Classroom routines and proceduresBy Denise YoungEstablishing clear classroom routines and procedures is necessary for ensuring that your classroom runssmoothly.Students need to know what is expected of them in your classroom. To ensure that you have smoothtransitions throughout the day, think carefully about the routines for which you must plan. Clarify them inyour mind. It may be helpful to make a list of transitional times throughout the day (see the list below to helpyou get started!). Other teachers or your mentor can serve as resources by sharing their own classroomprocedures and routines.Before establishing specific procedures or routines, it is necessary to have a discussion with students abouttheir importance. During this discussion, you should be able to talk about the rationale behind variousroutines. When possible, invite students to create procedures with you. This process can nurture a sense ofownership and community in your classroom.In establishing procedures or routines, it is important to: • Ensure that students understand the reason for the routine. • Clarify the procedure through modeling. • Allow students opportunities to practice the routine through rehearsal. • Try not to overwhelm students by teaching too many routines at once. The process of establishing routines and procedures may take several days. • Remember that it will probably be necessary to revisit this process as you see the need.The following list may help you get started in thinking about times during the day for which you may wantto establish procedures and routines: • Beginning the day • Entering and exiting the classroom • Labeling papers • Collection and distribution of papers • Signaling for quiet and attention • Appropriate times for moving around the room • Emergency drills and procedures • Going to the restroom • Moving throughout the school • Late arrival • Grading and homework policies (including make-up work) • Asking questions • Finishing an assignment early • DismissalSource: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/Routines 1
Hot Tips for Managing Classroom BehaviorThe ability to manage students’ behaviors is the number one concern of beginning teachers, and is near thetop for most experienced teachers. The inability to effectively manage students’ behavior accounts for moreteacher dismissals than any other cause, including lack of knowledge of subject matter. Here are some tips oneffective classroom management gleaned from research and observations of effective teachers: ♦ Invest in relationship building from the beginning. ♦ Expect to be tested by some students. ♦ Preserve your classroom momentum at all costs. ♦ Deliver interesting, fast-paced, organized learning experiences. ♦ Be sure your rules and expectations are clear. ♦ It is also better to have a few, rather than may rules. ♦ Avoid causing student to lose face in from of their peers. ♦ Keep you eyes moving. ♦ Continually monitor what is happening in your classroom. ♦ Practice the principle of “escalation.” (Don’t go after a fly with a baseball bat.) ♦ Use the power of silence. ♦ Don’t overreact. ♦ Develop selective hearing. ♦ Divide and conquer. ♦ Never argue with a student in front of the class. ♦ Quiet reprimands are much more effective than loud ones. ♦ Clearly focus on a student’s “behavior,” not the student. ♦ Understand the school’s student behavior code. ♦ Reinforce positive behaviors. ♦ Use praise effectively. ♦ User group contracting to reward good performance. ♦ Vary rewards. ♦ Develop classroom routines early in the year. ♦ Be cautious of touching students when they are angry. ♦ Be aware of concealment activities used by students. ♦ Avoid branding a student a “failure” because of one mistake. ♦ Avoid punishing the whole class for the misbehavior of one student. ♦ Try to find acceptable means for students to receive the attention and approval they often seek through misbehavior. ♦ Always have a couple of “sponge activities.” ♦ Don’t be too quick to send students to the principal’s office or to call their parents. ♦ Don’t send students out into the hallway as a punishment. ♦ For persistent, serious problems with a student, use the private teacher-student conference. ♦ If you feel overwhelmed by a student’s challenging behavior, don’t be afraid to consult other professionals. 2
Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement EFFECT ACHIEVEMENTSTRATEGY SIZE GAINIdentifying similarities and differences 1.61 45Summarizing and note taking 1.00 34Reinforcing effort and providing recognition .80 29Homework and practice .77 28Nonlinguistic representations .75 27Cooperative learning .73 27Setting objectives and providing feedback .61 23Generating & testing hypotheses .61 23Questions, cues, and advance organizers .59 22Identifying Similarities and Differenceshttp://manila.esu4.org/instructionalstrategies/stories/storyReader$7from Classroom Instruction that Works Robert J. Marzano, Debra, J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock,MCREL, 2001. Summary of Research on Identifying Similarities and Differences • Guidance in identifying similarities and differences enhances students understanding of and ability to use knowledge. • Independently identifying similarities and differences enhances students understanding of and the ability to use knowledge. • Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form