Introduction To Information Systems And Informatics


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Introduction to Informatics and Clinical Informatcis

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Introduction To Information Systems And Informatics

  1. 1. Introduction to Information Systems and Informatics Prof. Carlos Ortiz CILC 6205 RCM-UPR University of Puerto Rico – Medical Sciences Campus
  2. 2. What is Information Technology ? <ul><li>Study, design, development, implementation, support or management of a computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. </li></ul>Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009)
  3. 3. What is Information Systems ? <ul><li>Information System is a combination of people, hardware, software, communication devices, network and data resources that processes data and information for a specific purpose including research, analysis and decision making. </li></ul>Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009)
  4. 4. Types of Information Systems? <ul><li>Transaction Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Support Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Database Management Systems </li></ul>Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009)
  5. 5. <ul><li>Origins of the Term: Informatics </li></ul><ul><li>informatics - informa-tiks.[Russ. “ Informatika ”, French. “ Informatique ”]-OED. </li></ul><ul><li>1967 – “ Informatics ” is the discipline of science which investigates the structure and properties (not specific content) of scientific information, as well regularities of scientific information activity, its theory, history and organization”- OED. </li></ul><ul><li>1977 – “ Informatics ” change to “ Medical Informatics ” refers to the application of computer technology to all fields of medicine, medical care, medical research and medical teaching”- Collen, 1977. </li></ul><ul><li>1990- “ Medical (Health) Informatics ” is the scientific field that deals with biomedical and clinical information, data and knowledge, storage, retrieval, analysis and optimal use for problem-solving and decision-making”- Shortliffe and Blois, 1990. </li></ul><ul><li>See also: </li></ul>What is Informatics ? Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009)
  6. 6. What is Informatics ? <ul><li>Informatics is the science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. Informatics studies the design, structure, behavior, and interactions of natural and artificial systems that store, process, access and communicate information (Example: Databases). </li></ul>Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009)
  7. 7. Related Definitions <ul><li>Bioinformatics </li></ul><ul><li>- The development and application of novel informatics techniques in the biological (especially genomic) sciences. </li></ul><ul><li>Computational Biology </li></ul><ul><li>- A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. </li></ul>Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009)
  8. 8. <ul><li>Clinical research is a component of medical and health research intended to produce knowledge valuable for understanding human disease, preventing and treating illness, and promoting health. </li></ul>Related Definitions Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009) (AAMC, 1998)
  9. 9. <ul><li>Informatics in clinical research is concerned with the use of computers and communication technology (CIS) to acquire, store, analyze, communicate, and display medical information and knowledge to facilitate understanding and improve the accuracy, timeliness, and reliability of decision-making. </li></ul>Related Definitions Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009) (Warner, Sorenson and Bouchaddou, 1997)
  10. 10. Laboratory Information Systems <ul><li>is part of an integrated informatics solution which involves many applications. Use of an Laboratory Information Systems is a critical piece of the clinical IT spectrum of systems and contributes significantly to the overall care given to patients. </li></ul>Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009)
  11. 11. Informatics Organizations <ul><li>International Medical Informatics Association ( IMIA ) established 1968 in France </li></ul><ul><li>Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care ( SCAMC ) founded in 1976 in Washington DC </li></ul><ul><li>American Association for Medical Systems Informatics (AAMSI) founded in 1981 from Society of Computer Medicine ( SCM -1972) and Society for Advanced Medical System ( SAMS -1975) </li></ul><ul><li>American College of Medical Informatics ( ACMI ) established in 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>American Medical Informatics Association ( AMIA ) founded in 1990 by merger of AAMSI, ACMI and SCAMC. </li></ul>Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009)
  12. 12. Contributions of National Library of Medicine <ul><li>A major source of innovation in Informatics </li></ul><ul><li>MEDLARS, MEDLINE and MeSH </li></ul><ul><li>Informatics Training Programs Grants since 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>IAIMS </li></ul><ul><li>UMLS </li></ul><ul><li>Visible Human </li></ul><ul><li>MEDLINE Access </li></ul>Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009)
