Knowing Anti-Me,Knowing Anti-You
“Antimatter?—that’s extremely combustible stuff, isn’t it?     ‘Angels & Demons’ and ‘Star Trek’ told me so.”        “What...
From the film “Angels & Demons” (2009)*                                       To see the video, click on the picture :*In ...
Antimatter has been around in popular culture   long before the release of the film “Angels &                       Demons...
From Star Trek (The Original Series) Season 3 episode “That Which Survives” (1969)Spock:    As I recall the pattern of our...
From Star Trek (The Original Series)Season 1 episode “The Alternative Factor” (1967)Kirk:    I don’t follow you.Spock:   T...
From Star Trek (The Next Generation)Season 1 episode “Coming of Age” (1988) Computer Voice: Last question on the hyperspac...
Well, that’s what film and televisionhave been telling us about antimatter.       But what is the reality?
Just FOUR particles make up allof the visible matter in the Universe*…       *For a short tutorial on fundamental particle...
Just FOUR particles make up all      of the visible matter in the Universe*…electron              neutrino                ...
But, the Universe does have other particles up its sleeve.  For one thing, each of the matter particles has a twin.       ...
…an ANTIMATTER twin.      electron                    neutrino                     up quark                   down quark  ...
Antimatter is not the stuff of science fiction. It exists.It is the stuff (or rather, the anti-stuff) of science fact.    ...
Matter, Antimatter: What’s the difference?
Matter, Antimatter: What’s the difference?There is one essential and obvious difference:                  −1              ...
Matter, Antimatter: What’s the difference?There is one essential and obvious difference:               A particle of matte...
Matter, Antimatter: What’s the difference?There is one essential and obvious difference:             A particle of matter ...
Matter, Antimatter: What’s the difference?There is one essential and obvious difference:             A particle of matter ...
Matter, Antimatter: What’s the difference?There is one essential and obvious difference:             A particle of matter ...
Matter, Antimatter: What’s the difference?There is one essential and obvious difference:             A particle of matter ...
Remember that             protons and neutrons    are made up of particular combinations          of the up and down quark...
PROTON       (p)       +⅔           Composed of:                   2 up quarks and                    1 down quark+⅔      ...
NEUTRON    (n)     −⅓          Composed of:                1 up quark and                2 down quarks+⅔         −⅓       ...
Likewise, particular combinations of the    anti-up and anti-down quarks make up         antiprotons and antineutrons.   A...
ANTIPROTON     -    (p):     −⅔            Composed of:               2 anti-up quarks and                1 anti-down quar...
ANTINEUTRON        -       (n):                     +⅓                               Composed of:                         ...
In a magnetic field, a particle with an electric chargewill be deflected by the same amount as its antiparticle           ...
S    Direction of magnetic field                                  Deflection of an ELECTRON                               ...
S    Direction of magnetic field                                  Deflection of a POSITRON                                ...
How are Matter and Antimatter similar?
How are Matter and Antimatter similar?       As far as we can tell, particles and antiparticles have                      ...
For example…proton mass = antiproton mass
We also BELIEVE, though it has yet to be           PROVED experimentally,that antimatter behaves IDENTICALLY to matter    ...
Anti-Matter                                       matter                 For example,          if you were able to drop a ...
Anti-Matter                                       matter                 For example,          if you were able to drop a ...
For example,          if you were able to drop a              certain amount of           matter and antimatter           ...
In addition to the fundamental antiparticles,         entire anti-atoms are possible.In fact, human beings have already ma...
In addition to the fundamental antiparticles,         entire anti-atoms are possible.In fact, human beings have already ma...
Good old HYDROGEN.    It’s the simplest atom we know.It consists of 1 proton and 1 electron.
Let us picture a hydrogen atom as an electronorbiting its nucleus, a proton.
Let us picture a hydrogen atom as an electronorbiting its nucleus, a proton.           Hydrogen (H)
Let us picture a hydrogen atom as an electronorbiting its nucleus, a proton. BUT REMEMBER—thisis NOT an accurate depiction...
Let us picture a hydrogen atom as an electron          Let us now picture an antihydrogen atom as aorbiting its nucleus, a...
Let us picture a hydrogen atom as an electron          Let us now picture an antihydrogen atom as aorbiting its nucleus, a...
At CERN in 1995,          The very first atoms of ANTIHYDROGEN were made.From an initial production in 1995 of just a few ...
How far can we go with this?      Could we have other anti-atoms?How about anticarbon, antinitrogen, antioxygen?