enhances students understanding of and ability to use knowledge. • Identifying similarities and differences can be accomplished in a variety of ways: comparing, classifying, creating metaphors, and creating analogies. Classroom Practice in Identifying Similarities and Differences • The key to effective comparison is the identification of important characteristics. • Organizing elements into groups based on their similarities is the basis of classifying. • The key to constructing a metaphor is to realize that the two items in the metaphor are connected by an abstract or non-literal relationship. • Analogies help us see how seemingly dissimilar things are similar, increasing our understanding of new information. The typical use a "blank is to blank" as "blank is to blank" type of comparison but can also be diagramed. 4
Summarizing and Note Takinghttp://manila.esu6.org/instructionalstrategies/stories/storyReader$15from Classroom Instruction that Works Robert J. Marzano, Debra, J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock,MCREL, 2001. Summary of Research on SummarizingSometimes summarizing and notetaking are referred to as mere "study skills".However, they are two of the most powerful skills students can acquire.Summarizing and note taking provide students with tools for identifying andunderstanding the most important aspects of what they are learning. • To effectively summarize, students must delete some information, substitute some information and keep some information. • To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the information at a fairly deep level. • Being aware of the explicit structure of information is an aid to summarizing information. Classroom Practice in Summarizing • Rule-Based Strategy follows a set of rules or steps to develop a summary. • Summary Frames use a series of questions designed to highlight the critical elements for specific types of information. • Reciprocal Teaching involves summarizing, questioning, classifying and predicting. Summary of Research on Note Taking • Verbatim is the least effective way to take notes. • Notes should be considered a work in progress. • Notes should be used as study guides for tests. • The more notes that are taken, the better. Classroom Practice in Note Taking • Teacher-Prepared Notes are one of the most straight forward uses of notes. • Variety of formats: Informational Outlines, Webbing and Combination Notes.Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognitionhttp://manila.esu6.org/instructionalstrategies/stories/storyReader$14from Classroom Instruction that Works Robert J. Marzano, Debra, J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock,MCREL, 2001. Summary of Research on Reinforcing Effort • People generally attribute success at any given task to one of four causes: ability, effort, other people and luck. • Not all students realize the importance of believing in effort. 5
• Students can learn to change their beliefs to an emphasis on effort. Classroom Practice in Reinforcing Effort • Teach and exemplify the connection between effort and achievement. • Students can see the connection between effort and achievement by periodically keeping track of their effort and its relationship to achievement, Summary of Research on Providing Recognition • Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation. • Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance. • Abstract symbolic recognition is more effective than tangible rewards. Classroom Practice in Providing Recognition • Make the recognition as personal to the student as possible. • The Pause, Prompt and Praise strategy of providing recognition is best used when students are engaged in a particularly demanding task. • Concrete, symbolic tokens of recognition should be given for accomplishing specific performance goals.Homework and Practicehttp://manila.esu6.org/instructionalstrategies/stories/storyReader$16from Classroom Instruction that Works Robert J. Marzano, Debra, J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock,MCREL, 2001. Summary of Research on Homework • Less homework should be assigned to younger students than to older students. • Parent involvement in homework should be kept to a minimum. • The purpose of homework should be identified and articulated. • If homework is assigned, it should be commented on. Classroom Practice in Assigning Homework • Establish and communicate a homework policy. • Design homework assignments that clearly articulate the purpose and outcome. • Vary the approaches to providing feedback. Summary of Research on Practice • Mastering a skill requires a fair amount of focused practice. • While practicing, students should adapt and shape what they have learned. 6
