change no 76)
  9. 9. Paths of emerging technology innovation systems (cont.) • Allocation of financial resources • Setting up of government supported R&D programs • Increasing research outcomes 1. The Science and Technology Push (STP) motor • Firms, utilities initiating innovative projects (e.g. adoption experiments and demonstration) • Project funding and subsidies • Opportunities for commercial or societal gain 2. The Entrepreneurial Motor (Source: Suurs R.A, Hekkert M.P, (2009), Cumulative causation in the formation of a technological innovation system: The case of biofuels in the Netherlands, Technological Forecasting & Social Change no 76)
  10. 10. Paths of emerging technology innovation systems (cont.) • Firms and other actors organize themselves in platforms for sharing knowledge, co-ordinate further technological development, and lobby for resources 3. The System Building Motor • Setting up of institutional structures to facilitate commercial demand for the emerging technology • Increasing availability of resources for existing industry • Opening up of possibilities for new entrants to adopt the emerging technology • The newly entered firms are likely to make large investments • They may also develop marketing strategies, thereby increasing demand for the emerging technology further 4. The Market Motor (Source: Suurs R.A, Hekkert M.P, (2009), Cumulative causation in the formation of a technological innovation system: The case of biofuels in the Netherlands, Technological Forecasting & Social Change no 76)
  11. 11. 5. Evidence-based policy making Biotechnology and Nanotechnology • STI policy making needs to be based on qualitative/quantitative evidences, i.e. indicators • Macro / National level policy making & strategy development • OECD approach: a. Key Biotechnology indicators b. Key Nanotechnology indicators
  12. 12. Evidence-based policy making (cont.) Key Biotechnology Indicators - OECD Biotechnology firms • Number of firms active • % of small biotech firms Biotechnology R&D • Biotech R&D exp. in the business sector • Biotech R&D intensity in the business sector • % of biotech R&D exp. by dedicated biotech R&D firms in the services sector • % of biotech R&D exp. performed by small biotech/R&D firms Public-sector biotechnology R&D • Intramural biotech R&D exp. in government and higher education sectors • Intramural biotech R&D exp. In government and higher education sectors as % of total government and higher education sectors R&D exp. Biotechnology applications • % of dedicated biotech firms by application • % of biotech R&D by application Biotechnology patents • Share of countries in biotech patents • Revealed technological advantage in biotechnologies Source: http://www.oecd.org/sti/inno/keybiotechnologyindicators.htm
  13. 13. Evidence-based policy making (cont.) Key Nanotechnology Indicators - OECD Nanotechnology firms • Number of firms active • % of small nanotech firms Nanotechnology R&D • R&D exp. in the business sector • R&D intensity in the business sector • % of nanotech R&D exp. by dedicated nanotech R&D firms in the services sectors • % of nanotech R&D exp. performed by small nanotech R&D firms Public-sector nanotechnology R&D • Intramural nanotech R&D exp. in the government and higher education sectors • Intramural nanotech R&D exp. in the government and higher education sectors as % of total government and higher education sectors R&D exp. Nanotechnology patents • Share of countries in nanotech patents • Revealed technological advantage in nanotechnologies (Source: http://www.oecd.org/sti/nanotechnology-indicators.htm)
  14. 14. 6. Indicators at functional/operational level • Functional/operational level indicators are required for designing specific interventions at programme and institutional levels • Necessary to delineate functional levels of innovation systems • Main functions of a ‘model nanotechnology innovation system’ (a) Knowledge creation & development (b) Knowledge diffusion and development of positive externalities (c) Guidance & direction (d) Entrepreneurial activities (e) Market formation (f) Resource mobilization (g) Institutionalization and legitimation Source: http://www.globelicsacademy.org/2011_pdf/Mohammadi%20Mehdi.pdf
  15. 15. Indicators at functional/operational level (cont.) Activities/ Sub- functions Main indicators Volume of knowledge creation & development • Publications; patents; • Research projects (academic and non academic); • Existence of national or big research projects; Mode of knowledge creation & development • Basic researches; developmental researches; • Commercialization of knowledge; • Problem-based or need-based researches Process of knowledge creation & development • Internal R&D; • Knowledge transfer and learning (a) Knowledge creation & development
  16. 16. Indicators at functional/operational level (cont.) (b) Knowledge diffusion and development of positive externalities Activities/ Sub- functions Main indicators Formation of division of labour and specialized value chain • Existence of specialized actors in value chain; • Existence of extended and specialized labour market; • Size and number of networks and clusters Information and knowledge flows and spill-over • Workshops, conferences and exhibitions; • International research and technological collaborations; • Industry-science interactions
