A. INDIANIZATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIA
• Indianization refers to the propagation of the Indian Civilization.
• This propagation was a two-way process, that is, the propagation of the Indian Civilization was
effected not only by the Indian Colonists and colonizers, but also by the Southeast Asians
themselves. These Southeast Asians, particularly the Malays, were bold navigators. Hence,
visiting the parts of India let them acquire Indian culture and brought them to their native
1. The Sri Vijaya and Majapahit Empire
Sri Vijaya Majapahit
Other names Sin-fo-tsi(Chinese)
Capital Palembang Majapahit
Capital Mahayana Buddhist Brahmanistic Hindu
The Philippines was never ruled by the Sri Vijayan and Majapahit Empire due to ff:
There are plenty of historical materials on Sri Vijaya as a maritime power and its
relation with China in the annals of Tang, Yuan, Sung, and Ming Dynasty. Of
those materials, there is no mentioned about Philippines being a vassal state of
the Sri Vijaya Empire.
Chau-ju-kua in his chronicles, listed fifteen vassal states of the Sri Vijaya and the
Philippines is not one of them.
Contemporary authorities on the history of Southeast Asia never claimed that
Philippines was a vassal state of the Sri Vijaya Empire.
The claim of Prapanca in his eulogistic poem, Negarakertagama, that ninety- four
vassal states of Majapahit Empire includes Solot which he referred as Sulu of the
Philippines is not real. Most likely, Solots are the tiny island in the lesser Sundas
which still bears the name Solot and the northeastern part of Borneo.
2. Relations with the Orang Dampuans
• The Orang Dampuans or Men of Champa are group of immigrants who came in the
Philippines from Southern Annam (Modern Vietnam) between 900- 1200 A.D.
• They established a trading post in Sulu that resulted in a flourishing trade between Sulu
and Southern Annam.
• Their main interest is to have trade with Buranuns People of Sulu).
• Their increasing prosperity aroused jealousy of the Buranuns who in fit of anger,
massacred some Orang Dampuans.
• Having superior weapons, they took their bloody revenge on the Buranuns and having
leveled the enemy’s village to the ground, sailed to their homeland.
3. Relations with Bandjarmasin
• The Orang Bandjar (Men of Bandjarmasin) were immigrants from Bandjarmasin,
Borneo settled in Sulu and engaged actively in the rich pearl trade.
• They introduced the Indian influences in Sulu in which made Buranuns possessing
Hindu customs and worshipping vedic gods.
An evidence of the Philippine intercourse with the Indianized countries of
southeast Asian nations is found in the manuscript entitled, Suma Oriental, which
was written by Tome Pires. According to this Pire Codex, the Lucoes (People of
Luzon) annually sent trading vessels to Borneo and Malacca and the Bornean
traders used to sail to Luzon to buy gold or food stuffs.
Relics Place Year Specifics
Gold Image of Agusan Wawa River near
1917 Tara (Beyer)
Bronze Image of Mactan Mactan, Cebu 1843 Hindu God Siva (Beyer)
Copper Image of Ganesha Mactan, Cebu 1843 Elephant God of Hindus
Clay Medallion of Calatagan Calatagan,
1958 Buddho- Siamese Art
Gd Garuda Pendant of
1961 Mythical bird which served as
a vehicle of Hindu god Vishnu
Ceramics from Cambodia,
Annam, and Siam
4. Indian Influences in the Philippines
• Religious Beliefs
Bathala- Chief God of the Tagalogs who was derived from Bhattara- great lord.
Four Cardinal Points
Also of Hindu origin was the belief of the ancient Filipinos that the universe is
alive with devas and hantus, good spirits and evil spirits or demons, through
whom all good and evil are done in this world.
• Mythology and Folk Literature
Bantugan, the mythological hero of the Maranaos and
Lumawig, the legendary savior of the Bontoc are identified with Indra of Hindu
The Darangan of Lanao, the Lam-ang of Ilokandia, and the
Ibalon of Bicolandia and the Ilim and the Hudhud of the Muontain Province
were inspired by the Mahabharata and other Hindu epics.
The Tagalog story of the monkey and the turtle, the tale of the race between
the deer and the snail, and the Visayan anecdote of the hawk and the hen.
