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Digitization

Digitization

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Digitization

  1. 1. Digitisation by Manuel S. Tamayao December11, 2014 Lessons from Yolanda: Improving Records Management in the Workplace (December 10-12, 2014 at Hotel Supreme, Baguio Cijfl _
  2. 2. Outline - Definitions - Reasons in digitising materials - Technical Requirements File Formats Spatial and Signal Resolutions Work Environment Equipments - Digitisation workflow Pre-digitising, Digitisation, Post-Digitisation - Storage and Access w’:
  3. 3. "È I la] I - _ , -‘_‘_ 1 ‘ho. à" I "V f" . G . J. . . , V ‘è ‘î’ - the making of digital images of hard copy textual or graphical materials - the process of converting ì to digitalformat for QTOCGSSÌDQ by a computer - complete process that broadly includes: selection, assessment, prioritization, project management and tracking, preparation of originals for digitisation, metadata collection and creation, digitising, quality management, data collection and management, submission of digital resources to delivery systems and into a repository environment, and assessment and evaluation of the digitisation effort.
  4. 4. - " I [al n: g v finge yg gr—a"—n‘n—‘aprn‘urj"t p, —— i i i I 5.. ., C. . ‘C. J. 1.4 Jl . I ‘ —r u‘ v V3‘ to facilitate access to preserve the original records as security in the event of Ioss o obsolescence, deterioration, handling, theft and destruction for exhibits, publications, and web use
  5. 5. ‘ “f-v-"n "d «v-"nfic 1x ‘r ‘ììan "r". A v, i - w , _ ‘-, 1-, q. . v . _, . , v zfl . . . su J. è v Accessibility v Longevity ofdigital v Costof hardware media and software v Dependence on v Security electronic systems v Cost of maintaining copies
  6. 6. 15.: mflzva no ‘pipa, su“: €113 o "mia; É. 6,. .. . ‘ 1-‘: ‘xî È. ‘ unì a a i l? ‘u! records that are fragile or poor in physical condition records in physical format which make use of the originals awkward or risky records that are frequently requested and used records with high value or highly collectible records to be included in interpretative products (online exhibitions, galleries, etc. ..) photographs and other pictorial materials, which to tend to have wide appeal and interest
  7. 7. l: i ‘ '4», a a K 7": "f 1h‘ F‘! la aflg i t» '51 4% p: “ETA 4h. ’ w -' ‘à ".5.- g r‘: l» a '14‘ _ — — o 3- l — — ‘ v un! al v‘ ‘.1 u? Né‘. ‘u 0.. ‘U’ ‘w 4., “mi si ‘ . Digital formats and their uses o Master File - is to produce digital images that look Iike the original items and to create a “reasonable reproduction” without enhancement.
  8. 8. File Format o TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)- . tif o “De facto” raster image format used for master files o Preferred format for production master file o JPEG 2000 - . jpx, .jp2, . jpf o Increasingly considered as a viable format for master image files, but not yet widely adopted o Rapidly gaining acceptance as a format for production master file
  9. 9. File Format (cont’d) o JFIF/ JPEG (Joint Photographic Expert Group)- . jpg o Lossy compression, but most software allows for adjustable level of compression o Access derivative file use onIy-not recommended for text or Iine drawings o PNG (Portable Network Graphic)- . png o Lossless compression o Possible format for production master file-not currently widely implemented
  10. 10. File Format (cont’d) o PDF (Portable Document Format)- . pdf o Intended to be a highly structured page description Ianguage that can contain embedded objects, such as raster images, in their respective formats. o Not recommended for production master files . PDF/ A — . pdf o is a constrained form of Adobe PDF version 1.4 intended to be suitable for Iong-term preservation of P399
  11. 11. nîlnlîpfi _ g‘; gh—fii“x: g—l‘ I? l l p il «un o, . , 0 2-4.‘ . Ivl. n‘- - is the number of pixels per inch (ppi). A pixel is a tiny rectangle that is setto one color and is the smallest detail that can appear in a digital image. The term dots per inch (dpi) is often used interchangeably with pixels per inch.