How far can we go with this?      Could we have other anti-atoms?How about anticarbon, antinitrogen, antioxygen?  What abo...
How far can we go with this?      Could we have other anti-atoms?How about anticarbon, antinitrogen, antioxygen?  What abo...
How far can we go with this?      Could we have other anti-atoms?How about anticarbon, antinitrogen, antioxygen?  What abo...
How far can we go with this?      Could we have other anti-atoms?How about anticarbon, antinitrogen, antioxygen?  What abo...
THEORETICALLY SPEAKING,                 COMBINATIONS OF     POSITRONS, ANTIPROTONS AND ANTINEUTRONSCOULD GENERATE ANTI-VER...
at Y                 th TR              ict IS            ed EM          pr C H o         RY        o R             IST   ...
Though it may annoy your chemistry teacher,         chemistry is basically the study ofwhat happens when bunches of atoms ...
Though it may annoy your chemistry teacher,         chemistry is basically the study ofwhat happens when bunches of atoms ...
Though it may annoy your chemistry teacher,                chemistry is basically the study of       what happens when bun...
AS AN EXERCISE, REPLAY THE FORMATION OF A HYDROGEN MOLECULE,         ONLY THIS TIME USING ANTIHYDROGEN ATOMS.  WOULD THERE...
AS AN EXERCISE, REPLAY THE FORMATION OF A HYDROGEN MOLECULE,         ONLY THIS TIME USING ANTIHYDROGEN ATOMS.  WOULD THERE...
Can we keep going?
Can we keep going? If anti-hydrogen molecules are a theoretical possibility,                          ANDthe chemistry of ...
Can we keep going? If anti-hydrogen molecules are a theoretical possibility,                          ANDthe chemistry of ...
Can we keep going? If anti-hydrogen molecules are a theoretical possibility,                          ANDthe chemistry of ...
And what about an Anti-You?What would your Anti-You look like?
And what about an Anti-You?What would your Anti-You look like?          If we took You
And what about an Anti-You?What would your Anti-You look like?          If we took You             Insert your            ...
And what about an Anti-You?              What would your Anti-You look like?                         If we took You       ...
And what about an Anti-You?               What would your Anti-You look like?                          If we took You     ...
So, Anti-Youwould look exactly like         You.       Insert your       photo here         AGAIN
So, Anti-You            would look exactly like                     You.                   Insert your                   p...
So, Anti-You                     would look exactly like                              You.                              In...
One Final Note:            You will sometimes see an anti-object depicted as          a mirror-image photo-negative of the...
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Animatter Explained

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Animatter Explained

  1. 1. Knowing Anti-Me,Knowing Anti-You
  2. 2. “Antimatter?—that’s extremely combustible stuff, isn’t it? ‘Angels & Demons’ and ‘Star Trek’ told me so.” “What about warp-drive for starships— they use matter-antimatter reactors, don’t they?” “I read that it could be the fuel source of the future.” “OK then. Tell us— what IS antimatter?” “…and where can I get some?”
  3. 3. From the film “Angels & Demons” (2009)* To see the video, click on the picture :*In the lesson “Operation: Annihilate”, we look at this clip in greater detail. Here it is meant simply as an appetizer.
  4. 4. Antimatter has been around in popular culture long before the release of the film “Angels & Demons” (or the 2000 Dan Brown novel on which the film is based).The following are some examples from the television series “Star Trek”:
  5. 5. From Star Trek (The Original Series) Season 3 episode “That Which Survives” (1969)Spock: As I recall the pattern of our fuel flow, there is an access tube leading to the matter-antimatter reaction chamber.Scotty: Aye, there’s a service crawlway, but it’s not meant to be used while the integrator operates.Spock: Still, it is there and it may be possible to shut off the flow of fuel at that point.Scotty: What with? Bare hands?Spock: A magnetic probe.Scotty: Any matter that comes in contact with antimatter triggers the explosion. And I’m not even sure a man can live in a crawlway in the energy stream of the magnetic field that bottles up the antimatter!Spock: I shall try.Scotty: You’ll be killed man!Spock: Unless a solution is found quickly, that fate awaits all of us. Star Trek © Paramount Pictures
  6. 6. From Star Trek (The Original Series)Season 1 episode “The Alternative Factor” (1967)Kirk: I don’t follow you.Spock: Two parallel universes—project this—one positive the other negative. Or more specifically, one matter, the other antimatter.Kirk: Do you know what you’re saying? Matter and antimatter have a tendency to cancel each other out—violently.Spock: Precisely. Under certain conditions— when two identical particles of matter and antimatter meet. Annihilation, Jim. Total, complete, absolute annihilation. Star Trek © Paramount Pictures
  7. 7. From Star Trek (The Next Generation)Season 1 episode “Coming of Age” (1988) Computer Voice: Last question on the hyperspace physics test: “If the matter and antimatter tanks on a galaxy class starship are nine-tenths depleted, calculate the intermix ratio necessary to reach a star-base 100 light years away at warp factor 8”. Begin. Star Trek © Paramount Pictures
  8. 8. Well, that’s what film and televisionhave been telling us about antimatter. But what is the reality?