  17. 17. Indicators at functional/operational level (cont.) (c) Guidance & direction Activities/ Sub- functions Main indicators Visions and expectations about the growth potential • International and external trends and experiences; • Promotional activities by scientific community and activists; • Relevance of existing expertise Policy development and priority setting • Development of clear vision and objectives by the • government; • Development of priority areas; • Developing incentives, supports and complementary standards Current and complementary businesses • Status of related businesses in the country; • Tendency of national and big sectors or companies to enter in this field; • Existence of technical bottlenecks in the current businesses
  18. 18. Indicators at functional/operational level (cont.) (d) Entrepreneurial activities Activities/ Sub- functions Main indicators Mode of entrepreneurship • Start-ups and spin-offs; • Diversified established firms; • Combination of current firms in this sector (private or public) Experiences in using technology and its applications • Type and successfulness of technology applications and experiments
  19. 19. Indicators at functional/operational level (cont.) (e) Market formation Activities/ Sub- functions Main indicators Market size and its growth • Market size and related niche markets; • Potential export market Incentives and inducement mechanisms for market growth • Existence of market competitive advantage by incentives and supports; • Existence of local content policies and standards or governmental purchasing rules; • Alignment with national economic and commercial policies Customer groups and their purchasing behavior • Existence of public or private customers; • The role of leading customers; • Role of specialized customers with non-routine purchasing behavior
  20. 20. Indicators at functional/operational level (cont.) (f) Resource mobilization Activities/ Sub- functions Main indicators Developing human capital and specialized labour force • Volume and quality of human resource (specially from • universities); • Existence of specialized & experienced HR • Existence of complementary expertise (management, entrepreneurship, …); • Existence and quality of non-academic trainings Mobilization of financial resources • R&D investments by government and private sectors; • Volume of venture capital and financial supports for • entrepreneurship; • Existence of loans and grants for academic researches Existence of complementary assets • Existence of complementary infrastructures like incubators and technology parks, laboratories, networks; • Existence of complementary products, services and know- how
  21. 21. Indicators at functional/operational level (cont.) (g) Institutionalization and legitimation Activities/ Sub- functions Main indicators Developing necessary institutions and regulations • Alignment with current regulations and laws; • Development of special institutions and regulations; • Development of product and service standards; • Development of IPR-related institutions Formation of advocacy coalitions and interest groups and their lobby power • Size and growth of advocacy coalitions & interest groups; • Existence of a powerful leading organization (policy maker); • Coherence between activists about priorities and future of technology; • Existence of actors with high political and financial power in the sector Promotional and extension activities • Exhibitions and meetings; • Promotional programs in the media and public extension for introducing the new technology and its applications
  22. 22. 7. Impact of globalisation on innovation system performance • Opening national markets to foreign competitors’ products is a powerful means of strengthening competition. • Openness facilitates access to foreign know-how and technologies. • Trade openness and integration allows for economies of scale and specialisation. • Trade openness leads economies to specialise in sectors which have a comparative advantage Source: http://www.oecd.org/innovation/inno/50586251.pdf
  23. 23. Impact of globalisation on innovation performance (cont.) While openness offers opportunities to tap into global knowledge stocks, the development of innovation capacity in national industries requires supportive policy measures from the Government : • Access to finance for businesses • Easing conditions for entrepreneurship • Provision of suitable skills and improving access to skilled human capital Source: http://www.oecd.org/innovation/inno/50586251.pdf
  24. 24. 8. Strategies for SMEs for international participation - Biotechnology • Strengthen financing channel building and resolve the problem of difficult financing (Govt. funds & credit, fiscal incentives, venture capital, equity, etc) • Build and promote enterprise clusters with international operations • Base on self-advantages to find a position in the global value chain - low manufacturing cost for continual progress • Improve technology innovation and shift to the high end of value chain • Learn from international experiences and continue to improve managerial level Source: Tech Monitor, Jul-Sep 2012