  12. 12. Signal Resolution - Bit-depth or signal resolution, sometimes called tonal resolution, defines the maximum number of shades and/ or colors in a digital image file. o 1 bit = black and white 8 bits = 256 shades 16 bits = 65,536 shades 24 bits = 16 million colors 48 bits = 256 trillion colors
  13. 13. B&W, Grayscale or Color Scan . - Black and white mode usually refers to images that only pure black and white mode with no shades of gray . - Grayscale refers to the typical black and white photographs that have continuous shades of gray between the extremes of black and white
  14. 14. Scanner Setting Good Practice Best Practice Color Mode Color space Good and Best Scanning Practices for Documents î Tfl ‘ Color is used when color is important to the interpretation of the content and is optional for documents that are one color of writing on a background. Graysoale can be used when it captures the infonnation in the document. sRGB for color and whatever is the default for grayscale. 300 ppi when alI the writing on the document can be easily read. Greater resolution if enlargement is needed to easily read some of the wnting or enlargement is expected for display. 600 ppi for doubled size and 900 ppi for tripled. Color is used whenever there is color in the writing, in the paper, or in damage for a document Grayscale is used only when the document is black and mite without damage that has color. Adobe RGB for color and Gray Gamma 2.2 for grayscale. Minimum of 400 ppi. Also at Ieast 4000 pixels on Iongest side, unless the document is smaII and substantial enlargement is not expected. Greater resclution if enlargement is needed to easily read some of the writing.
  15. 15. Type of original‘ Good Practiceî Best Practice Paper and other reflective photographs 10 3000 pixels on the Iongest side 4000 pixels on the Iongest side Long Side - Resolution Long Side - Resolution 2 inches - 1500 ppi 2 inches — 2000 ppi 3 inches — 1000 ppi 3 inches — 1335 ppi 4 inches - 750 ppi 4 inches - 1000 ppi 5 inches - 600 ppi 5 inches — 800 ppi inches or Iess on the Iongest side of the actual image s inches — 500 ppi 6 inches — 670 ppi 7 inches — 43o ppi 7 inches — 575 ppi a inches — 375 ppi a inches — 50o ppi 10 inches — 30o ppi 10 inches — 400 ppi Minimum resolutions of 600 to 800 ppi are appropriate for sharp, high detail images such as aerial photographs. Spatial Resolutions for Good and Best Scanning Practices for Typical Paper and other Reflective Photographs
  16. 16. r Type 01 original‘ 35 mm film 0|’ smaller. 35 mm negatives are about 1.4 inches on the Iongest side and slides about 1.3 inches. Medium format negatives about 2.2 inches on one side. The other dimension may be about 2.2 inches, 3.3 inches, 4.2 inches, or some other length. Large format film, 4 x 5 inches to 8 x 10 inches. Good Practiceî 3000 pixels on the Iongest side Lmg% - 1.3 inches — 2300 ppi 1.4 inches — 2150 ppi At Ieast 3000 pixels on the Iongest side and at least 1000 ppi3 - 2.2 inches — 1370 ppi 3.3 inches - 1000 ppi 4.2 inches — 1000 ppi 3000 pixels on the Iongest side ‘Mgî - 5 inches — 600 ppi 7 inches - 430 ppi Best Practice 4000 pixels on the longest side m 1.3 inches — 3000 ppi 1.4 inches - 2860 ppi At Ieast 4000 pixels on the Iongest side and at Ieast 1200 ppi3 Long Side Resolution 2.2 inches — 1320 ppi 3.3 inches - 1215 ppi 4.2 inches — 1200 ppi 6000 pixels on the longest side m 5 inches - 1200 ppi 7 inches - 860 ppi Greater resolutions may be usetul tor high detail images. Spatial Resolutions for Good and Best Scanning Practices for Negatives, Slides, and Large Paper Photographs
  17. 17. Type 01 original‘ Good Practiceî Large fomiat film — 8 x 10 inches or ranger 3000 pixels on the Iongest side flgfl - 10 inches - 300 ppi Paper photographs 14 inches or less, but 3000 pixels on the Iongest side greater than 10 inches on the Iongest . - slde 14 inches — 215 ppi Paper photographs greater than 14 inches on the Iongest side 3000 pixels on the Iongest side Egli - 16 inches - 190 ppi 20 inches - 150 ppi 24 inches - 125 ppi Spatial Resolutions for Good and Best Scanning Practices for Negatives, Slides, and Large Paper Photographs Best Practice 8000 pixels on the Iongest side Long Side Resolution 10 inches - B00 ppi Greater resolutions may be usetul for high detail images. 6000 pixels on the Iongest side Lutti -m 14 inches - 430 ppi 8000 pixels on the Iongest side Qfli - 16 inches - 500 ppi 20 inches — 400 ppi 24 inches - 335 ppi ‘LV-
  18. 18. Digitisation Environment o Room o Monitors - should be positioned to avoid reflections and direct illumination on the screen o Lights - ISO 12646 requires the room illumination be Iess than 32 lux
  19. 19. Nikon Coolscan 5000 HP ScanJet N9120 '0 t/ ‘V N 9'“- x
  20. 20. Bookeye 4 d‘. .. ‘ a. .1". il tî i: p 4 A i rA Scribe . . Plustek OpticBook
  21. 21. Color Separation Guide Tiffen 9-13 Color Separation Guide (320-330) Iqìrrn.
