Air Quality Issues in the Netherlands Problems and Sollutions
Content <ul><li>EC Directives (nineties) </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation (2005) <...
EC Directives (nineties) <ul><li>Framework Directive: on ambient air quality assessment and management (96/62/EC) (27 Sept...
Implementation (2001) Air Quality Decree <ul><li>Dutch legal system; linking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when making decisions, ...
Implementation (2005) Air Quality Decree 2005 <ul><li>In search for more  air </li></ul><ul><li>“ Balance” approach: </li>...
Dutch case law <ul><li>In general: descisions were insufficiently substantiated or had not been prepared with the due proc...
ECJ case law (Janecek) (I) <ul><li>Air quality plan where there is the risk of  the limit values and/or alert thresholds b...
ECJ case law (Janecek) (II) <ul><li>But… </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom regarding the content of the air quality plan </li></ul...
EC Directive (2008) (I) <ul><li>Directive 2008/50/EC on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe </li></ul><ul><li>U...
EC Directive (2008) (II) <ul><li>Same limit values for PM10 and NO2 and system of plans </li></ul><ul><li>But…. </li></ul>...
EC Directive (2008) (III) <ul><li>Principle of non-compliance at specific locations and locations at which people are not ...
ECJ case law (Janecek) (III) <ul><li>Relevance of Janecek under new directive? </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the old directive, n...
Implementation (2007-2009) (I) Environmental Management Act <ul><li>Still in search for more air </li></ul><ul><li>Continu...
Implementation (2007-2009) (II) Environmental Management Act <ul><li>Specific set of compentences </li></ul><ul><li>Govern...
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Air Quality Issues In The Netherlands

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Presentation held for the delegation of Belgium, United Kingdom and the Netherlands at the Dutch Ambassy in Londen at the 29th of January 2009

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Air Quality Issues In The Netherlands

  1. 1. Air Quality Issues in the Netherlands Problems and Sollutions
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>EC Directives (nineties) </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch case law </li></ul><ul><li>ECJ case law (Janecek) </li></ul><ul><li>EC Directive (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>ECJ case law (Janecek) </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation (2007-2009) </li></ul>
  3. 3. EC Directives (nineties) <ul><li>Framework Directive: on ambient air quality assessment and management (96/62/EC) (27 September 1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 directives and 1 Council Decision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical limit values for the Netherlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particulate matter (PM 10 ) 40 µg/m 3 as of 1/1/2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particulate matter (PM 10 ) 35 exceedances of dayly average of 50 µg/m 3 as of 1/1/2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) 40 µg/m 3 as of 1/1/2010 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Implementation (2001) Air Quality Decree <ul><li>Dutch legal system; linking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when making decisions, planning authority must take air quality standards into account, even if the planned development does not, per se, have any impact in this area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of compentences -> respect limit values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not only environmental licences, but also with spatial plans (roads, houses) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air quality plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PM 10 : central government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO 2 : local government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Especially exceedance of limit values PM 10 and NO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>In short, a lot of blockage for decision-making </li></ul>
  5. 5. Implementation (2005) Air Quality Decree 2005 <ul><li>In search for more air </li></ul><ul><li>“ Balance” approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allow a project that, on the whole, will improve the situation, despite the fact that it will also make things a little worse in some respects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deduction of natural sources </li></ul>
  6. 6. Dutch case law <ul><li>In general: descisions were insufficiently substantiated or had not been prepared with the due procedural care </li></ul><ul><li>A larger airport attracts more traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Negligible contribution (0,02-0,1 µg/m 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>All “significant effects”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sum of people who are exposed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrations in the air </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. ECJ case law (Janecek) (I) <ul><li>Air quality plan where there is the risk of the limit values and/or alert thresholds being exceeded </li></ul><ul><li>Also an individual can require the competent national authorities to draw up an action plan </li></ul><ul><li>Measures to reduce to a minimum the risk that limit values may be exceeded and to ensure a gradual return to a level below those values </li></ul>
  8. 8. ECJ case law (Janecek) (II) <ul><li>But… </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom regarding the content of the air quality plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>taking into account the factual circumstances and all opposing interests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exceedences are allowed </li></ul>
  9. 9. EC Directive (2008) (I) <ul><li>Directive 2008/50/EC on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate implementation June 11th 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement of old directives </li></ul><ul><li>The latest health and scientific developments and the experience of the Member States, clarity and simplification </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch goals: realistic values, European source policy, flexibility </li></ul>
  10. 10. EC Directive (2008) (II) <ul><li>Same limit values for PM10 and NO2 and system of plans </li></ul><ul><li>But…. </li></ul><ul><li>Postponement and exemption to apply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PM 10 : June 11th 2011 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO 2 : January 1st 2015 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum margin of tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sampling points no more than 10 m form kerbside </li></ul>
  11. 11. EC Directive (2008) (III) <ul><li>Principle of non-compliance at specific locations and locations at which people are not exposed for a significant period </li></ul><ul><li>New value: particulate matter (PM 2,5 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target value: 25 µg/m 3 at 1/1/2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit value: 25 µg/m 3 at 1/1/2015 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure concentration obligation: 20 µg/m 3 at 1/1/2015 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National exposure reduction target: percentage of 3. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Review 2013 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PM 2,5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European source policy </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. ECJ case law (Janecek) (III) <ul><li>Relevance of Janecek under new directive? </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the old directive, no postponement or exemption to apply </li></ul><ul><li>Different position of the European Commission? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Implementation (2007-2009) (I) Environmental Management Act <ul><li>Still in search for more air </li></ul><ul><li>Continue “balance” approach </li></ul><ul><li>National Air Quality Cooperation Programme (NSL); flexible linking </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial projects and decisions that make a non “significant” contribution to air pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ significant’: a project increases concentrations of ambient air pollutants by more than 3% of the annual average limit value for PM 10 and NO 2 (1,2 μg/m 3 ) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Implementation (2007-2009) (II) Environmental Management Act <ul><li>Specific set of compentences </li></ul><ul><li>Governmental decree on buildings for more vulnerable people </li></ul><ul><li>Early implementation of annex III (use of CAFE Working Group) </li></ul><ul><li>De-linking target values and ECO-norm </li></ul>

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