Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Arsenic
Brief History of Arsenic                            Discovery   History is convoluted       Not sure who first discovere...
General Information of                               Arsenic   Chemical Formula = As   Atomic Number = 33   Molecular W...
Inorganic vs. Organic                                    ArsenicInorganic                                                 ...
Uses of Arsenic   ‘Poison of Kings’       Marsh and Reinsch Tests   Bronze alloy   Lead alloy   Medicinal uses      ...
Environmental Sources of                        Arsenic   Marine animals   In drinking water   ~200 mineral species    ...
Anthropogenic Sources of                        Arsenic   Reduction of Arsenic Trioxide    (As2O3 - Arsenite) with charco...
Mechanism   Inorganic         Arsenate – exists in +5 oxidation state         Arsenite – exists in +3 oxidation state
Mechanism (Continued)   Organic As – methylated (both in +3 oxidation state)       Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII)    ...
Mechanism (Continued)+ 5 oxidation state (pentavalent)   + 3 oxidation state (trivalent)  Arsenate                        ...
Mechanism (Continued)   In general, As terrorizes the metabolic processes of    the mitochondria          http://www.phsc...
Mechanism (Continued)   Pentavalent toxicity       Very similar to phosphate       Can substitute for inorganic phospha...
Mechanism (Continued)   Pentavalent toxicity       ADP-phosphate = ATP       ADP-arsenate = biologically useless      ...
Mechanism (Continued)   Trivalent toxicity       Reacts readily with thiol-containing molecules (-SH        functional g...
Mechanism (Continued)   Trivalent toxicity       Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH)        requires lipoic acid cofactor – a d...
Mechanism (Continued)   Oxidative Stress       Reductase enzymes are present in the cell to reduce        reactive oxyge...
Mechanism (Continued)   Carcinogenicity       Researchers have yet to fully elucidate carcinogenic        mechanisms of ...
Mechanism (Continued)   Carcinogenicity         ROS accumulation         DNA Excision Repair and DNA Ligase inhibited b...
Health Effects and                                    Symptoms   Acute As poisoning       Nausea       Vomiting       ...
Health Effects and                                       Symptoms   Chronic arsenic poisoning       High oxidative stres...
Health Effects and                                                      Symptoms   Bangladesh       77 million people (1...
Health Effects and                                     Symptoms   United Kingdom (1990 and 1991)       In UK, 6000 peopl...
Health Effects and                                      Symptoms   Japan (1955)       In Japan, 12,130 children suffered...
Health Effects and                                    Symptoms   Arsenic and ADHD study (Roy et al 2010)       526 6-7 y...
Health Effects and                                        Symptoms   Pre- and Postnatal Arsenic Exposure and Body Size   ...
Arsenic Regulation &                            Legislation   EPA       Proposed a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of   ...
Arsenic Regulation &                                     Legislation   FDA       Currently only has a standard for maxim...
Arsenic Regulation &                           Legislation   Organic Food       Organic food is not exempt from being co...
Referenceshttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037842740200084Xhttp://emedicine.medscape.com/article/812953-o...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Arsenic Final Presentation

17,565 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Hi there! I just wanted to share a list of sites that helped me a lot during my studies: .................................................................................................................................... www.EssayWrite.best - Write an essay .................................................................................................................................... www.LitReview.xyz - Summary of books .................................................................................................................................... www.Coursework.best - Online coursework .................................................................................................................................... www.Dissertations.me - proquest dissertations .................................................................................................................................... www.ReMovie.club - Movies reviews .................................................................................................................................... www.WebSlides.vip - Best powerpoint presentations .................................................................................................................................... www.WritePaper.info - Write a research paper .................................................................................................................................... www.EddyHelp.com - Homework help online .................................................................................................................................... www.MyResumeHelp.net - Professional resume writing service .................................................................................................................................. www.HelpWriting.net - Help with writing any papers ......................................................................................................................................... Save so as not to lose