Classroom Practice Regarding Practicing Skills • Students should be encouraged to keep track of their speed and accuracy. • Design practice assignments that focus on specific elements of a complex skill or process. • Plan time for students to increase their conceptual understanding of skills or processes.Nonlinguistic Representationshttp://manila.esu6.org/instructionalstrategies/stories/storyReader$13Please note: ASCD has the chapter about Nonlinguistic Representations in full-text on their web site.Summary from Classroom Instruction that Works Robert J. Marzano, Debra, J.Pickering, Jane E. Pollock, MCREL, 2001. Summary of Research on Nonlinguistic Representations • A variety of activities produce nonlinguistic representations. o Creating graphic representations. o Generating mental pictures. o Drawing pictures and pictographs. o Engaging in kinesthetic activity. • Nonlinguistic representations should elaborate on knowledge. To download a PowerPoint presentation on this strategy click this link: Powerpoint Classroom Practice in Nonlinguistic Representation • Graphical organizers are the most common way to help students generate nonlinguistic representations. • Other nonlinguistic representations include physical models, generating mental pictures, drawing pictures and pictographs, and engaging in kinesthetic activity.Cooperative Learninghttp://manila.esu6.org/instructionalstrategies/stories/storyReader$11from Classroom Instruction that Works Robert J. Marzano, Debra, J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock,MCREL, 2001. Summary of Research on Cooperative Learning • Organizing groups based on ability should be done sparingly. • Cooperative groups should be kept small in size. • Cooperative learning should be applied consistently and systematically, but not overused. 7
Cooperative Learning five defining elements: 1. Positive interdependence 2. Face-to-face interaction 3. Individual and group accountability 4. Interpersonal and small group skills 5. Group processing Classroom Practice in Cooperative Learning • Use a variety of criteria for grouping students. • Use a variety of group patterns: Informal or ad hoc (last few minutes of a class period), formal (long enough to complete an academic project) and base groups (semester or year, providing students with long-term support). • Managing group size - keep groups small. • Combine cooperative learning with other classroom strategies.Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizershttp://manila.esu6.org/instructionalstrategies/stories/storyReader$8from Classroom Instruction that Works Robert J. Marzano, Debra, J. Pickering, JaneE. Pollock,MCREL, 2001. Summary of Research on Cues and Questions • Cues and questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual. • "Higher level" questions produce deeper learning than lower level questions. • "Waiting" briefly before accepting responses from students increases the depth of student answers. • Questions are effective learning tools even when asked before a learning experience. Classroom Practice in Cues and Questions • Explicit cues provide students with a preview of what they are about to experience. • Questions that elicit inferences help students "fill-in" missing information. • Analytic questions help students critique information. The types of analysis are analyzing errors, constructing support, and analyzing perspectives. Summary of Research on Advance Organizers • Advance Organizers should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual. • "Higher level" advance organizers produce deeper learning than the "lower level" advance organizers. 8
• Advance Organizers are most useful with information that is not well organized. • Different types of advanced organizers produce different results. Classroom Practice in Advance Organizers • Expository advance organizers describe new content. • Narrative advance organizers present information in story format. • Graphic advance organizers provide nonlinguistic representations. • Skimming before reading is a form of advance organizer. COOPERATIVE LEARNING: WHAT IS IT?Cooperative Learning is a teaching strategy in which small teams, each with two to five students of mixed ability levels and talents, use a variety of learning activities to maximize their own and each other’s learning. All team members gain from each other’s efforts, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement.CRITICAL SKILLS NEEDED: ENTRY LEVEL WORKERS Complete work accurately, on time, and to a high standard of quality. Work in teams to achieve mutual goals and objectives. Follow work-related rules and regulations. Demonstrate willingness to work and show initiative. Display responsible behaviors at work, including avoiding absenteeism and demonstrating promptness. SKILLS YOUNG PEOPLE NEED “TO SUCCEED IN TODAY’S WORKPLACE.” Speak so others can understand Use math to solve problems Solve problems and make Observe critically decisions Listen actively Read with understanding Cooperate with others Take responsibility for learning Center for Workforce Preparation Resolve conflicts and negotiate 9
BUILDING RELATIONSHIPS "Relationships are the avenue for influence." UnknownInvestment in relationship building allows you to accumulate a “psychological bank account” with your students. Pay now or pay later – you’ll either spend time building a mutually respectful relationship or you’ll spend it later in a classroom power struggle. • Greet students as they enter the • Converse with students about daily class life • Listen to students • Share information about yourself • Be aware of students’ interests • Be consistent in you responses COOPERATIVE LEARNING – BEGIN WITH . . .Good Instructional Planning is aligned to course standards; stresses high expectations; has all students actively engaged; involves teachers’ working together; and requires administrative support.WHEN TO PAIR UP STUDENTS BENEFITS OF PAIRING UP To process new information Energize your