  13. 13. This is Medical (Health) Informatics <ul><li>Bioinformatics 1. Biological structure informatics 2. Computational biology 3. Expression profiling and microarrays 4. Genomic ontologies 5. Genomics 6. Linking the genotype and phenotype 7. Neuroinformatics 8. Pharmacogenomics 9. Proteomics </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Informatics 10. Barriers to clinical system implementation 11. Clinical systems in ambulatory care 12. Clinical systems in high intensity care 13. Careflow and process improvement systems 14. Disease management 15. E-health and clinical communication 16. Evaluation of health information systems 17. Health data warehousing 18. Health information systems 19. Integrated health and financial systems </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Training 20. Computer-assisted medical education 21. Consumer health information 22. E-learning or distance learning 23. Education and training 24. Library information systems 25. Medical informatics teaching 26. Patient education and self-care 27. Professional education </li></ul><ul><li>Human Information Processing and Organizational Behavior 28. Cognitive models and problem solving 29. Data visualization 30. Natural language understanding and text generation 31. Human factors and usability 32. Human factors and user interfaces 33. Human-computer interaction 34. Models of social and organizational behavior 35. Natural language processing </li></ul>Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009) Imaging and Signal Analysis 36. Image processing and transmission 37. Image recognition, registration, and segmentation methods 38. Imaging and signal standards 39. Knowledge representation and ontologies for imaging 40. Model-based imaging 41. Signal processing and transmission 42. Virtual reality and active vision methods and applications Innovative Technologies in Health Care 43. Computer-communication infrastructures 44. Internet applications 45. Mobile computing and communication 46. Portable patient records 47. Security and data protection 48. Software agents and distributed systems 49. Telemedicine 50. Virtual reality 51. Wireless applications and handheld devices Knowledge Management 52. Automated learning and discovery 53. Clinical guidelines and protocols 54. Controlled terminology, vocabularies, and ontologies 55. Intelligent data analysis and data mining 56. Decision support systems 57. Knowledge management 58. Knowledge representation 59. Neural network techniques 60. Pattern recognition/classification Nursing Informatics 61. Nursing informatics 62. Nursing care systems 63. Nursing vocabulary and terminology 64. Nursing education/Curriculum in nursing informatics 65. Nursing documentation Organizational Issues 66. Careflow management systems 67. Care delivery systems 68. Cooperative design and development 69. Economics of care 70. Ethical and legal issues 71. Health services evaluation: performance and quality 72. Organizational impact of information systems 73. Quality assessment and improvement 74. System implementation and management issues 75. Technology assessment Patient Record 76. Cryptography, database security, and anonymization 77. Database access and delivery 78. Database design and construction 79. Data standards and enterprise data sharing 80. Patient record management 81. Privacy, confidentiality, and information protection 82. Standard medical vocabularies 83. Standards for coding 84. Standards for data transfer Public Health Informatics 85. Administrative/financial systems 86. Biosurveillance 87. Consumer health informatics 88. Emergency and disaster response 89. Genetic epidemiology 90. Health intervention systems 91. Health promotion systems 92. Health outcomes assessment 93. Patient self-care and patient-provider interaction
  14. 14. Topics Related with Informatics <ul><li>Decision Support Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Research and Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Human Computer Interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Expert Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Database Design and Management </li></ul><ul><li>The Electronic Health Record </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless Computing Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Genomics </li></ul><ul><li>E-Health </li></ul><ul><li>The “Medical Errors” Problems </li></ul>Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009)
  15. 15. Decision Support Systems <ul><li>Decision Support Systems (DSS) are a specific class of computerized information system that supports organizational decision-making activities. DSS components will include; Databases and Analytical Models. </li></ul>Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009)
  16. 16. Benefits of DSS <ul><li>Improve Efficiency/Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates communication </li></ul><ul><li>Improve quality/consistency of decision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precise problem formulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant input information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established analysis/solution approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitivity analysis </li></ul></ul>Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009)
  17. 17. Building a DSS <ul><li>DSS architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representational Models (Simulations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimization Models (Linear Programming) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SDLC approach </li></ul><ul><li>Prototyping </li></ul><ul><li>Software Tools </li></ul>Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009)
  18. 18. Artificial Intelligence- AI <ul><li>AI is the branch of computer sciences for the study and design of “Intelligent agents” where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions which maximize its chances of success. </li></ul>Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009)
  19. 19. Research and Applications of Artificial Intelligence <ul><li>Nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Expert Systems (MYCIN) </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics and Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Machine Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Game Playing </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern Recognition Systems </li></ul>Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009)
  20. 20. Expert Systems <ul><li>Use human knowledge captured in a computer to solve problems that ordinarily require human expertise. </li></ul><ul><li>Imitate reasoning process of experts </li></ul><ul><li>Propagate the knowledge throughout the organization for improved and consistent results. </li></ul><ul><li>Used by experts as knowledgeable </li></ul>Prof. Carlos Ortiz - (2009)