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Science as Art: Free Access to Natural History Books and Art in the Biodiversity Heritage Library

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A presentation given at the Smithsonian Associates event entitled: "Science as Art: The Beauty of Botanical Illustration." This presentation was a joint event with Alice Tangerini on 12 February, 2017.

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Science as Art: Free Access to Natural History Books and Art in the Biodiversity Heritage Library

  1. 1. Science as Art Free Access to Natural History Books and Art in the Biodiversity Heritage Library Grace Costantino 12 February 2017 | Smithsonian Associates @BioDivLibrary Share your thoughts on social media using #BHLib
  2. 2. The Biodiversity Heritage Library provides free and open online access to library collections from around the world.
  3. 3. The Biodiversity Heritage Library (www.biodiversitylibrary.org) is an open access digital library for biodiversity literature and archives.
  4. 4. 51+MILLION PAGES TITLES VOLUMES 114,000+ 194,000+ 173+MILLIONINSTANCES OF TAXONOMIC NAMES 578+IN-COPYRIGHT TITLES LICENSED FOR BHL AGREEMENTS WITH 250+ LICENSORS *Stats as of February 2017
  5. 5. BHL is a Global Consortium 18MEMBERS AS OF FEBRUARY 2017 15AFFILIATES 60+ WORLDWIDE PARTNERS
  6. 6. CHECK YOUR HANDOUTS! Books from Alice’s Talk in BHL
  7. 7. 64,500+ TOTAL FOLLOWERS ON SOCIAL MEDIA TOTAL FOLLOWERS 11,800+ TOTAL FOLLOWERS 11,400+ TOTAL FOLLOWERS 32,300+ TOTAL FOLLOWERS 5,000+ AVERAGE MONTHLY READERS (CY16) 2,300+ FOLLOW @BIODIVLIBRARY *Stats as of February 2017 TOTAL FOLLOWERS 4,000+
  8. 8. 110,000+ IMAGES IN FLICKR TOTAL IMAGES TAGGED31,500+ 223+MILLION TOTAL VIEWS ON IMAGES OF TOTAL FLICKR COLLECTION TAGGED TAGGED IMAGES IN EOL 29% 18,000+ BHL FLICKR NAMED 1 OF WIRED’S 27 MUST-FOLLOW FEEDS IN THE WORLD OF SCIENCE *Stats as of February 2017. WWW.FLICKR.COM/BIODIVLIBRARY
  9. 9. COLOR OUR COLLECTIONS www.biodiversitylibrary.org/collection/ColorOurCollections
  10. 10. De aquatilibus WOODCUTS Ø  By Pierre Belon, 1553 Ø  Beginning of modern ichthyology Ø  Start of modern embryology Ø  Used to print paper documents in Asia as early as 7th century AD. Ø  Earliest known dated printed book from China, 868 AD. Ø  Late 14th/Early 15th century used for printing in Europe. Ø  By mid-15th century, used to print block books and illustrated books in Europe. Woodcuts… www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/5765
  11. 11. www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/5765 De aquatilibus (1553)
  12. 12. www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/5765 De aquatilibus (1553)
  13. 13. De aquatilibus WOODCUTS Ø  By Pierre Belon, 1553 Ø  Beginning of modern ichthyology Ø  Start of modern embryology Ø  Used to print paper documents in Asia as early as 7th century AD. Ø  Earliest known dated printed book from China, 868 AD. Ø  Late 14th/Early 15th century used for printing in Europe. Ø  By mid-15th century, used to print block books and illustrated books in Europe. Woodcuts… www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/5765
  14. 14. Woodcut Process Printing-block (woodcut), probably pearwood. Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, South Germany, c. 1470–1475. Image: Public Domain.
  15. 15. Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands ETCHINGS Ø  By Mark Catesby, 1729-47 Ø  First fully-illustrated book on the flora and fauna of North America. Ø  Earliest known examples of its use from Germany in the mid-1400s. Ø  Etching process in printmaking believed to date to 1515. Ø  Intaglio processes became standard for illustrating books by late 16th century. Ø  Used predominantly until the mid-19th century when lithography started gaining ground. Intaglio Printmaking… www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/62015
  16. 16. www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/62015 Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands (1729-47)
  17. 17. www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/62015 Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands (1729-47)
  18. 18. Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands ETCHINGS Ø  By Mark Catesby, 1729-47 Ø  First fully-illustrated book on the flora and fauna of North America. Ø  Earliest known examples of its use from Germany in the mid-1400s. Ø  Etching process in printmaking believed to date to 1515. Ø  Intaglio processes became standard for illustrating books by late 16th century. Ø  Used predominantly until the mid-19th century when lithography started gaining ground. Intaglio Printmaking… www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/62015