students Review information Build community Get out of their seats to interact Generate multiple ideasRANDOM PARTNERS (SECRET PAL) Each student in class writes their name on a slip of paper, and then folds the slip in half so their names are concealed. Have students mix, exchanging slips of paper with classmates. When teach calls “Freeze,” students unfold their slips of par to discover their “Secret Pals.” They pair up with and remember their Secret Pal so at any time you can call out, “Everyone up. Don’t be the last to find your Secret Pal.” Don’t be the last to find your Secret Pal.”Characteristic Partners Students form partners with others that share similar characteristics. A great way for students to see what they have in common with others in the class. For example, students write down their favorite hobby on a slip of paper. Then have them find another person with the same or a similar hobby. They become Hobby Pals. Other possible characteristics that students can pair up on are: Sports they enjoy; Favorite movie/television show/radio show/actor/dessert/ junk food/band; Zodiac signs; Pets they own; etc.STUDENT SELECTED PARTNERS As long as your students are often pairing up with individuals they wouldn’t necessarily choose to pair up with on their own, why not sometimes let them pair up with that special somebody SOME BASICSCooperative Learning Standards Ask 3 Before Me Practice Active Listening If you have a question, ask 3 of your team members before you ask me. 10
Help and Encourage Each Other Everyone Participates Explain Your Ideas / Tell Why Complete TasksZero Noise Signal 1. Complete your sentence 2. Raise your hand 3. Remain quiet 4. Eyes on the speaker 11
ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING1. Positive Interdependence: “We all sink or swim together” Each team member’s efforts are required for team success. Each team member has a specific and unique contribution because of his/her resources, talents, and task responsibilities.2. Face-to-face interaction: “Students become translators” In cooperative learning teams, students promote each other’s success by sharing resources and helping, supporting, encouraging, and celebrating each other’s efforts. Teachers structure teamwork so that students help each other by explaining how to solve problems, teaching one’s knowledge to others, checking for understanding, discussing concepts, and connecting present and past learning.3. Individual accountability / personal responsibility Each team must be accountable for achieving its goals, and each member must be accountable for contributing his or her share of the work. Each student is individually assessed and the results are given back to the team and individual to determine who needs more assistance and support for learning.4. Interpersonal and teamwork skills: “Social Skills do not magically appear” Social skills must be taught just as academic skills are taught. Leadership, decision-making, trust-building, communication, and conflict management are essential to team success.5. Team reflection: “How are we doing as a team?” Teachers need to structure teamwork so that team members discuss how well they are achieving their goals and how effectively they are working together. Teams should describe what member actions are helpful and unhelpful and then make decisions about what behaviors to continue or change. This is an ongoing process of self assessment and peer assessment.
TEAMWORK / SOCIAL / ACADEMIC SKILLSMust be modeled, taught, rehearsed, practiced, used, reinforced, and the skill must mean something. Teach students what “it looks like”, “what it sounds like” and “what it feels like.” Research (Margarita Calderon) has shown that students will learn more and do better if they help their classmates, if they ask for help when they need it, and if they get an explanation with the help. Appropriately used cooperative learning strategies become classroom management strategies.Teach students how to help each other – notice when a team member needs help; tell your team members to ask you if they need help; when someone asks for help, help them; don’t give answers – give explanations; praise and encourage; and, check to make sure they understand. HOW ARE WE DOING AS A TEAM? What did you like about working together? What could your team do even better next time? What surprised you most about your team? Name one thing a team member did which helped you and/or your team. List at least three member actions that helped the team be successful. List one action that could be added to make the team more successful the next time. If you were the teacher, how would you change this lesson? What did you learn from your teammate(s) today? What did you learn from another team? Did you always say “because” and give a reason for your answer? Explain. WHEN MONITORING STUDENTS, TEACHERS CAN: Give immediate and specific feedback. Re-teach or add to teaching. Encourage oral elaboration and explanation. Model appropriate behavior. Offer encouragement and praise. Encourage teams to solve their own problems. SIGNS OF SUCCESS - YOUR STUDENTS ARE EXPERIENCING SUCCESS IF: students drill each other on the material. answers are shared (explanations). materials are shared. heads are close together. students give their opinions easily and candidly.
social skills improve – in teams and elsewhere.
