Reading Quiz 1 Sarah Miller EdTech 503 Spring 2012
Table of Contents• Title • Visual Metaphor: Empiricism• Table of Contents • Explanation: Empiricism• Visual Metaphor: History of ID • Visual Metaphor: Behaviorism Explanation: History of ID • Explanation: Behaviorism• Visual Metaphor: Definition of ID • Visual Metaphor: Information Processing• Explanation: Definition of ID Theory• Visual Metaphor: Systematic • Explanation: Information Processing• Explanation: Systematic Theory• Visual Metaphor: Guiding Models • Visual Metaphor: ID & Educational• Explanation: Guiding Models Technology• Visual Metaphor: Constructivism • Explanation: ID & Educational Technology• Explanation: Constructivism • Works Cited
Explanation: History of ID• Instructional design began during World War II when psychologists developed tests to help screen soldiers before enrolling them in training programs. After the war, some psychologists continued to work on solving instructional problems.• Behavioral objectives were introduced. When Sputnik was launched by the Soviet Union, the United States decided to beef up their science and math programs, in order to compete. They did this without surveying the learners, however, and learned this was a bad idea.• I used Lucy as my metaphor because psychologists had a heavy hand in the history of instructional design.• Source: http://goo.gl/sllkr
Explanation: Definition of ID• Instructional design is a process through which curriculum is created and technology is incorporated into that curriculum, usually in order to meet specific learning goals for a particular set of learners.• I don’t know if this was the best visual metaphor for instructional design, but I chose to use a picture of a drafter. These people take information from the engineers (AKA SME’s) and put them to paper *or computer screen+ so that project managers can work on getting the structure built. Instructional design is still a big concept for me and I think a better metaphor would have been a collage of some kind that included a psychologist, this drafter, the brick layer, and others.• Source: http://goo.gl/uhPgN
Explanation: Systematic• Systematic means to have steps or a set of guidelines to follow. Typically when you are following a set of steps, you also implement a “rinse and repeat” mentality whereby if your outcome isn’t quite what you were envisioning, you return to step one and go through the process again. ID implements a systematic approach both for consistency and because not every learner is the same. This approach allows us to pinpoint the step or steps where adjustments might be needed, in order to accommodate more learners.• Hopefully the train on a circular track is a good representation of a cyclic, systematic process. It might have been improved with the addition of stations along the track.• Source: http://goo.gl/wZTei
Explanation: Guiding Models• An instructional designer might use a model like ADDIE as a map or plan of how to get from point A to point B in the design process. They are useful for maintaining consistency in one’s design, and for different designers to work together.• I chose the blueprint because it is a plan. One could argue that a model is another word for a generic plan. For instance, ADDIE is a box that a lot of instructional design endeavors fit inside. The same is true with this blueprint. Two houses might be built next door to one another and form the same plan, but have characters all their own.
Explanation: Constructivism• The basis for Constructivism is that knowledge is built upon. For instance, you need to have basic math instruction and beginning algebra instruction before you can learn about geometry. Each subject builds on the previous one.• I like Social Constructivism, where one learns from one’s peers. I think there is a lot of merit in that perspective.• I chose a brick layer because Constructivism says that knowledge is built. By the time this bricklayer is done, he will have built a chimney. By the time we are done stacking up the sensory input we pick up along the way, we will have cohesive knowledge about something.• Source: http://goo.gl/lyPGK
Explanation: Empiricism• Knowledge is gained through experience. Essentially, I need to experience abstract concepts firsthand, in order to understand them.• While I was searching Google for an image, I saw a little picture that stated “Brain is not clay.” I believe that through mulling things over, we can interpret abstractness. Empiricism states that all knowledge must come from external sources.• The lump of clay represents the brain, pre-knowledge, as described in Empiricism. As knowledge is gained through experience (either molding, throwing, flattening), the clay will start to take shape.• Source: http://goo.gl/BG1vy
Explanation: Behaviorism• Behaviorism is based on what can be observed.• Because instructional objectives often result in an observable behavior, Behaviorism is often credited with the origination of instructional objectives. In fact, Herbert Spencer thought to apply concrete objectives to instruction before Behaviorism was the norm.• I thought a mime might be a good metaphor for Behaviorism, but I don’t know if they would demonstrate knowledge necessarily. In the game of Charades, though, one demonstrates that one has knowedge of a subject through behavior.• The image of the famous mime Marcel Marceau was still the closest image to what I was looking for, while searching for Charades.• Source: http://goo.gl/hzGDp
Visual Metaphor: Information Processing Theory
Explanation: Information Processing Theory• Information Processing Theory centers around the processes in the brain and how they take in information from the senses and turn it into something else.• The Sensory Register and Selective Perception theory in particular focuses on selective perception, where only certain input receives further consideration for processing. It seems to imply that the input selected is usually information we encounter often.• I chose a pasta extruder to illustrate information entering the brain and knowledge being created from that information.• A slightly better visual metaphore might have been a bread maker. Ingredients go into the maker, they are changed in the machine and combeined to make something new: a delicious loaf of bread.• Source: http://goo.gl/inf3j
Explanation: ID and Educational Technology• I view Instructional Design as the master plan: how you the trainer or teacher are going to build your instruction to meet particular objectives that you or another entity has set forth. Educational Technology enhances or “fortifies” that instruction.• At some point, I don’t think we will need to explain how Instructional Design and Educational Technology fit together. When students are not in school, they get a lot of their information from technology, so it makes sense that they should gain some of their knowledge in school through the use of technology.• I started thinking about technology as an embellishment and that did not seem quite right because I think technology strengthens instruction; it does not just make it pretty. I finally came up with fortified and thought of cereal, which is made better with the addition of nutrients and vitamins.• Source: http://goo.gl/5p5o1
Works Cited1. Reiser, R. (2001). A History of Instructional Design and Technology: Part II: A History of Instructional Design. Educational Technology Research and Development, 49 (2), 57-67.2. Smith, P.L., & Ragan, T.J. (2004). Instructional Design (3rd ed.). Wiley.