The hilarious adventures of Juan Tamad reveal traces of Hindu influences.
• Customs and Traditions
Placing of a fresh flower garland around the neck of the visitor upon his arrival
or departure, symbolic of hospitality and friendship.
Before marriage, a groom gives dowry to bride’s parents and renders personal
services in the house of his future parents- in- law.
After the wedding ceremony, the guests throw rice upon the bride and the
The offering of a buyo (a mixture of betel nut, ikmo leaf, and lime) to a guest as
an expression of hospitality.
A childless couple goes on pilgrimage to a holy shrine, whose deity is believed
to have the power to grant the virtue of fertility to those not blessed with
• Superstitious Beliefs
Creator of the Universe
Protector of Men
Destroyer of Men
A maiden who sings merrily before a stove while cooking will marry an old
A comet is a bad omen, for it is a harbinger of famine, war, or some other
A pregnant woman who eats twin bananas will give birth twins.
When a cat wipes off its face with paws, a visitor is coming to the house.
If a sleeping person dreams that one of his teeth falls out, somebody close to
him will die.
• Mode of Dressing
Of Indian origin were putong (turban) of the men and sarong (lower garment) of
the women in pre-Spanish Philippines.
The Muslim men in Mindanao and Sulu wear tight- fitting trousers which
resemble the Indian putees and their women use embroidered shawls which
are suggestive of the Indian sari.
Quicklime mining in Masbate
Weaving of cotton clothes
• Musical Instruments
Filipino Sanskrit English
Ama Ama Father
Asawa Atawa Spouse
Raha Raha King
Saksi Saksi Witness
Maharlika Mahardlika Noble
B. EARLY CONTACT WITH CHINA
• Sino- Philippine intercourse begun in 10th
century A.D. during the Sung Dynasty.
• The earliest known authentic data of the Sino- Philippine in 982 A. D. was recorded by a
Chinese chronicler, Ma- Tuan- Lin in his monumental work entitled, Wen Shiann Tung Kao
(General Investigation on the Chinese Cultural Sources)
• The following are the Chinese influences in the Philippines:
• Manufacturing/ occupations/ games
The method of placer gold mining
The art of metallurgy
The use of porcelain, gold, silver, tin and other metals
Gambling- jueteng, kuwaho, pangginggi
• Manner of Dressing
The sleeved jackets (kangan) of the pre-Spanish Filipino males, the loose
trousers of the Muslim and the dresses of women of Sulu and Minadanao.
The use of slippers, bakya(wooden Shoes), fans and umbrellas.
Of Chinese introduction was the yellow garb of native nobility, the blue dress of
the commoners, and the wearing of white clothes for mourning.
• Culinary Art and Diet
Roasting of pigs for a delicious meat
Brewing of tea for drinking
Cooking of such dishes as lumpiya, pansit, mami, tsapsoy, and ukoy
Appetizers such as tahuri, heko, toyo
Edible vegetables including bataw, petsay, and upo
• Social Customs
Hiring of go-between in marital negotiations
Employment of professional mourners during the funeral and the veneration of
The filial respect accorded by children to their older brothers and sisters,
parents and elders.
The explosion of firecrackers on the advent of new year and other festivals
The collection of tong (percentage fee) by the owner of a gambling joint.
The haggling between the merchant and customer to arrive at the final fix price
The beating of gongs to celebrate a feast among pagan Filipinos of northern
Luzon, the Muslim Filipinos of Sulu and Mindanao.
Filipino Chinese English
Bakya Bak- kiah Wooden Shoes
Bantay Bang- tai Sentinel
Gunting Kan- ting Pair of scissors
Pinto Pin- to Door
Susi So- si Key
C. EARLY RELATIONS WITH JAPAN
• The regions settled by the Japanese during the pre- Spanish times were the delta of Cagayan
River, the Lingayen Gulf Region, and Manila.
• The town of Agoo in Lingayen Gulf was busy center of trade with Japan which was later called
by the Spaniards as Puerto de Japon.
• The following are the Japanese influences:
Manufacture of arms and tools
The tanning of deer skins
Artificial breeding of ducks and fishes which is Japan’s greatest legacy to our