BASIC COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRUCTURESThink-Pair-Share – Involves a three step cooperative structure. During the first step the teacher posesa question, preferably one demanding analysis, evaluation, or synthesis, and gives individuals thirtyseconds or more to think through an appropriate response (Think). This time can also be spent writing theresponse. After this "wait time," students then turn to partners and share their responses, thus allowingtime for both rehearsal and immediate feedback on their ideas (Pair). During the third and last stage,student responses can be shared within learning teams, with larger groups, or with the entire class duringa follow-up discussion (Share). The caliber of discussion is enhanced by this technique since, too often,the extroverts with the quickest hand reflexes are called on when an instructor poses a question to theentire class. In addition, all students have an opportunity to learn by reflection and by verbalization.Turn to Your Partner – Students are asked to turn to someone sitting next to them and ask or explainsomething about the lesson: a concept, directions to an assignment, summarizing points to a discussion,etc. Teacher moves around the classroom listening in on responses. If most/all understand, move on tothe next concept.Numbered Heads Together – This is a simple, easy to use structure developed by Spencer Kagan,which is effective for answering questions at all levels of difficulty. 1. Students Number Off – Each student on the team has a different number which can be chosen secretly by the students or assigned by the teacher. For teams of five, one number may be assigned to two students. 2. Teacher Asks a Question – Questions are phrased so that students know that their answer must include an explanation. “Make sure everyone on your team can explain how you arrived at the answer.” 3. Heads Together – Team members discuss the question and make sure each team member knows and can give the correct answer, including an explanation. Time limits may be given as appropriate to keep things moving quickly. 4. Teacher Calls a Number – The teacher calls a number at random and all students with that number can raise their hands, stand, etc. to respond. If a complete answer is not given, another student with that number may be called on to add to the answer.Roundtable / Simultaneous Roundtable – The teacher announces a topic or poses a question inwhich the students are to share something with their team. Each student, in turn, writes one answer as apaper and pencil are passed to each member of the team. Usually done in silence, this strategy is good forgetting students to recall information, summarize, or brainstorm.In simultaneous roundtable, each student starts with a piece of paper, writes one answer, and passes itwhen the teacher says, “pass”. This way several papers are moving at once. Each sheet of paper couldhave a different question / problem on it so that all students are engaged all the time and perhapspracticing or reviewing more than one concept.Four Corners – Announce the corners; post a visual in each corner (or area of the room). Announce astatement and provide think time for students to choose a corner; ask them not to be swayed by others’choices. Have students go to their chosen corners and ask them to brainstorm as a group the reasons forselecting the corner, why a particular corner is best and answers for any other questions you pose. Havestudents come to consensus on their best ideas. Select a spokesperson to share with the rest of the class.Then invest time in processing the results and the activity.Jigsaw – Jigsaw can be used in a variety of ways for a variety of goals, but it is primarily used for theacquisition and presentation of new material, review, or informed debate. Select a topic, concept, theme,issue, and break into parts (e.g. Civil War – short term causes, long term causes, short term effects, long
term effects). If each student’s part is essential, then each student is essential; and that is precisely whatmakes this strategy so effective.It is an efficient way to learn the material that encourages listening, engagement, and empathy by givingeach member of the group an essential part to play in the academic activity. Group members must worktogether as a team to accomplish a common goal; each person depends on all the others. No student cansucceed completely unless everyone works well together as a team. This “cooperation by design”facilitates interaction among all students in the class, leading them to value each other as contributors totheir common task.Divide students into 5 or 6 person jigsaw groups. Divide the day’s lesson into 5-6 segments. Forexample, if you want history students to learn about Eleanor Roosevelt, you might divide a shortbiography of her into stand-alone segments on (1) Her childhood, (2) Her family life with Franklin, (3)Her life after Franklin contracted polio, (4) Her work in the White House as First Lady, and (5) Her lifeand work after Franklin’s death.Form temporary “expert” groups – each student on the team becomes an “expert” on one topic byworking with members from other teams assigned the corresponding expert topic. Assign each student tolearn one segment, making sure students have direct access only to their own segment. Give studentstime to become familiar with their segment. Give students in these expert groups time to discuss the mainpoints of their segment and to rehearse the presentations they will make to their Jigsaw group.Bring the students back into their Jigsaw groups. Upon returning to their teams, each one in turn teachesthe group. Ask each student to present her or his segment to the group. Encourage others in the group toask questions for clarification.Demonstration of Knowledge – The culminating activity allows individual sharing team members todemonstrate their knowledge of all topics identified in the unit. At the end of the session, a quiz or test isgiven on the material so that students quickly come to realize that these sessions really count.Carousel Brainstorming – Decide on a topic and several questions. Place questions on chart paper.Charts are posted on walls. Assign each team to a chart on the wall. Recorder writes the ideas that thegroup brainstorms in response to the prompt on the chart. At the signal, students move to the next chart,read the prompt and ideas written on the chart, and record additional ideas. After enough rotations, theteam returns to their original chart and identifies their three favorite ideas – or any other reflectionactivity. Additionally, a gallery walk could occur where the groups walk through all the sheets and viewsthe work done by all the teams.Gallery Walk (or Tour) – Allows students to view each other’s final products while incorporatingmovement. 1. Completed group products are displayed around the classroom. 2. Teachers states what is to be done (e.g., simple observation, writing questions, adding ideas, etc.). 3. On a signal, groups pass from one product to another, responding as groups to the products they see by writing questions or adding ideas etc. It may be necessary to time each “turn.”