  9. 9. Just FOUR particles make up allof the visible matter in the Universe*… *For a short tutorial on fundamental particles,see “What Are The Indivisibles?” in the Background Materials:
  10. 10. Just FOUR particles make up all of the visible matter in the Universe*…electron neutrino up quark down quark *For a short tutorial on fundamental particles, see “What Are The Indivisibles?” in the Background Materials:
  11. 11. But, the Universe does have other particles up its sleeve. For one thing, each of the matter particles has a twin. No, not an evil twin… electron neutrino up quark down quark
  12. 12. …an ANTIMATTER twin. electron neutrino up quark down quark positron anti-neutrino anti-up quark anti-down quarkIt is traditional to use a little bar in the symbol for an antimatter particle to distinguish it from the symbol for its matter twin (the exception is the positron, where we use a ‘+’ instead of the ‘−’ of the electron).
  13. 13. Antimatter is not the stuff of science fiction. It exists.It is the stuff (or rather, the anti-stuff) of science fact. electron neutrino up quark down quark positron anti-neutrino anti-up quark anti-down quarkIt is traditional to use a little bar in the symbol for an antimatter particle to distinguish it from the symbol for its matter twin (the exception is the positron, where we use a ‘+’ instead of the ‘−’ of the electron).
  14. 14. Matter, Antimatter: What’s the difference?
  15. 15. Matter, Antimatter: What’s the difference?There is one essential and obvious difference: −1 +1
  16. 16. Matter, Antimatter: What’s the difference?There is one essential and obvious difference: A particle of matter that has an ELECTRIC CHARGE has an antiparticle twin with the exact opposite charge. If you require information on electric charge as it pertains to this lesson, see “Will You Be Charging That?” in the Background Materials: −1 +1
  17. 17. Matter, Antimatter: What’s the difference?There is one essential and obvious difference: A particle of matter that has an ELECTRIC CHARGE has an antiparticle twin with the exact opposite charge. For example, if the electron has a charge of −1, −1 +1
  18. 18. Matter, Antimatter: What’s the difference?There is one essential and obvious difference: A particle of matter that has an ELECTRIC CHARGE has an antiparticle twin with the exact opposite charge. For example, if the electron has a charge of −1, Electron Charge: −1 −1 +1
  19. 19. Matter, Antimatter: What’s the difference?There is one essential and obvious difference: A particle of matter that has an ELECTRIC CHARGE has an antiparticle twin with the exact opposite charge. For example, if the electron has a charge of −1, then its antiparticle, the positron, has a charge of +1. Electron Charge: −1 −1 +1
  20. 20. Matter, Antimatter: What’s the difference?There is one essential and obvious difference: A particle of matter that has an ELECTRIC CHARGE has an antiparticle twin with the exact opposite charge. For example, if the electron has a charge of −1, then its antiparticle, the positron, has a charge of +1. Electron Positron Charge: −1 Charge: +1 −1 +1
  21. 21. Remember that protons and neutrons are made up of particular combinations of the up and down quarks,and that these quarks have a fractional charge…
  22. 22. PROTON (p) +⅔ Composed of: 2 up quarks and 1 down quark+⅔ −⅓ Total charge: ⅔ + ⅔ − ⅓ = +1
  23. 23. NEUTRON (n) −⅓ Composed of: 1 up quark and 2 down quarks+⅔ −⅓ Total charge: ⅔−⅓−⅓ = 0
  24. 24. Likewise, particular combinations of the anti-up and anti-down quarks make up antiprotons and antineutrons. Again, the anti-up and anti-down quarkshave the opposite charge of their matter twins…
  25. 25. ANTIPROTON - (p): −⅔ Composed of: 2 anti-up quarks and 1 anti-down quark−⅔ +⅓ Total charge: -⅔ − ⅔ + ⅓ = −1
  26. 26. ANTINEUTRON - (n): +⅓ Composed of: 1 anti-up quark and 2 anti-down quarks −⅔ +⅓ Total charge: -⅔ + ⅓ + ⅓ = 0Notice that the antineutron also has zero charge. If a particle has no charge, then its antiparticle has no charge.