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • I ordered in HelpWriting.net I know exactly that I can trust them.They can help you with any kind of assignment - from high school essay to PhD dissertation. On the left you can see a detailed list of our services. They can write from scratch according to your instructions.Edit and proofread your paper.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Over 160,000 women and men are using a simple and secret "water hack" to drop 1-2lbs every night as they sleep. It’s easy and works every time. Here’s how to do it yourself ✤✤✤ https://url.cn/5yLnA6L
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Slim Down in Just 1 Minute? ♥♥♥ https://bit.ly/2WL1mUf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • If you have a few spare minutes per day, we have some very exciting news for you! ➤➤ https://url.cn/5ITFXkU
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Arsenic Final Presentation

  1. 1. Arsenic
  2. 2. Brief History of Arsenic Discovery History is convoluted  Not sure who first discovered Greeks and Romans had slaves mine for arsenic Used in Alchemy Albertus Magnus www.en.wikipedia.com  German chemist  First to isolate in 1250 AD
  3. 3. General Information of Arsenic Chemical Formula = As Atomic Number = 33 Molecular Weight = 74.92 grams Color = lead gray, gray, white Hardness of 3.5  Similar to calcite or flourite  Talc is 1 and diamond is 10 Nonmagnetic Metallic Poor conductor of heat & electricity http://periodictable.com/Elements/033/index.html
  4. 4. Inorganic vs. Organic ArsenicInorganic OrganicOccurs naturally in soil and many mineralsand ores that contain copper and lead Mainly found in marine organisms  When heated, arsenic rises up smokestack as a fine dust Can still be used on agricultureCannot be used in agriculture  Primarily cottonUsed to pressure treat wood Improve properties when added toArsenate V is found in water an allow or metal Greatest use in lead acid batteries Semiconductors and LED’s Arsenate III found in water http://www.finegardening.com/design/articles/pressure-treated-wood-in-beds.aspx
  5. 5. Uses of Arsenic ‘Poison of Kings’  Marsh and Reinsch Tests Bronze alloy Lead alloy Medicinal uses  Syphili, yaws, psoriasis, and other viruses Industrial uses http://biologyze.com/tag/arsenic-and-bacteria/  Ammunition production, pigments, insecticides, rat poison, wood preservative, semiconductors, & others
  6. 6. Environmental Sources of Arsenic Marine animals In drinking water ~200 mineral species http://deepbluehome.blogspot.com/2010/10/deep-blue-home- snapshot-2000-2010.html  Most common is arsenopyrite Emitted from volcanoes http://ebt2010.blogspot.com/2010/07/understand-whats- arsenic-and-how-it.html http://www.ecowaternorthwest.com/arsenic.php
  7. 7. Anthropogenic Sources of Arsenic Reduction of Arsenic Trioxide (As2O3 - Arsenite) with charcoal  As2O3 is created during the metal smelting process Industrial uses http://www.ehow.com/how_6160537_preserve-pressure-treated-wood.html  Ammunition production, pigments, insecticides, rat http://www.indiamart.com/alchemylaboratories /analytical-reagents.html poison, wood preservative, semiconductors, & others http://serc.carleton.edu/woburn/issues/pesticides.html
  8. 8. Mechanism Inorganic  Arsenate – exists in +5 oxidation state  Arsenite – exists in +3 oxidation state
  9. 9. Mechanism (Continued) Organic As – methylated (both in +3 oxidation state)  Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII)  Dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII)
  10. 10. Mechanism (Continued)+ 5 oxidation state (pentavalent) + 3 oxidation state (trivalent) Arsenate Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) Dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII) Arsenite
  11. 11. Mechanism (Continued) In general, As terrorizes the metabolic processes of the mitochondria http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/cellresp/overview.html
  12. 12. Mechanism (Continued) Pentavalent toxicity  Very similar to phosphate  Can substitute for inorganic phosphate in glycolytic and cellular respiration pathways
  13. 13. Mechanism (Continued) Pentavalent toxicity  ADP-phosphate = ATP  ADP-arsenate = biologically useless  High energy phosphate bonds are lost  Stopping the production of ATP will stop all processes that require ATP
  14. 14. Mechanism (Continued) Trivalent toxicity  Reacts readily with thiol-containing molecules (-SH functional group)  Amino acid cysteine contains thiol group  Cysteine rich proteins are vulnerable to As binding
  15. 15. Mechanism (Continued) Trivalent toxicity  Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH) requires lipoic acid cofactor – a dithiol  As inhibits this enzyme by binding to the cofactor  The citric acid cycle cannot proceed because the pathway is terminated http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Citric_acid_cycle_with_aconitate_2.svg
  16. 16. Mechanism (Continued) Oxidative Stress  Reductase enzymes are present in the cell to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS)  As binds and inhibits some of these reductases, resulting in the accumulation of ROS  ROS can bind/damage DNA and other cellular components  Part of As carcinogenicity