OTHER SIMPLE COOPERATIVE LEARING STRATEGIES STRATEGY WHEN USE DIRECTIONS FOR USEHomework Help Before reviewing homework 1. Students sit in groups of 2 or 3 & compare assignments as whole class or answers to their homework. collecting them to be grades 2. They discuss any for which they do not have the same responses, correct their work when needed, & add the reason they changed those answers. 3. Teacher can then collect papers or use for discussionPairs Checking To support guided practice 1. Partners do the first two or three problems (worksheet, etc.) of a procedure independently. while requiring students to 2. Partners stop and agree on answers to the explain their answers to one problems done before repeating the process another and allowing the teacher for the next two three problems. to circulate and assist groups that 3. If their answers differ, the students explain need assistance. their methods to each other and try to decide who is correct. 4. If they cannot agree, then the teacher should be asked to intervene.Round Robin To get students to recall 1. Students work in groups. information, summarize, or 2. The teacher asks a question or poses a brainstorm problem with more than one answer. 3. Each group member orally responds one item at a time around the circle. 4. The conversation keeps moving around the group until the teacher call that time is up or the answer is complete.Talking Tiles To group students and give them 1. Use index cards with words “Time to Talk” an issue to discuss that requires written on them. them to offer an opinion or “take 2. Place students in groups of 4 or 5. a side.” 3. Students are given an issue to discuss that requires them to offer an opinion or “take a side,” with one student speaking at a time— the student holding the Talking Tile. 4. One student is handed Talking Tile to begin the discussion. The student with Tile is only one permitted to talk; all others must listen. 5. Teacher monitors the time, allowing a predetermined amount of time before calling for the Talking Tile to be passed. 6. Talking Tile is passed to the right and receiver of Tile speaks next. Teacher may require students to take notes on what others have to contribute.
STRATEGY WHEN USE DIRECTIONS FOR USEThink-Write-Pair- To have students think about a 1. A problem is posed and students think aloneCompare topic you identify or a specific about the question for a specific amount of question you pose, write their time. response, and then discuss their 2. Students then take a moment to jot down their individual responses with a thoughts before sharing them with a partner. classmate. 3. Then have pairs take some time to compare with other pairs. To have students share or 1. Students are placed in groups of four or five. generate ideas within a specified 2. Teacher states the topic.Brainstorming period of time in a non- 3. A student is designated as the Leader. He/She evaluative situation. makes sure all students understand the topic, invites participation from every member of the group, and doesn’t allow questions, criticism, or praise while generating the list of ideas. 4. Another student is designated as the Recorder. The Recorder writes down the ideas using as few words as possible and verifies with the person suggesting the idea if the written summary is accurate. 5. The remaining students actively participate, building on the ideas of the other students. 6. After a specified time the groups share their ideas with one another. To capitalize on what students 1. Teacher provides a brief oral overview of the already know about the content content material to be studied. TeacherK-W-L Technique material (K), explores presents a large chart with columns, labeled K information they would like to (Know), W (Want to Know), and L (Learned). know about the subject (W), and 2. Students are asked to brainstorm any provides for examination of information they already have about subject to what was actually learned (L). be studied. Teacher writes responses in . column labeled K. 3. Teacher then asks students to share what they would like to know about subject. Teachers may need to encourage students to consider concepts instead of factual information. As responses are given, teachers write them in column label W. 4. Students are then directed to read the text section independently. 5. Students look back to the W column of the K- W-L chart and share responses to issues identified. Their responses are entered under the l column. Teacher can use this time to supplement responses given and encourage students to expand on information provided. Teacher then assesses the mastery of the overall topic.