  27. 27. In a magnetic field, a particle with an electric chargewill be deflected by the same amount as its antiparticle BUT in opposite directions: For example….
  28. 28. S Direction of magnetic field Deflection of an ELECTRON in a magnetic fieldN
  29. 29. S Direction of magnetic field Deflection of a POSITRON in a magnetic fieldN
  30. 30. How are Matter and Antimatter similar?
  31. 31. How are Matter and Antimatter similar? As far as we can tell, particles and antiparticles have IDENTICAL masses. (The fact that a particle and its antiparticle are deflectedby the same amount in a magnetic field, is an indication to us that the mass of a particle and its antiparticle are identical).
  32. 32. For example…proton mass = antiproton mass
  33. 33. We also BELIEVE, though it has yet to be PROVED experimentally,that antimatter behaves IDENTICALLY to matter under the influence of GRAVITY.
  34. 34. Anti-Matter matter For example, if you were able to drop a certain amount of matter and antimatter in a gravitational field, we believe that they would accelerate at precisely the same rate.
  35. 35. Anti-Matter matter For example, if you were able to drop a certain amount of matter and antimatter in a gravitational field, we believe that they would accelerate at precisely the same rate.
  36. 36. For example, if you were able to drop a certain amount of matter and antimatter in a gravitational field, we believe that they would accelerate at precisely the same rate. Anti-Matter matter
  37. 37. In addition to the fundamental antiparticles, entire anti-atoms are possible.In fact, human beings have already made one:
  38. 38. In addition to the fundamental antiparticles, entire anti-atoms are possible.In fact, human beings have already made one: ANTIHYDROGEN
  39. 39. Good old HYDROGEN. It’s the simplest atom we know.It consists of 1 proton and 1 electron.
  40. 40. Let us picture a hydrogen atom as an electronorbiting its nucleus, a proton.
  41. 41. Let us picture a hydrogen atom as an electronorbiting its nucleus, a proton. Hydrogen (H)
  42. 42. Let us picture a hydrogen atom as an electronorbiting its nucleus, a proton. BUT REMEMBER—thisis NOT an accurate depiction! (For one thing, in theproper scale, our electron would have to be drawnabout 1 kilometer away from the proton). Hydrogen (H)
  43. 43. Let us picture a hydrogen atom as an electron Let us now picture an antihydrogen atom as aorbiting its nucleus, a proton. BUT REMEMBER—this positron orbiting its nucleus, an antiproton.is NOT an accurate depiction! (For one thing, in the (The same warnings apply!)proper scale, our electron would have to be drawnabout 1 kilometer away from the proton). Hydrogen (H)
  44. 44. Let us picture a hydrogen atom as an electron Let us now picture an antihydrogen atom as aorbiting its nucleus, a proton. BUT REMEMBER—this positron orbiting its nucleus, an antiproton.is NOT an accurate depiction! (For one thing, in the (The same warnings apply!)proper scale, our electron would have to be drawnabout 1 kilometer away from the proton). Anti- Hydrogen (H) Hydrogen (H) -
  45. 45. At CERN in 1995, The very first atoms of ANTIHYDROGEN were made.From an initial production in 1995 of just a few atoms in 3 weeks, a few million have been produced on a worldwide basis in the intervening years.*Although that may seem impressive, remember that it takes about 600,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 antihydrogen atoms to make just one gram. * See the following links to find out more: http://press.web.cern.ch/press/PressReleases/Releases1996/PR01.96EAntiHydrogen.html Antihydrogen Atoms Made At Cern http://cool-antihydrogen.web.cern.ch/cool-antihydrogen/
  46. 46. How far can we go with this? Could we have other anti-atoms?How about anticarbon, antinitrogen, antioxygen?
  47. 47. How far can we go with this? Could we have other anti-atoms?How about anticarbon, antinitrogen, antioxygen? What about an entire Periodic Anti-Table?
  48. 48. How far can we go with this? Could we have other anti-atoms?How about anticarbon, antinitrogen, antioxygen? What about an entire Periodic Anti-Table?
  49. 49. How far can we go with this? Could we have other anti-atoms?How about anticarbon, antinitrogen, antioxygen? What about an entire Periodic Anti-Table?
  50. 50. How far can we go with this? Could we have other anti-atoms?How about anticarbon, antinitrogen, antioxygen? What about an entire Periodic Anti-Table?