  19. 19. Etching Process Copper etching plate and print. Rembrandt. The Virgin and Child with a Cat, 1654. Image: CC-BY-SA. Author: NotFromUtrecht.
  20. 20. Plantarum historia succulentarum ENGRAVINGS Ø  Illustrated by the Raphael of flowers, Pierre-Joseph Redouté. Ø  Published 1799-1837. Ø  The first botanical publication for which Redouté was the sole artist. Ø  Dots, rather than lines, are used to give a finer, more delicate impression of tone and shading. Stipple Engraving… www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/503
  21. 21. www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/503 Plantarum historia succulentarum (1799-1837)
  22. 22. www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/503 Plantarum historia succulentarum (1799-1837)
  23. 23. Plantarum historia succulentarum ENGRAVINGS Ø  Illustrated by the Raphael of flowers, Pierre-Joseph Redouté. Ø  Published 1799-1837. Ø  The first botanical publication for which Redouté was the sole artist. Ø  Dots, rather than lines, are used to give a finer, more delicate impression of tone and shading. Stipple Engraving… www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/503
  24. 24. The Birds of Australia LITHOGRAPHY Ø  By John Gould, 1840-48. Ø  First comprehensive survey of the birds of Australia. Ø  Lithographs by Elizabeth Gould, Henry Constantine Richter, Edward Lear, and Waterhouse Hawkins. Ø  First discovered by a German actor and playwright, Alois Senefelder, in 1796. Ø  Used to varying degrees in early 19th century, increasingly popular from mid-century onward. Lithography… www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/105698
  25. 25. www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/105698 The Birds of Australia (1840-48)
  26. 26. www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/105698 The Birds of Australia (1840-48)
  27. 27. The Birds of Australia LITHOGRAPHY Ø  By John Gould, 1840-48. Ø  First comprehensive survey of the birds of Australia. Ø  Lithographs by Elizabeth Gould, Henry Constantine Richter, Edward Lear, and Waterhouse Hawkins. Ø  First discovered by a German actor and playwright, Alois Senefelder, in 1796. Ø  Used to varying degrees in early 19th century, increasingly popular from mid-century onward. Lithography… www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/105698
  28. 28. Lithography Process Litography stone showing an old map of Munich. Image: CC-BY-SA. Author: Chris 73.
  29. 29. Les orchidées CHROMO- LITHOGRAPHY Ø  By Émile de Puydt, 1880. Ø  A treatise on cultivated orchids. Ø  50 full-page chromolithographs. Ø  Arose in mid-19th century, around late 1830s. Ø  Used multiple stones to print lithographs in color. Ø  Popular into 20th century, until it was replaced by cheaper techniques like offset printing around the 1930s. Chromolithography… www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/77404
  30. 30. www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/77404 Les orchidées (1880)
  31. 31. www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/77404 Les orchidées (1880)
  32. 32. Les orchidées CHROMO- LITHOGRAPHY Ø  By Émile de Puydt, 1880. Ø  A treatise on cultivated orchids. Ø  50 full-page chromolithographs. Ø  Arose in mid-19th century, around late 1830s. Ø  Used multiple stones to print lithographs in color. Ø  Popular into 20th century, until it was replaced by cheaper techniques like offset printing around the 1930s. Chromolithography… www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/77404
  33. 33. Additional Resources Ø History of Printing: American Printing History Association Ø https://printinghistory.org/timeline/ Ø Woodblock Printing: John Steins Ø http://www.johnsteins.com/woodblock-printing.html Ø Intaglio Techniques: National Gallery of Art Ø https://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/clrflimpr-tech.shtm Ø Lithography: The Met Ø http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/lith/hd_lith.htm Ø Chromolithography: University of Delaware Library: Ø http://www.lib.udel.edu/ud/spec/exhibits/color/lithogr.htm
  34. 34. Find & Download Botanical Art in BHL Ø To go: http://bit.do/BotanicalArt Ø Click on link to view page in BHL Ø Follow download instructions here: http://bit.do/HighQualityJPEG
  35. 35. Ø To go: http://bit.do/BotanicalArt Ø Click on link to view page in BHL Ø Follow download instructions here: http://bit.do/HighQualityJPEG Find & Download Botanical Art in BHL
  36. 36. Find & Download Botanical Art in BHL Ø To go: http://bit.do/BotanicalArt Ø Click on link to view page in BHL Ø Follow download instructions here: http://bit.do/HighQualityJPEG
  37. 37. Thank You! Questions? Grace Costantino CostantinoG@si.edu Stay Connected with BHL! Follow @BioDivLibrary on social media Join our Mailing List: library.si.edu/bhl-newsletter-signup

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