PROACTIVE CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES TECHNIQUE PURPOSE HOW USE Natural tendency for 1. Teacher raises hand high to signal to students classroom of teams/groups to stop talking.Zero Noise Signal to become too noisy. 2. Students complete their sentence, raise their Teacher needs to be able to hand and remain quiet. bring noise level quickly 3. Students turn eyes to teacher. back to zero. 4. Once all students have indicated by their silence and raised hands, teacher can continue. Signal to students to stop talking, to give their full attention to teacher, & to keep their hands and bodies still. • Used to transition students 1. Teacher says “One” and students get items from their desks to another from their desk that they need.1-2-3 Move 2. On 2 students stand and push in their chairs. area of the room 3. On 3 students move to the instructed area. • Transitions should be brief, quiet, free from disruptions Establish norms of 1. Teacher models social & communication appropriate cooperative skills expected from students; getsT-Chart behavior in classroom clarity/consensus on what is meant by a specific academic/social skill. Lay groundwork for team 2. Teacher develops a T-Chart for specific building; academic/social skill. Down the left hand side of chart teacher lists what that skill “looks like” and on the right hand side what that skills “sounds like” if someone were to walk into the classroom. 3. Example: Looks like—if I were to walk into your class room (and I couldn’t hear) what would I see to indicate that ______was taking place 4. Example: Sounds like—if I were to walk into your class room (and I couldn’t see) what would I hear to indicate that ______was taking place 5. Charts are posted in the room. 6. Helps with classroom management by establishing consensus on expectations. Suggest getting input from students.Ask Three Before Me Helps students become o Teach students to ask a partner or teammate responsible for their own before asking you. learning and behavior. Gives teacher more time to teach, since the responsibility for answering questions is shared by everyone in the classroom rather than being the sole responsibility of the teacher
Anticipation Guides Source: http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/reading/62368Anticipation guides can have many different formats. Statements are succinct, inviting each student toexpand on them with her own opinions. By publicly stating their position, students are more apt to lookfor statements in their research which support, contradict, or modify their opinions.Constructing an Anticipation GuideVacca and Vacca (1989) mention the following guidelines: 1. Analyze the material to be read. Determine the major ideas - implicit and explicit - with which students will interact. 2. Write those ideas in short, clear declarative statements. These statements should in some way reflect the world that the students live in or know about. Avoid abstractions. 3. Put these statements into a format that will elicit anticipation and prediction making. 4. Discuss readers predictions and anticipations prior to reading the text. Encourage students to take a position and defend it with examples from their own background. Give opportunities for students to share their thoughts with others to foster exposure to different perspectives. 5. Assign the text selection. Have students evaluate the statements in light of the authors intent and purpose. 6. Encourage students to revisit the text and the anticipation guide to reflect on their earlier predictions compared to their feelings after reading and discussion.Extended Anticipation GuidesAn extended anticipation guide has the added feature of students giving written evidence to support theirresponses. Students complete the agree / disagree section prior to reading and then, after readinginformation related to each of the statements, they are asked to indicate if and how the text supports theiropinion or not. After reading, class discussions should focus on questions such as the following: • What statements support your opinions? • What statements contradict your opinions? • Why do you still agree or disagree with the writer? • What would help you change your mind? Sample Anticipation Guide T F People can be influenced by fictional characters. T F People can agree on the most influential character. T F I have used a fictional character as a role model. T F Many people are easily swayed by opinion. T F Fictional people have no value to society.
