The how, the why, the wherefore Nouns
Nouns <ul><li>The name of anything </li></ul><ul><li>Can usually be found by putting the article in front of it. </li></ul...
Common vs. Proper <ul><li>There are two classes of Nouns Common and Proper </li></ul><ul><li>A  Common Noun  is a name whi...
Abstract,  Concrete,  <ul><li>An Abstract Noun is noun that cannot be sensed in any way; e.g. love, hate, sin, joy, etc. <...
Gender <ul><li>There are four genders: </li></ul><ul><li>The  Masculine Gender  denotes males; as, father, uncle, king, go...
Person <ul><li>The  First Person  denotes the  speaker . </li></ul><ul><li>I , John, was in the isle that is called Patmos...
Number <ul><li>There are two numbers, singular and plural. </li></ul><ul><li>The  Singular Number  denotes but one; as, ap...
Noun Functions <ul><li>Nouns can play three basic functions in a sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>Subject, </li></ul><ul><li>Ob...
Nouns as subjects Joe  built  the house Joe built the house, after he  had finished  his swim. “ What a great idea!”  yell...
Nouns as Objects Joe built the house. We were hiding under the road. Joe built what? Try asking “what?” “ house” is the ob...
Nouns as Predicate Nominatives We  are  good people. “ are ” is a linking verb.  Linking verbs do not take objects.  They ...
Case <ul><li>Nouns have three cases:  </li></ul><ul><li>Nominative,  </li></ul><ul><li>Possessive, </li></ul><ul><li>Objec...
Nominative Case RULE:  A noun is in the  nominative   case when its function is either subject or predicate nominative (so...
Nominative Case Cont. Joe is a good feller. Linking verb “ Feller” cannot be an object because linking verbs never take ob...
Objective Case RULE:  A noun is in the  objective  case when its function is any kind of an object. Joe played the drums. ...
<ul><li>Pedaling the bike, Joe stumbled and fell off the bridge. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bike” is the object of the participle...
<ul><li>Running relay races is Jeb’s favorite pastime. </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns </li></ul><ul><li>“ races” is the object of...
Finishing the race, Jeb raised his hands in victory. <ul><li>“ race” is the object of the  participle  “finishing” and is ...
To provoke a beast  is an act of great vice. <ul><li>When the preposition “to” is followed by a verb, it is called an  inf...
Objective Case Summary <ul><li>Verbs can take objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When they do, they are  transitive . </li></ul...
Possessive Case <ul><li>This is the easiest case since every possessive case noun will have an apostrophe.  </li></ul><ul>...
Nouns in Apposition <ul><li>A noun is in apposition to another noun when it renames the preceding noun. </li></ul><ul><li>...
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Intro To English Nouns