  22. 22. "É 1g: I "I1!" """ x ‘(Wc T‘ Q 9" 4%. . ‘Ì 6L . % . ‘ 11 . É? . . Î a2 . . o ‘va-l Preparation o Preservation preparation Evaluation of physical condition and readiness for scanning (e. g. staple removal) Requirement review Copyright and privacy issues Determination of naming and directory structure schemes
  23. 23. File naming unique consistently structured well-defined Observant of any technical restrictions o special characters o spaces Use Ieading 0’s to facilitate sorting in numerical order o Use Iowercase characters and file extensions (i. e. ivv_Paypapian_so_Kaviay_1978.tif)
  24. 24. ' <1 ‘dl n rnyqgurfigfir f l l x. o‘p. .‘n. ùi. t} Capture according to specification v Adjust size, scaling, and spatial resolution o Cropping o Backing reflection originals Color correction and tone adjustment Image evaluation OCR and text conversion/ mark-up, rekeying Creation and collection of technical, structural, administrative, and descriptive metadata
  25. 25. Î îglì’! è. Là"; Iîlnî g p I“ ‘l , _ l l g mlfl-r‘; .1 . *w l. ‘,: lur ' è ‘îì. ‘11. ‘É . . ma ' v Quality Control - Quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) are the processes used to ensure digitization and metadata creation are done properly. v Creation of Derivative File(Presentation File) Upload files and metadata in the Repository
  26. 26. i iw_Paypapian_; o_l(wiay_1978.TlF 9725/2014 2:13 PM lrfanVrew m File 319,373 K8 ‘m iw_Paypapian_so_KIvicy_1978_b&w. pdf 9725/2014 4:45 m Adobe Acrobat o. .. 2,027 K8 j iw_Paypapian_so_KIviay_1978_b&i/ v.fif 9726/2014 m4 AM lrfanView n; File 1o7,ou K8 Master and Derivative Files
  27. 27. Metadata capture - the identification, management, access, use, and preservation of a digital resource
  28. 28. Common Metadata Types o Descriptive (who, what, when, where) o Dublic Core o Administrative - reproduction or other access requirements o Rights - identify rights holders and Iegal status o Technical - describes attributes of the digital image
  29. 29. Paypapian so vlay 11111122111 una. randa A Idaho ma: A m- Villa D15. hfi humus; mao-amar: mummia! !! N10 lnod-Unlahfl! îhmflùpfiufluauflm-flàlfllînlflrflx ML Éî pîl Han uuu Descriptive Metadata 111 l 111}
  30. 30. siLsensitivity. metadata Public sil. sensitivityupresentation Public siLwebsitesi [Public iw_Paypapian_so_Kaviay. pdf silm/ ebsitensilPublic iw_Paypapian_so_Kaviay_1978_b&v/ .pdf Administrative Metadata
  31. 31. dc. rightsHolder SIL dc. subject. subjectLanguage iwzlvatan dc. subjeccvernacularcontent Reader dc. title Paypapian s0 viay dcxitlealtemative Improving our tives dcxitleuparallel Paypapian s0 Kaviay Rights Metadata
  32. 32. ‘Dato: o! Scm’) : :x; :;; 'e>Dalc ot 5con<fl; d{x*: are a: ;*>2Dll—O9-25<; ;:! x: 3 <: n::1-> H -" 1- Tihr 0! SCAH‘) <;1:x: :ar—>71uc or Scnn<'; :!x <; d!x: v >l3:37<H; ::x: va: .e> -: :> e: 12.’. «r. t- scmzu-r ìhrdwa <p: :x . e>Scannor Hnrdwarc</ carxz <p: :x: vnL; «>HP Scnnjel H9120<f; ::x 2:2 Technical Metadata {- : v arw)
  33. 33. Storage and Repository o Image management systems o Digital Repository (i. e. DSpace) o Metadata database (Koha) o Storage requirements o RAID system o Cloud Storage (Google, Dropbox, etc. ..)