  51. 51. THEORETICALLY SPEAKING, COMBINATIONS OF POSITRONS, ANTIPROTONS AND ANTINEUTRONSCOULD GENERATE ANTI-VERSIONS OF ALL OF THE ELEMENTS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE.
  52. 52. at Y th TR ict IS ed EM pr C H o RY o R IST als TE cal t EM e TW A enti R CH IM s id TEA NT i AT oldM od go
  53. 53. Though it may annoy your chemistry teacher, chemistry is basically the study ofwhat happens when bunches of atoms come together.
  54. 54. Though it may annoy your chemistry teacher, chemistry is basically the study ofwhat happens when bunches of atoms come together. As two hydrogen atoms approach each other, their nuclei repel (why?). This repulsion is overcome because the electron in one atom attracts the proton in the other atom.
  55. 55. Though it may annoy your chemistry teacher, chemistry is basically the study of what happens when bunches of atoms come together. As two hydrogen atoms approach each other, their nuclei repel (why?). This repulsion is overcome because the electron in one atom attracts the proton in the other atom.The best configuration is when the atoms are bound together. We then have a hydrogen molecule.
  56. 56. AS AN EXERCISE, REPLAY THE FORMATION OF A HYDROGEN MOLECULE, ONLY THIS TIME USING ANTIHYDROGEN ATOMS. WOULD THERE BE ANY DIFFERENCE FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE FORCES OF ATTRACTION AND REPULSION? WOULD AN ANTIHYDROGEN MOLECULE BE FORMED?
  57. 57. AS AN EXERCISE, REPLAY THE FORMATION OF A HYDROGEN MOLECULE, ONLY THIS TIME USING ANTIHYDROGEN ATOMS. WOULD THERE BE ANY DIFFERENCE FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE FORCES OF ATTRACTION AND REPULSION? WOULD AN ANTIHYDROGEN MOLECULE BE FORMED? (With respect to forces of attraction and repulsion, there is a completesymmetry between these two cases. Thus, an antihydrogen molecule WOULD beformed)
  58. 58. Can we keep going?
  59. 59. Can we keep going? If anti-hydrogen molecules are a theoretical possibility, ANDthe chemistry of antimatter is identical to that of matter…
  60. 60. Can we keep going? If anti-hydrogen molecules are a theoretical possibility, ANDthe chemistry of antimatter is identical to that of matter… Then how about bigger AND BIGGER anti-molecules?
  61. 61. Can we keep going? If anti-hydrogen molecules are a theoretical possibility, ANDthe chemistry of antimatter is identical to that of matter… Then how about bigger AND BIGGER anti-molecules? AS A LITTLE THOUGHT EXPERIMENT, TAKE THIS LINE OF THINKING AS FAR AS YOU CAN… WHAT DO YOU COME UP WITH?
  62. 62. And what about an Anti-You?What would your Anti-You look like?
  63. 63. And what about an Anti-You?What would your Anti-You look like? If we took You
  64. 64. And what about an Anti-You?What would your Anti-You look like? If we took You Insert your photo here
  65. 65. And what about an Anti-You? What would your Anti-You look like? If we took You Insert your photo hereand reversed the charges of all of the particles that make you up(in other words change your electrons to positrons, your protons to antiprotons, and your neutrons to antineutrons), the resulting forces would be the same.
  66. 66. And what about an Anti-You? What would your Anti-You look like? If we took You Insert your photo here and reversed the charges of all of the particles that make you up (in other words change your electrons to positrons, your protons to antiprotons, and your neutrons to antineutrons), the resulting forces would be the same.These forces have given you your structure—and so, your appearance.
  67. 67. So, Anti-Youwould look exactly like You. Insert your photo here AGAIN
  68. 68. So, Anti-You would look exactly like You. Insert your photo here AGAINHowever, if You and your Anti-You were to meet…
  69. 69. So, Anti-You would look exactly like You. Insert your photo here AGAIN However, if You and your Anti-You were to meet…To gain an understanding into what would happen in such an encounter, go to the lesson “Operation: Annihilate!”.
  70. 70. One Final Note: You will sometimes see an anti-object depicted as a mirror-image photo-negative of the original object. For example: BANANA ANTI-BANANA In the Extension Lesson “Through The Looking Glass”, we discuss whyantimatter can be thought of as a negative mirror-image of matter. But it should be understood that bulk antimatter would look identical to bulk matter. A depiction like the one above is simply used for effect!

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