  25. 25. Strategies for SMEs for international participation - Nanotechnology Major global companies involved in bulk production of nanomaterials Source: Tech Monitor , Oct-Dec 2012 Name of the Company Country Products Bayer Germany Baytube carbon nanotubes BASF Germany Various types of nanomaterials (usage includes food additives and sunscreens) Degussa Germany Range of ultrafine nanomaterials ICI/Uniquema UK Nanomaterials (including nano titanium dioxide for sunscreens) Elementis UK Nanomaterials (including nano ZnO based sunscreens) QinetiQ Nanomaterials Ltd. UK Range of nanomaterials Mitsubshi Chemical Corporation Japan Carbon nanotubes Advanced Nanomaterials Australia Range of nanomaterials (usage include sunscreens, catalysts, cosmetics and coatings) Nanophase USA Range of nanomaterials Hyperion Catalysis USA Nanotubes for incorporation into plastics Carbon Nanotechnologies Inc USA Carbon nanotubes Zyrex Technologies USA Carbon nanotubes Umicore Belgium Nanomaterials (including nano titanium dioxide for sunscreens) Nanogist Co., Ltd. South Korea Nanomaterials (anti- microbial silver nanoparticles) Zhaong Pion Power-Tech Co.Ltd China Li-ion batteries Suzhou Nanotech Co.Ltd China Nanomaterials for drug delivery systems UC nanotechnologies Inc China Sensors
  26. 26. 9. Country experiences High-Tech Strategy of Germany The High-Tech Strategy is based on five pillars: 1. Priority task areas: The digital economy and society, the sustainable economy and its energy, the innovative workplace, healthy living, intelligent mobility and civil security. 2. Better transfer: Creating new instruments for improved regional, national and international networking between science and industry. 3. Greater dynamism in innovation: Providing special support for SMEs, and technology-oriented start-ups, with a view to enabling such companies become technology leaders that can shape future markets. 4. Improved framework conditions: Supply of skilled personnel; availability of innovation financing; providing other societal, technical and legal foundations 5. Intensified dialogue: Active participation by society; openness to technology; public participation; social innovation Source: https://www.bmbf.de/pub/HTS_Broschuere_engl_bf.pdf
  27. 27. Emerging technologies & industries strategy – UK • Identified and invested in seven high-potential technologies of strategic national importance – synthetic biology, energy efficient computing, energy harvesting, non- animal technologies, emerging imaging technologies, graphene and quantum technologies. • Strategic themes: (1) To identify and evaluate emerging technologies with disruptive potential; (2) To create a coordinated programme; (3) To accelerate the journey to market; and (4) To build critical mass and nurture capability. • Objectives: (1) Identify exciting early-stage technologies and evaluate their global market potential; (2) Invest in a pipeline of emerging technologies with high commercial potential and help to accelerate their journey to market; (3) Invest in the creation of demonstrators (of varying kinds), roadmaps and standards, taking an international perspective; (4) Help to build connected ecosystems that support growth. (Source: Innovate UK. https://www.gov.uk)
  28. 28. Innopolis of Rep. of Korea  R&D-leading innovation clusters wherein science, technology, and knowledge are efficiently created, transferred, and utilized (Daedeok, Gwangju, Daegu, Busan)  INNOPOLIS Daedeok has been known as ‘The Heart of the Creative Economy’ for Korea’s science and technology growth and a rapidly evolving innovation hub for high-tech commercialization • Hosts top-class scientific and technical human resources, national research laboratories and research universities within, and continuously attracts major contracts from private sector R&D organizations. • 60 public (25) and private (35) research institutes operating within the ecosystem • Supported over 906 technology transfer between the domestic/global stakeholders. (31 of start-ups have gone public at KOSDAQ) • Number of internationally registered patents exceeds 10,000. (Source: https://www.innopolis.or.kr/eng_sub0201)
  29. 29. Hightech industrial zones of China Major thrust of China’s STI policy in 1985 739 incubators, 50 national university-sponsored science parks, 441 technology transfer institutions, 175 productivity promotion centers, 732 products inspection and examining organizations, 504 strategic alliances of industrial and technological innovation, industrialization bases for new and high technologies, etc. Produced more than 13,000 companies with assets over 100 million yuan, about 18,000 tech-based enterprises, over 1,000 companies that are publicly traded in different stock exchanges in international financial centers, and, in 2012 alone, 65,000 newly registered business ventures. (Source: China Science and Technology Newsletter (No. 19), 2013/12/05)
  30. 30. 10. Concluding remarks • New and emerging technology policy based on national strengths and capacities • Development of appropriate statistics and metrics to measure new and emerging and technologies • Indicators at functional and operational levels for designing interventions at programmatic and institutional levels • Trade openness and liberalization to facilitate competition, access to foreign know-how and technologies, and specialization • Supportive policy measures for promoting innovation capacity in national industries to cope with trade liberalization and competition • Critical factors - Regional, national and international networking; Technology-based entrepreneurship, start-ups, incubators, innovation clusters; Availability of innovation financing
  31. 31. Thank you For more information, contact Satyabrata Sahu, Ph.D. UNESCAP-APCTT P.O. Box 4575, C-2, Qutab Institutional Area, New Delhi – 110 016, India Tel : 91-11-30973756 | Fax : 91-11-26856274 Email : sahus@un.org | Website : www.apctt.org, www.techmonitor.net

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