  17. 17. Mechanism (Continued) Carcinogenicity  Researchers have yet to fully elucidate carcinogenic mechanisms of As  It is widely accepted that As is a carcinogen and several mechanisms have been proposed
  18. 18. Mechanism (Continued) Carcinogenicity  ROS accumulation  DNA Excision Repair and DNA Ligase inhibited by Arsenic  Co-mutagenic effect with ROS, UV radiation, http://www.biol.unt.edu/~jajohnson/DNA_sequencing_process X-Rays, and other chemicals  DNA methylation alterations  Also noted as a tumor promoter in mouse ovarian cancers
  19. 19. Health Effects and Symptoms Acute As poisoning  Nausea  Vomiting  Blood in the urine  Cramping muscle  Hair loss  Stomach pain  Convulsions  Organ failure  Comma to death (interferes with glycolysis)
  20. 20. Health Effects and Symptoms Chronic arsenic poisoning  High oxidative stress  affect the structure of function of cardiovascular system  Increases the risk of cancer  Vitamin A deficiency  Night blindness  Heart disease  Skin color change  Eye inflammation  Hyperkeratosis and hyperpigmentation http://wewinwater.com/2011/09/03/addressing-arsenic-poisoning-in-bangladesh/  Blushed complexion
  21. 21. Health Effects and Symptoms Bangladesh  77 million people (1/2 population of crowded Bangladesh) may have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic.  More than 20% of deaths are caused by arsenic.  Groundwater is contaminated with As http://www.who.int/topics/arsenic/en/
  22. 22. Health Effects and Symptoms United Kingdom (1990 and 1991)  In UK, 6000 people had the arsenic poisoning and 70 of them died.  The beer contained 15ppm of arsenic  Glucose (ingredient of beer) is contaminated to arsenic  Contaminated during the refining process http://www.beer100.com/beercalories.htm
  23. 23. Health Effects and Symptoms Japan (1955)  In Japan, 12,130 children suffered from the arsenic poisoning and 130 of them died.  Milk from Tokushima factory was contaminated to arsenic  Symptoms  loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, boil, skin color changed to black, anemia, hypertrophy of the liver  Aftereffect http://romanianrecipes.wikia.com/wiki/Milk  blurred vision, hard of hearing, low score in school record, abnormal brainwave, epilepsy, headache, dizziness, cold hands and feet
  24. 24. Health Effects and Symptoms Arsenic and ADHD study (Roy et al 2010)  526 6-7 years old children in Torreon Mexico  Urinary arsenic levels were measured  No significant relationship found between any measure of urinary arsenic and parents ratings of behavior  However, higher urinary arsenic was associated with high scores on Cognitive Problem exams
  25. 25. Health Effects and Symptoms Pre- and Postnatal Arsenic Exposure and Body Size – a cohort study (Saha et al 2012)  Purpose - to assess potential effects of early life As exposure on weight and length of children from birth to 2 years of age  2372 children born in Bangladesh.  Measured arsenic concentrations in urine (U-As) with child body weight and length  Compared to girls in the first quintile of U-As (<16 µg/L), those in the fourth quintile (26-46 µg/L) were almost 300 g lighter and 0.7 cm shorter.  Postnatal arsenic exposure was associated with lower body weight and length among girls, but not boys.
  26. 26. Arsenic Regulation & Legislation EPA  Proposed a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5mcg/L in 2000 and established at 10mcg/L on Jan 22, 2001  This rule became enforceable on Jan 23, 2006  This standard protects public health based on the best available science and ensures that the cost of the standard is achievable
  27. 27. Arsenic Regulation & Legislation FDA  Currently only has a standard for maximum levels of As in bottled water  No inorganic As regulations in Europe and U.S. in relation to food  Only China has a regulatory limit (150 ppb)  Today, FDA is testing apple juice and trying to determine an appropriate level  Apple juice containing >23 ppb of organic arsenic represent a potential health risk
  28. 28. Arsenic Regulation & Legislation Organic Food  Organic food is not exempt from being contaminated by toxic chemicals  Organic standard do not prohibit the presence of As  Two brands of organic infant formula – 20 times more As than other regular brands  Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP) and FDA move toward regulating As contaminant levels in the food supply
  29. 29. Referenceshttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037842740200084Xhttp://emedicine.medscape.com/article/812953-overview#a0104http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935111000739http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22504586http://www.who.int/bulletin/archives/78(9)1093.pdfhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1026413/pdf/westjmed00133-0060.pdfhttp://www.ehjournal.net/content/5/1/31http://www.weitzlux.com/arsenic/historyofarsenic_403021.htmlhttp://webmineral.com/data/Arsenic.shtmlhttp://drugstoremuseum.com/sections/level_info2.php?level_id=150&level=3http://www.weitzlux.com/arsenic/historyofarsenic_403021.htmlhttp://www.greenfacts.org/en/arsenic/l-3/arsenic-2.htm#0p0http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/rulesregs/sdwa/arsenic/regulations.cfmhttp://www.foodqualitynews.com/Legislation/Congress-representatives-urge-FDA-to-move-on-inorganic-arsenichttp://www.foodqualitynews.com/Legislation/US-rice-arsenic-level-regulations-imperative-report

×