  34. 34. ai, un. ‘ ‘p‘. .,. A" ‘t-fl" E1 4- flfiffi4àfigfii‘ . ,a ‘e. y — “ î g l“ 5 Manage and make available digital copies and related metadata Make digital objects and metadata available to staff and researchers o Deliver digital objects via web-based/ delivery systems for research o Deliver high-quality digital products via the web and via optical media
  35. 35. v Explore k con-cuoca: umana-un llyfircnu rum‘. Lwurc clqv , . ’ ‘r l Pina Hotel n'a: bui]! on the loution ol wì, - . - __- . ... _. - 1334.2914 A___ . _. .k Axmricans in lhc Philippinesurua premi IIWE lowlanda, finesllotclamclobcknown a ’ , colonizl hfll station. ‘ “ AAND PINE FUR wllAT IS NOT" l beton: a commercia! umll opencd there in ‘i . . . ‘t 1 j ‘ A "màw D‘ “n” "Nel ma 8mm, “ The late o! Pine: Hotel minuta llul o! 1t u ' I Ì -‘ ; ' torta. Today Baguio tacca ‘Lx-luca likc con; z ; i i - . ' dcyadalion. tu durano cali tor the city lo ' l 1 l J 4.». .' 177T" —. .-: ,. , . - rrrlfutr, cutrunm r‘ msmurs (m. 1:41.- 53mm . —?. r.. a.: m-z——. .=. —.y, ,=w— ‘(e 2a: 1h. - ‘ Jàîmîdéîîîlîîfir
  36. 36. SIL Philippines Publicnfions to Download su mu Unix-tu! mkx x4 mn mm. » m xm un serviva nmwar ‘ Iawmnlmrmouoh lnuuunhcx I neutv ma mal-non 1100195) anni Www. m- gu- Nlu: Il . '.« www w (‘Mdzwww Doumasnavahbfluwoflmdfitrumrusnwvumuàofimwrwuwams Annamaria"! un " : ' «rum n: .r “anaxaoauloumorwnfwomhsuwm «oflotmcoewwth mannmmoomnuvuwnanPr-oumlmnmwxnmnufloamwuaxmwmw u Laqngnsnnmmuumné": .«: ,—-nmmoauoxolaulsoo3slcoon wrul hm llN nv 911ml“. New -- u mnmw . jhflhluo . k n» wl-Lrpnnvl s mvmnîoz‘ un; îhnu-«yqhv b-‘luhppnfi-‘n u; ; : p‘, -'; s'. '.r ÀÈ '00 2'003 îmyuîexwbowmxnunnhnwruuu- 1997 Ascnoovawotnuamgmovsnmncm Privata. ‘.4 Auuculwwlouugu q: n.9 Oomhacaoflcavrmtxflnoa rvsostcumawkxmw" 1979 uorunPoguuu-Prvw 1979 uogmIumomooou-Pmnuv 1974 WalIM-‘mlutuflomof uonnwmrum-Txnsflw — ’ 1969 Pnocbmwnnwnoontrosomo? m5 Iuwuwruohoouomz-Pvwm 1965 untouounvunîwouunt-mnu un. .. un SIL Philippines

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