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August 29, Overview over Systems studied in the course

Multi-Robot Systems

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August 29, Overview over Systems studied in the course

  1. 1. Multi-Robot Systems<br />CSCI 7000-006<br />Friday, August 29, 2009<br />NikolausCorrell<br />
  2. 2. So far<br />What is a robot and how are robot algorithms different<br />Alternatives to single robot systems<br />Swarms of simple, reactive individuals<br />Teams of collaborative/specialized deliberative systems<br />Why are multi-robot systems hard?<br />Coordination<br />Uncertainty<br />
  3. 3. Today<br />MRS we will study in the course<br />What will we be doing in the lab?<br />Components of the “Buff-Bot” (better name?)<br />Project ideas<br />
  4. 4. Topics in MRS<br />Concepts<br />reactive vs. deliberative algorithms<br />centralized vs. distributed systems<br />mixed animal-robot societies<br />reconfigurable robots and smart materials<br />Modeling<br />Probabilistic models<br />Deterministic models<br />Kinematic and Dynamic Models<br />
  5. 5. Turbine Inspection<br />Goal: inspect all blades in a turbine<br />Generic task allocation problem<br />From reactive to deliberative algorithms<br />Incremental use of resources<br />Computation<br />Communication<br />Localization<br />Degree of Planning<br />Degree of Coordination<br />
  6. 6. Multi-Robot Exploration<br />Deploy into an environment<br />Mapping or surveillance<br />Distributed vs. Centralized algorithms<br />Distributed Algorithms for Dispersion in Indoor Environments using a Swarm of Autonomous Mobile Robots”. James McLurkin and Jennifer Smith, Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems Conference, June 23, 2004.<br />Andrew Howard, Lynne E. Parker, and Gaurav S. Sukhatme. &quot;Experiments with Large Heterogeneous Mobile Robot Team: Exploration, Mapping, Deployment and Detection&quot;. In International Journal of Robotics Research, 25(5):431-447, May 2006<br />
  7. 7. Wifi-Deployment<br />Goal: maximize area coverage of wifi signal<br />Reactive algorithms<br />Incremental use of resources<br />Localization<br />A priori information<br />Swarm programming using MIT proto<br />Degree of Planning<br />Degree of Coordination<br />
  8. 8. Distributed Robot Garden<br />Goal: tend plants automatically<br />Generic task allocation problem<br />Deliberative algorithms<br />Sensing and computation distributed in the environment<br />Degree of Planning<br />Degree of Coordination<br />
  9. 9. Reconfigurable Systems<br />Goal: reconfigure into different shapes, locomote<br />Units can compress/uncompress<br />Deliberative algorithms<br />Vision: smart materials<br />Degree of Planning<br />Daniela Rus, MarsetteVona. Crystalline Robots: Self-Reconfiguration with Compressible Unit Modules. Autonomous Robots 10(1):107-124, 2001. <br />Degree of Coordination<br />
  10. 10. Smart Clay<br />Goal: create arbitrary shapes on demand<br />Centralized, deliberative<br />Shapes are generated by unwanted parts falling off<br />Process can be repeated<br />Degree of Planning<br />Kyle Gilpin, Keith Kotay, Daniela Rus, IuliuVasilescu - Miche: Modular Shape Formation by Self-Disassembly. The International Journal of Robotics Research 27(3-4):345-372, 2008.<br />Degree of Coordination<br />
  11. 11. Mixed Animal Robot Societies<br />Not every part of the system needs to be a robot<br />No direct control on animals<br />How can we exploit knowledge on animal behavior for control?<br />
  12. 12. Modeling<br />How to abstract a system into a concise (mathematical model)?<br />Probabilistic Models<br />Population dynamics<br />Discrete Event System Simulations<br />Deterministic Models<br />Graph-based models<br />Kinematic models<br />Dynamical models<br />
  13. 13. Why a lab?<br />Robotic systems are determined by their sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities<br />What does this mean? Find out for yourself what happens<br />when information is unavailable or noisy<br />when computation does not keep up with your task<br />when the robot just cannot get there<br />when communication does not work as you expect<br />when your algorithm just does not work!<br />
  14. 14. Developing the Buff-Bot<br />Developed with students at MIT over 4 terms<br />Version 5 (“Buff-Bot”): new CPU, new arm, laser<br />Goal: open platform for undergraduate education<br />
  15. 15. System Diagram: Buff Bot<br />Surroundings (Lab 3)<br />Localization (Lab 2)<br />Vision (Lab 5)<br />Sensing Computation Actuation<br />Netbook (Lab 1)<br />Mobile Base (Lab 2)<br />Arm (Lab 4)<br />
  16. 16. Lab Syllabus <br />Building a teaching and research platform “Buff-Bot”<br />Part 1: Robotic Operating System<br />Part 2: Differential wheel base and localization<br />Part 3: Mapping with the LMS<br />Part 4: Arm<br />Part 5: Vision<br />
  17. 17. Project<br />Inspired by the systems and models presented in the course and/or your work<br />Using the Buff-Bot, additional hardware or simulation<br />Working with other teams on common components and tools<br />
  18. 18. Art Gallery Problem<br />What about robots watching an area and sending a guard when something happens?<br />How long does it take until an event is detected? Responded?<br />
  19. 19. Distributed Robot Garden<br />Sensors on the plants vs. sensors on the robots<br />What is better, faster, cheaper?<br />Centralized vs. Decentralized coordination: when does it make sense to distribute?<br />
  20. 20. Smart Building Blocks<br />What about a construction kit in which the parts always take the shape you need?<br />What parts do you need to create specific objects/trusses?<br />Which part takes which shape?<br />
  21. 21. Smart Marbles<br />What about a set of marbles that you fill into a cavity and learn about its inside?<br />How can you reconstruct the topology of the cavity?<br />What sensing, computation, and communication capabilities does each marble need?<br />
  22. 22. Smart Rubber<br />What about rubber that can change its shape and move forwards?<br />How to model structures made only of soft elements?<br />What else can we build?<br />
  23. 23. Summary<br />Multi Robot Systems range from robot teams to smart materials composed of hundreds of sensing, actuated, computational and communicating devices<br />Be creative in your course project, now is the time<br />
  24. 24. Next Week<br />Monday: Reactive Algorithms I<br />Wednesday: Reactive Algorithms II, Practice: Robot architectures and operating systems<br />Friday: Lab 1<br />