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Intro To English Nouns

  1. 1. The how, the why, the wherefore Nouns
  2. 2. Nouns <ul><li>The name of anything </li></ul><ul><li>Can usually be found by putting the article in front of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Dog </li></ul><ul><li>“ The” dog? Yes. </li></ul><ul><li>Flee </li></ul><ul><li>“ a” flee? No. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Common vs. Proper <ul><li>There are two classes of Nouns Common and Proper </li></ul><ul><li>A Common Noun is a name which may be applied to any one of a kind or class of objects as boy, child, book, radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>A Proper Noun is the name of some particular person place people or thing as Charles, Cincinnati, The French, The Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Man  Barack Obama </li></ul><ul><li>City  Los Angeles </li></ul><ul><li>Dog  American Staffordshire Terrier </li></ul>
  4. 4. Abstract, Concrete, <ul><li>An Abstract Noun is noun that cannot be sensed in any way; e.g. love, hate, sin, joy, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>A Concrete Noun is a noun that can be sensed; e.g. dog, stick, tree, etc. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Gender <ul><li>There are four genders: </li></ul><ul><li>The Masculine Gender denotes males; as, father, uncle, king, governor, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The Feminine Gender denotes females; as, mother, aunt, queen, governess, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The Common Gender denotes either males or females or both; as, parent, children, bird, cattle, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The Neuter Gender denotes neither males nor females; as, stove, city, pen, ink, tree, house, etc. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Person <ul><li>The First Person denotes the speaker . </li></ul><ul><li>I , John, was in the isle that is called Patmos </li></ul><ul><li>Many evils beset us mortals. </li></ul><ul><li>The Second Person denotes the person addressed . </li></ul><ul><li>James , you be more careful </li></ul><ul><li>Your dog is a good fellow. </li></ul><ul><li>The Third Person denotes the person or object spoken of . </li></ul><ul><li>Milton was a poet </li></ul><ul><li>Rome was an ocean of flame </li></ul><ul><li>I am reading Tennyson's Poems </li></ul>
  7. 7. Number <ul><li>There are two numbers, singular and plural. </li></ul><ul><li>The Singular Number denotes but one; as, apple, flower, boy, girl, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The Plural Number denotes more than one; as, apples, flowers, boys, girls, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Collective nouns are plural but spelled singularly; as, flock, jury, herd, etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Noun Functions <ul><li>Nouns can play three basic functions in a sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>Subject, </li></ul><ul><li>Object, </li></ul><ul><li>Predicate nominative. </li></ul>Some refer to these as “Subject Complements”.
  9. 9. Nouns as subjects Joe built the house Joe built the house, after he had finished his swim. “ What a great idea!” yelled Joe.
  10. 10. Nouns as Objects Joe built the house. We were hiding under the road. Joe built what? Try asking “what?” “ house” is the object of the verb “built”. Under what? “ road” is the object of the preposition “under”. Any verb that has an object is called Transitive .
  11. 11. Nouns as Predicate Nominatives We are good people. “ are ” is a linking verb. Linking verbs do not take objects. They are ALWAYS intransitive. “ We are” what? Hence, “people” is the predicate nominative of the verb “are”.
  12. 12. Case <ul><li>Nouns have three cases: </li></ul><ul><li>Nominative, </li></ul><ul><li>Possessive, </li></ul><ul><li>Objective. </li></ul>News Flash: You cannot determine the case of a noun from its spelling!
  13. 13. Nominative Case RULE: A noun is in the nominative case when its function is either subject or predicate nominative (sometimes called “subject complements”). Joe built the house. “ Joe” is the subject of the verb “built”. It is nominative case. “ house” is the object of the verb built. It is not nominative case.
  14. 14. Nominative Case Cont. Joe is a good feller. Linking verb “ Feller” cannot be an object because linking verbs never take objects. Feller is a predicate nominative and is therefore in the nominative case. NEWSFLASH: Many people will identify “feller” as the object of the verb “is” forgetting that “is” is a linking verb and is never transitive. Some people call predicate nominatives “subject complements”
  15. 15. Objective Case RULE: A noun is in the objective case when its function is any kind of an object. Joe played the drums. “ drums” is the object of the verb “played”. Since it is the object of the main verb, it is usually called a “direct object”. It is in the objective case. This makes the verb “played” transitive .
  16. 16. <ul><li>Pedaling the bike, Joe stumbled and fell off the bridge. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bike” is the object of the participle “Pedaling” and is therefore in the objective case. </li></ul><ul><li>“ bridge” is the object of the preposition “off” and is therefore in the objective case. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Joe” is the subject of the verb “stumbled” and “fell” and is therefore in the _________ ? ________ case. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Running relay races is Jeb’s favorite pastime. </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns </li></ul><ul><li>“ races” is the object of the gerund “running”. It is objective case. </li></ul><ul><li>“ pastime” is the predicate nominative of the verb “is”. It is nominative case. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Finishing the race, Jeb raised his hands in victory. <ul><li>“ race” is the object of the participle “finishing” and is therefore in the objective case. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Jeb” is the subject of the verb “raised” and is therefore in the nominative case. </li></ul><ul><li>“ hands” is the object of the verb “raised” and is therefore in the objective case. </li></ul><ul><li>“ victory” is the object of the preposition “in” and is therefore in the objective case. </li></ul>
  19. 19. To provoke a beast is an act of great vice. <ul><li>When the preposition “to” is followed by a verb, it is called an infinitive . “To provoke” is an infinitive. </li></ul><ul><li>If you ask yourself, “to provoke what?” the answer is “beast”. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, beast is the object of the infinitive “to provoke” and is, therefore, in the objective case. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Objective Case Summary <ul><li>Verbs can take objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When they do, they are transitive . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We call these objects “direct objects”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prepositions can take objects. We call these Object of the Preposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Gerunds take objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Participles take objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Infinitives take objects. </li></ul><ul><li>When a noun is any kind of an object, it is in the objective case. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Possessive Case <ul><li>This is the easiest case since every possessive case noun will have an apostrophe. </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns in the possessive case function as adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Jeb’s bull. </li></ul><ul><li>The professors’ book.  plural </li></ul><ul><li>The professor’s book.  singular </li></ul><ul><li>When the word already ends in “s” then the apostrophe is placed after the “s”. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Nouns in Apposition <ul><li>A noun is in apposition to another noun when it renames the preceding noun. </li></ul><ul><li>Our Greek professor, Jeb, is a very compulsive fellow. </li></ul><ul><li>The noun “Jeb” here is in apposition to “Our Greek professor”. </li></ul><ul><li>Jeb, our Greek professor, is a very compulsive fellow. </li></ul><ul><li>Here the phrase “our Greek professor” is in apposition to the noun “Jeb”. </li></ul>If you can place an equal sign between the two words/phrases, then you have apposition.

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