CLASSIFYING INFORMATION CLASSIFICATION CATEGORIESIn each column, identify the category used for classification and the criteria for the category. List items in the each column that meet the criteria for that category. 21
Pyramid Summarizing ActivityRespond to the prompts below to complete the summary. Remember that each line should be slightly longer thanthe preceding line so the finished summary resembles a pyramid. (A more detailed description of this strategy canbe found in Rick Wormeli’s book, Summarizing Strategies for All Content Areas.) _________________________ __________________________________ ____________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 24
GIST – A Cooperative Summarizing Activity (Generating Interaction between Schemata and Text)See page 62 of Literacy Across the Curriculum for one version.Purpose: To ask students to write a tight, precise summary of a reading passage.Students are to convey a “gist” of what they read by summarizing the text in 20 words or less.Procedure: 1. Ask students to read a short reading passage of no more than three paragraphs. 2. Ask the class, or group, to remember important ideas from the passage and list them on the board. 3. Discuss the list of words and reduce it to 20 or less. Delete trivial and repetitious information. Include only essential information. Collapse as many words together as possible. For example, if Robert Fulton, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison are listed, collapse that into the term “inventors.” 4. Use the words to write a summary of the reading. Write the summary and revise it at least once. 5. (For the first time, many students will not understand what a summary is. A first effort is a teaching vehicle for summarizing as much as it is for the information read.)Variation of GIST— 1. Have students write a 20 word summary of an assigned reading onto an index card. The summary should be on one side of the card and should not have the student’s name. 2. The students should stand and move around the room with teacher-provided music, trading cards as they move. 3. When the teacher stops the music, each student should choose a partner from the room. 4. With the partner, students read and evaluate the summaries on the two cards they are holding. On the back of each card, the pair gives the summary a total of 1-7 points in such a way that the two cards’ totals equal 7. 5. Repeat steps 2-4 three more times including scoring on the back of the cards. 6. Students return to their seats after the last scoring, taking the card they are holding. 7. Students total the scores on the reverse of the cards they are holding. 8. The higher the score, the more likely the better the summary. 9. The teacher calls for the summaries with the highest totals to be read aloud to the class.GIST: A Summarizing Strategy for Use in Any Content AreaOverview: To teach students the GIST strategy, have students read newspaper articles obtained from newspaperwebsites. Students then identify journalisms "5Ws and H" (who, what, where, when, why, and how) andcomplete a template with the corresponding information they have found in the article. Finally, students usetheir notes to write a 20-word summary called a GIST. Once students have mastered writing a GIST usingnewspaper articles, the strategy is then applied to content area texts to support comprehension and summarizingskills._______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________________________ _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________________________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ 25
Childhood lead exposure linked to adultcrimeBy Greg Toppo, USA TODAY May 28, 2008In what may be the strongest link yet between lead exposure and crime rates, researchersat the University of Cincinnati on Tuesday released new evidence, spanning more than 20years, that draws a direct relationship between the amount of lead in a childs blood andthe likelihood he or she will commit crimes as an adult.Research has shown before that lead has harmful effects on judgment, cognitive functionand the ability to regulate behavior. But until now the best research focused on juveniles,not adults.Now, researchers have collected data from as early as 1979 when pregnant women andtheir healthy babies had their blood drawn regularly at four Cincinnati medical clinics. Bythe time the children were 7, researchers had a complete portrait of lead levels.Nearly two decades later, the researchers tracked down 250 of the subjects, ages 19-24.Controlling for a host of factors, including parental IQ, education, income and drug use, theteam found that the more lead in a childs blood from birth through age 7, the more likelyhe or she was to be arrested as an adult. The tie between high lead levels and violentcrime was particularly strong."We need to be thinking about lead as a drug and a fairly strong one," says Kim Dietrich, aprofessor of environmental health at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine andthe principal investigator for the study in the journal Public Library of Science Medicine."These kids have been exposed to this drug, chronically, since before birth."For nearly 50 years, researchers have known about the relationship between childrensimpulsivity and high levels of lead in their bodies. As recently as 2007, economist RickNevin tied violent crime rates to historic use of leaded gasoline.Children in poor neighborhoods are often exposed to high levels of lead from old lead paintin dilapidated homes.Fordham University School of Law criminologist Deborah Denno, who has studied theeffects of lead, calls the findings ties to adult criminal behavior "very important." Dennostudied National Institutes of Health statistics of nearly 1,000 children in Philadelphia andfound that a high blood lead level at 7 years old was among the strongest predictors that achild would have both learning difficulties and disciplinary problems in school. High bloodlead also strongly predicted whether a child would have a juvenile or adult criminal record.Denno says Tuesdays data are newer than hers by 20 years. "Its still a huge problem,"she says, "and its still a huge problem among African-American communities and poorerneighborhoods." 27
Main Idea 1st Key Point 2nd Key Point 3rd Key PointDetail Detail Detail Detail Detail Detail 28
COMPARING OBJECTS Select two or more additional objects for which exposure causes concern. List objects in the top row and complete the information about the characteristics for each object. Object 2 Object 3 Object 4 Object 5CHARACTERISTICS Lead in products Level of exposure(high, medium, low) Consequences of exposureBenefits of object to societyFeasibility to avoid exposure 29